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A. J. Tiffany, County Superintendent.

There has been little material change in the condition of the public

schools of Nevada County during the past year. The enjoining of
43



50

most of our large hydraulic mines has decreased the attendance in
several of our districts and diminished the census roll nearly two
hundred. The effect from this cause has not been as apparent during
the past year as we fear it will be in the future, from the fact that
while many of the miners have been compelled to go elsewhere seek-
ing employment their families remain with us.

Nevada County is justly proud of her corps of teachers, many of
whom hold Normal, University, Educational, and Life Diplomas.



PLACER.
0. F. Seavey, County Superintendent.

Two new districts, Columbia and New Hope, have been formed the
last year. School in New Hope will begin in August. No districts
have lapsed; the people more than ever are awake to the necessity
of having good schools. The educational machinery has run very
smoothly, consequently there has been less friction and retrogression
than usual.

Some few schools are behind financially, owing to the over sanguine
hopes of their Trustees that the Central Pacific Railroad Company
would pay its tax. With these few exceptions the financial status of
the schools is healthy. In Alta, Blue Canon, and Emigrant Gap
Districts school was maintained a shorter term than it would have
been, owing to the late storms in April and May.

In my opinion there has been sure and steady progress in school
work the past year; there has been no retrograding, but a great
advance has been made all along the line.



PLUMAS.
George E. Houghton, County Superintendent.

Asa whole the schools in this county are in abetter condition than
last year. More thorough elementary work has been done; theatten-
dance, as a rule, has been excellent; there have been less changes of
books, and we find so much improvement under the new text-books
and course of study adopted, that we should regret very much to have
the amendment to the Constitution concerning a State series of text-
books become a law.



SACRAMENTO.
Charles E. Bishop, County Superintendent.

In regard to the general prosperity of the schools of Sacramento
County, I am pleased to be able to state that there seems to be a grow-
ing interest and more attention paid to them than in years past.

Three new districts have been formed during the past year in this
county ; in two of them the citizens have voluntarily raised the money
to build good school houses, and furnish them with suitable appara-
tus and furniture. With but few exceptions the schools of this county
are supplied with suitable furniture and in good condition.



51

I have labored faithfully to preserve the library fund from being
squandered for worthless school apparatus and books that are not
adapted to the wants of the district. In a large majority of the dis-
tricts of this county the school library forms an important factor in
cultivating a taste for reading, not only with the pupils but with the
community at large. Much benefit has been derived from posting
placards in each school room, stating what studies are to be taught in
each grade, what was necessary to do in order to be promoted from
one grade to another. Also extracts from the School Law in regard
to the duties of teachers and conduct of pupils. Also am pleased to
report that there has been a general acquiescence in the methods of
teaching that I have suggested.



SAN BENITO.
J. N. Thompson, County Superintendent.

Notwithstanding the bad weather during the last term, the average
attendance for the year has increased ten per cent over last year.
The schools are all in good condition, the same teachers being retained
more than usual in the same schools.

There is much trouble, especially with beginners (for district blanks)
about drawing orders on State or county funds, and often orders have
to be sent back to be changed, causing teachers to wait two weeks
longer for their monej'^, as some districts have only weekly mails.

Sometimes all orders for teaching will be drawn on the county fund,
and in January all the county fund will be drawn by the teachers,
leaving nothing to pay for supplies, etc. Thus the next year the
Trustee will retaliate by making the teacher take all orders on the
State fund, and thus having to wait till March for his money. * * *
So far as my county is concerned, I know it would be better to have
the funds put together and used for any of the purposes allowed by
the School Law.



SAN BERNARDINO.
Henry C. Beookk, County Superintendent.

I reproduce the comparative table made in last year's report, to
show the progress and condition of the public schools of my county :





1881.


1882.


188:3.


1884.


Number of districts _ _ _


36

10

33

239

1,659

43

20

23

984

2,460

.771

$61 10

44,085 00

20,120 86

6,055 65


37

12

32

275

1,786

44

21

23

1,120

2,661

.776

$60 50

45,198 00

•22,202 03

8,716 40


43

11

41

333

2,028

52

24

28

1,286

3,117

.756

$63 80

58,130 00

23,209 30

6,316 72


46


Number of sjrainmar schools


11


Number of primary schools


48


Number of pupils in grammar schools

Number of pupils in primaiy schools

Number of schools _


383

2,077

59


Number of first grade teachers


28


Number of second grade teachers

Average daily attendance

Number of census children


31

1,358

3,443

.714

$64 50
71,035 00


Percentage of census children enrolled -.

Average monthly salary of teachers

Value of school property -


Amount received from State _ . .


26,491 50


Amount received from county


10,372 57





52

SAN DIEGO.
R. D. Btjtlkr, County Superintendent.

The excessive rains and the failure to collect the taxes of the South-
ern Pacific Railroad Company have prevented many of the districts
from maintaining an eight months' school, and have left them in bad
condition at the beginning of the present year. There is, however,
a growing interest in educational matters shown by the number of
special taxes levied for building, etc., and the numerous calls for new
districts.

From my experience in the matter, I think it would be well to pro-
vide a penalty for Trustees' failure to make their annual report.

Would also suggest that a column be provided in this report for
amount received by the several districts from funds reapportioned.



SAN JOAQUIN.
J. A. SoLLiNGER, County Superintendent.

Harmony and good feeling have prevailed generally in the schools
throughout the county. The teachers, as a rule, have been very faith-
ful in their work, and as a result the schools are in a very good con-
dition.

This has been a very hard year to keep some of the schools running
on account of many portions of the county being flooded for several
months of the year. The island districts were affected most in this
respect. In fact, some of the island districts could not open school
at all, the people having moved away.

Yet, notwithstanding the many drawbacks, most of the districts
have kept open eight months. One district — Enterprise — has lapsed,
not having enough census children attending school.

I think the "Perry amendment" ought to carry.

I think the section providing for the transfer of money belonging
to one district to another ought to be abolished since the money is
apportioned on the attendance. I think the present plan of appor-
tioning moneys excellent.

In the matter of improvements in school houses and grounds, the
people are waking up; we have some very fine school buildings in
this county.



SAN LUIS OBISPO.
J. M. Fklts, County Superintendent.

The schools of San Luis Obispo County are, in many respects, mak-
ing superior progress in educational matters to what was accomplished
in this direction a few years ago. There are more trained " normal "
teachers in the county who are making teaching a profession, and
not merely a " stepping stone " to something different or better. Dur-
ing the year six new districts have been organized, and the school
census has increased from 2,844 to 3,091.

The rapidity with which the county is being settled, and the in-
creased attention the public schools are receiving at the hands of
the people, are a sure precursor that the schools of San Luis Obispo
County will rank, ere long, among the best in the State.



53

SAN MATEO.
G. P. Hartley, County Superintendent.

The schools of the county are supplied with energetic competent
teachers, and all seem thoroughly alive to their work. There is an
increased interest taken by both parents and teachers in securing
regularity of attendance in all of the schools, and there is no doubt
that the apportionment of part of the school funds on the average
daily attendance, under the present law, has worked to an advantage
in this respect.

Although our census list has not increased during the past three
years, yet there has been a steady and gradual increase of daily
attendance during that time.

I have no suggestions to make as to the amendment of the School
Law, excepting that the law creating the "grammar school course"
should be made more definite and explicit, fixing a definite time for
calling meetings by Trustees in regard to it, tell how and by whom
examinations for promotions shall be held, etc. Also, some law fixing
a uniformity of amount of compensation of Census Marshals. With
us it ranges from |5 to $30 for work done in districts of equal size.



SANTA BAEBARA.
G. E. Thurmond, County Superintendent.

The condition of schools in this county is very satisfactory. The
Board of Supervisors have supplied us with the necessary funds; our
teachers are capable and energetic, and rapidly getting their schools
in grade with the last course of study adopted by the County Board
of Education, which they consider entirely practicable and meets
the wants of the schools. The entire series of text-books in use were
adopted. Our teachers, with one or two exceptions, are opposed to
the State furnishing text-books.



SANTA CLARA.
L. J. Chipman, County Superintendent.



The schools of the county are in a very satisfactory condition.
Our teachers are well qualified, energetic, and fully awake to the im-
portance of the work in which they are engaged.

I would respectfully suggest the advisability of reducing the library
apportionment from ten per cent to five per cent.



SANTA CRUZ.
J. W. LiNSCOTT, County Superintendent.



The schools of this county were never in a more prosperous condi-
tion than at the present time. Our teachers are in earnest in their
work, and the results prove that there is a steadj^ advance in the
quality of the work done. Not only is there improvement in the
teachers' work, but school officers and patrons are taking more in-



54

terest in theschools, shown in the improvements of grounds, furniture,
apparatus, and especially in the fact that a few dollars more for sal-
ary of a (/oof/ teacher is nothing in comparison to the benefit derived
by keeping such teacher.

The great drawback to efficient uniform work in the schools of the
county is, in my opinion, that the Superintendent is paid so low a
salary that he cannot give his entire attention to the work.



SHASTA.
Mrs. T>. M. Coleman, County Superintendent.



The schools of the county are in a flourishing condition. Trustees
generally have manifested an interest in improving school property
and adding to school libraries and apparatus. The teachers, with
hardly an exception, deserve credit for the general management and
discipline of their schools.



SOLANO.
C. B. Webster, County Superintendent.



My schools are in excellent condition. Much progress has been
made during the last year. The spirit of improvement is still ram-
pant. We have formed two new districts and five new schools.



SISKIYOU.
H. A. Morse, County Superintendent.

Schools of count}^ have been very successful this year, few com-
plaints and much satisfaction expressed by all interested in school
work.

Two districts, Cottonwood and Mound, have failed to have six
months' school. Cottonwood was prevented by an epidemic which
was very severe. Mound, being a new district, did not have time to
complete her six months.



SONOMA.
C. S. Smyth, County Superintendent.

The condition of the public schools of Sonoma County compares
favorably with that of the schools of any other county of the State.

The steady increase of population has made it necessary to organize
five new districts during the year just closed, making a total of one
hundred and sixteen districts. Several of these are not yet provided
with suitable buildings and furniture.

A great many applicants for teachers' certificates appeared at eacli
examination, and the competition for position is becoming greater
every year. This produces a tendency to frequent changes and a
great deal lowering of wages, both of which are to be regretted.

Very few changes were made in the text-books that have been in
use in this county during the past four years; and those that were
made were, with slight exceptions, without expense to the patrons.



55

STANISLAUS.



W. S. Chase, County Superintendent.



The schools of the county are in a prosperous condition. Much
interest is taken in improving the school grounds and houses. Two
new houses have been built during the year. Several "shed" school
houses will be replaced during this year by neat and comfortable
buildings. Trees and shrubbery have been planted around school
houses in two districts. In one school district, Milnes, the teacher
and children became so enthusiastic as to plant quite an extensive
flower garden in the school house yard, and exhibited great pride in
their success in beautifying the grounds.

Two districts have adopted the "grammar school course." Con-
siderable difficulty has been found in securing suitable teachers for
them, as but few of our teachers are accustomed to teaching schools
in which the sciences are taught in addition to the other branches.

The wages of teachers have fallen so much in this county during
the past three years, that most of our old teachers have left the pro-
fession or moved elsewhere. Their places are supplied by younger
teachers. Fortunately, many of the new teachers have had the
benefit of normal training or collegiate education, hence the effi-
ciency of the schools is not much diminished.

If the schools of the county could be examined in a systematic
manner, they would be urged to greater improvement. Last year
the Board of Education started to make such examination, but the
Board of Supervisors thought it too expensive, so the plan was aban-
doned. The threatened examination, however, spurred both the
teachers and pupils to greater exertions, and I was surprised to find
a marked advance on the part of the pupils when making my visits.



SUTTER.
M. C. Clark, County Superintendent.

The schools in this county for the past year have passed through
their several terms with a degree of success as to progress of pupils
and concert of action, as between teachers, pupils, and patrons, here-
tofore unsurpassed.

The schools have had a most excellent corps of teachers, and nearly
all have been retained for the succeeding year.

On page 10, book 1, column 4, you will see three amounts of $600
each, marked Bonds ; the same having been issued by the respective
districts.



TEHAMA.
Myron Yager, County Superintendent.

The schools of Tehama County were .never in a more flourishing
condition than at present.

It is my opinion that the interests of the several school districts,
also that of the teachers and the public schools in general, would be
better subserved were Section 1593, Article VI, so amended as to read
one Trustee in place of three, in any school district except where Citj"
Boards, etc. This could be reached by not holding or electing an}^



56



Trustee for the next two years where there are now three ; after which
time, one Trustee each j^ear, who would then have the entire duty to
perform. This has been the law in New York State for some time,
and I think works well.



TEINITY.
H. R. GiVKX, County Superintendent.

As this county depends chiefly on mining and has but little agri-
cultural land, it has not advanced in wealth and population in pro-
portion to more favored counties; hence no new districts were formed
last year, nor are any likely to be formed for some time to come.
The question with us is to maintain the efficiency and advance the
standard of such districts as now exist.

In this respect the progress made last year is satisfactory. For the
first time in the history of the county, all the schools were visited
officially, thus enabling Trustees and Superintendent to work more
harmoniously together. The larger portion of our teachers hold
first grade certificates, are experienced, and receive fair compensa-
tion; hence the results of their labors have been satisfactory both to
school officials and patrons. The Supervisors have treated the
schools very liberally, and all residents take a just pride in their
prosperity. As a whole, our schools will compare favorably with
any similar section of the State.



TULARE.
Charlks H. Murphy, County Superintendent.

At the end of this scholastic year it is gratifying to be able to
report that the general condition and prosperity of our schools is pro-
gressive, and that our educational interests are attracting increased
attention and receiving more thought with each succeeding year.
Their importance, their usefulness, and their necessity are being
more generally recognized to-day than at any previous period in the
history of the county. There is an upward and onward tendency
in the educational affairs of the county, largely due to the individual
efforts and energies of the teachers. The greater number of our
schools are taught by live, earnest, energetic men and women,
thoroughly imbued with the importance of their calling and a love
for their work.

Many valuable accessions have been added to the profession dur-
ing the past year who have received professional training, and are
graduates of the Normal Schools of New York, Massachusetts, Penn-
sylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Maine, and Missouri, thus infusing a new
impetus in the work of training classes.

The standard of scholarship for teachers' certificates was raised a
year ago by tlie Board of Education, and good results have already
accrued in having several persons of larger experience and broader
and higher culture to preside over the destinies of our youths. The
course of study has been revised and adapted to the wants of our
schools, and is enforced to the letter in many instances, and is
adhered to in all in the essential features. Hitherto some difficulty
has been experienced in this respect, but the fault was not due so



57

much to the impracticability of the course of study, as to the indiffer-
ence on the part of teachers. Where they deviated from it to any
great extent judicious restraint has been applied with very satis-
factory results.

There is a growing tendency on the part of our citizens and the
Trustees to displace the old shells in which school has been held for
so many years, and erect good, substantial, and commodious edifices.
Bonds and taxes, varying from six hundred dollars to twenty thou-
sand dollars, have been voted in the last three months to construct
new school houses, which indicate educational growth and general
prosperity. It is to be hoped and expected that each succeeding year
will displace as many of these shanty houses as the one just past,
until every vestage of those now remaining will have disappeared.

In relation to amendments of the School Law of the State, I would
suggest that it be so amended as to permit the County Superinten-
dent to appoint the members of the Board of Education, subject to
the ratification of the Board of Supervisors. They compose the
Superintendent's Cabinet and are his advisers and co-workers, hence
he should make the selections.

Another judicious amendment would be to clothe the Superinten-
dent with full power to dispose of the property of " lapsed " school
districts. Again, I would suggest that the School Law be so amended
as to limit Trustees to a definite amount for contingent expenses, a
sum not to exceed fifty dollars for every teacher employed. Such an
amendment would compel economy, and assure at least six months
.school in every district without embarrassing it.



TUOLUMNE.
John T. Murnan, County Superintendent.

The schools of our county are progressing favorably.



VENTURA.
Charles T. Meredith, County Superintendent.

There is a great increase of interest in the schools of Ventura
County. In the year past Santa Paula has voted bonds to build a
|5,000 school house, which is now nearly completed, and is a model
of architectural beauty. Live Oak District voted bonds, and has
erected a |1,000 school house, very neat and commodious. San Pedro
School District has expended |l,400 in erecting a branch school
house, and Hueneme District has expended $1,200 in refitting school
buildings.

Nearly every school house in the county is now furnished with im-
proved school furniture.



YOLO.
John W. Goin, County Superintendent.



The schools of Yolo County have enjoyed a profitable session and
are generally in a good and prosperous condition. As will be seen in



58

the proper place only three schools in the county have had less than
an eight months' term during the year. We have quite a number of
young ladies and gentlemen, raised and educated in the county, who
are teaching and doing good work in the primary schools.

Two new houses have been erected during the year, one of them,
an elegant six-room building, in Woodland. Other new buildings
and improvements are contemplated for the coming year. The high
water and continuous rains in the Spring prevented the Superin-
tendent from visiting a few of the schools. However, encouraging
reports from the Trustees and teachers have been received from the
same.



YUBA.
F. B. Crane, County Superintendent.

The schools within my jurisdiction generally are in a prosperous
condition. The teachers generally are honest and efficient workers.
I am giving the schools of my county my undivided attention, and
the effects are now perceptible, not only in the schools, but in all
matters pertaining thereto.

In the matter of making suggestions for any amendment to the
present School Law, would say that my experience teaches me that
there is more trouble, more bickering and quarrels within school
districts arising from the question of "boarding the teacher" than
from all other causes put together. As contemptible as this may seem
it is nevertheless true, and I would like to see some law to apply as a
remedy for the evil.

When a new district is formed from the territory of more than one
district the apportionment of the school money on hand, under Sec-
tion 1582, is unjust and unfair. In my judgment it should be changed,
or I do not understand it.



59



LIST OF STATE AND COUNTY SCHOOL OFFICERS, AND CITY
SUPERINTENDENTS.



PROF. WM. T. WELCKER— Superintendent of Public Instruction

ADAIR WELCKER Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION.

GEORGE STONEMAN... Governor, Sacramento

President of the Board.

PROF. WM. T. WELCKER Superintendent Public Instruction, Sacramento

Secretary of the Board.

CHARLES H. ALLEN Principal State Normal School, San Jose

CITY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS.

Marion P. Stone Grass Vallej'

Hamilton Wallace Salinas City

0. S. Ingham Alameda

A. J. Moulder San Francisco

J. R. Laine Sacramento

Jewett Castello Gilson Oakland

L. D. Smith Los Angeles

Dr. S. P. Crawford .Stockton

Frank B. Crane Marysville

David Rutherford Vallejo

Lewis F. Curtis San Jose



60



COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS.



Counties.



Post Office.



Alameda

Alpine

Amador

Butte

Calaveras

Colusa

Contra Costa

Del Norte

El Dorado

Fresno

Humboldt

Inyo

Kern

Lake

Lassen

Los Angeles

Marin

Mariposa

Mendocino

Merced

Modoc

Mono

Monterey

Napa

Nevada

Placer

Plumas

Sacramento

San Benito

San Bernardino

San Diego

San Francisco ..

San Joaquin

San Luis Obispo

San Mateo

Santa Barbara..

Santa Clara

Santa Cruz

Shasta

Sierra

Siskiyou

Solano

Sonoma

Stanislaus

Sutter

Tehama

Trinity

Tulare

Tuolumne

Ventura

Yolo

Yuba



P. M.Fisher

Mrs. Anna M. Arnott.

Joseph F. Chandler

David W. Braddock

Charles R. Beal



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