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Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) online

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onistic interests or friction in the conduct of work of the character
described ; but that it is detailed work which so important a bodj^as the
Academic Senate, properly so called, should not be called upon to do.

These difficulties would be reduced to a minimum if there were at
Berkeley, as in my judgment there should be, simply a department
or College of Letters, and a department or College of Science, with
their appropriate courses; but, as the organic Act relating to the
University was made a portion of the Constitution of the State, the
only remedy that now appears to be possible seems to lie in a consti-
tutional amendment that shall leave to the Board of Regents and the
Academic Senate the details of college work and university develop-
ment.

Meanwhile the work is being conducted as well as may be with the
cumbrous machinery that must be set in motion to do it. A com-
mittee of the Academic Senate is attempting to devise some simpler
method that may yet be in conformity with the law.

Enrollment of Students.

In the following table will be found a statement, year by year, of
the number of students enrolled in the several undergraduate colleges
and courses as full course students since the opening of the Univer-
sity, and also the number that have pursued irregular courses, not
leading to a degree, namely; partial course students, including special
students, and students at large:



Total.



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53 3



This table shows the interesting fact that the classical course very
fairly holds its own in competition with an unusually liberal range
of scientific and elective courses. The fact is interesting, in so far as
it contributes to a knowledge of the drift of public sentiment with
regard to classical education. Its significance is, however, likely to
vary according to personal prepossessions or convictions. How much
is due to the disinclination to break away from traditional lines of
education, and how much to sober judgment, are unknown quantities
that one may not safely estimate.

It will be observed that, up to the time of the establishment of the
course in Letters and Political Science, the Literary course, in which
Greek is not required, was the most fully attended course in the Uni-
versity. The decrease in the attendance upon this course was sudden
and coincident with the establishment of the course in Letters and
Political Science, and clearly indicates that the latter course draws
its students principally from those who would otherwise be likely to
take the Literarj^ course. The course in Letters and Political Science
has proved acceptable, but it has not shown that there was any great
dissatisfaction with the courses already established.

Before speaking of the Colleges of Science attention should be
drawn to the fact that under the head of unclassified scientific students
are enumerated all the students in the Freshman and Sophomore
classes who are preparing for one of the Colleges of Science, but have
not yet made their choice. So, also, partial and special students and stu-
dents at large are unclassified, because they are not pursuing regular
courses although they generally have a preponderance of studies in
some one college, and not infrequently complete the required .studies
of that college and take the proper degree. The distribution of these
students among the several colleges, it may fairly be presumed, would
somewhat increase their numbers without materially altering the
proportions found in the table.

Agriculture.

Thus far the history of our Agricultural College has but added to
the testimony, already ample, that the agricultural population of the
country does not feel the necessity, not even the desirability, of farm-
ing in accordance with scientific principles. That farmers believe in
Agricultural Colleges we must admit, for we have their frequent and
earnest assertions to that effect, but we are compelled to think that
tliey do not believe in them for their own sons, otherwise our Colleges
of Agriculture would be filled with students instead of being substan-
tially without them. The farmer might, indeed, with entire consist-
ency, maintain his belief in Agricultural Colleges even though his
own sons should not attend one. He might, with much force, urge
that, with the practical side of farming, his sons are daily made
familiar, and that he looks to our Agricultural Colleges for the results
of investigations and experiments that can there be conducted more
carefully and exhaustively, and so more conclusively than would be
profitable or even possible on a private farm however complete the
agricultural education of the farmer. That this view does not, however,
prevail, seems clear from the fact that the complaints that are made
are complaints, not that our Colleges of Agriculture are not doing
the best of work, but that they are not well attended. The justifica-
tion of these complaints does not then appear.

But however valuable agricultural education may be to the farmer,



experience seems to point quite conclusively to the probability that the
chief value of agricultural colleges is to be found in the service they
render as experiment stations. It is indeed quite true that if every
farmer were a scientific agriculturist every farm might become an
agricultural experiment station; but this would be an expenditure
of energy and resources, if attempted on a scale likely to establish
important facts, that the average farmer would not be at all w^ar-
ranted in undertaking. He must farm for profit, although he often
gets little more than a comfortable living; and experimental farm-
ing is not profitable. It is cheaper for him to share in the support
of experimental farms, conducted by expert investigators, than to
attempt to make investigations on his own account; and the result
so reached must have an authority that could not attach to results
reached with inferior appliances, and by investigators with slight
experience. And, again, however valuable might be the discoveries
made by a farmer in his private investigations, the knowledge of
them would probably for a long time be confined to his immediate
neighbors, but with the ready means of communication between
public experiment stations and farmers, through printed bulletins
and the agricultural press, the discovery of to-day may be utilized by
the progressive farmer to-morrow.

Acting on these beliefs, and on the fact that farmers will not send
their sons to agricultural colleges. Professor Hilgard, without neglect-
ing instruction, is making the work of investigation and experiment
more and more the prominent features of the College of Agriculture.
Analysis of soils, waters, wines, fertilizers, and other like analyses,
that have long been the chief work of the laboratories of the agricult-
ural departments, now promise to be supplemented by experiments
in different parts of the State. The soil of the experimental grounds
at tlie University is not good, and is in no sense a representative
soil; neither is the climate suitable for the leading agricultural indus-
tries of the State. It is, therefore, impossible to conduct at Berkeley
experiments in practical agriculture, the results of which could be
widely accepted as conclusive.

An excellent beginning in this outside experimental work has been
afforded by the liberality and cooperation of Mr. John T. Doyle, who
has placed a suitable portion of his vineyard, near Santa Clara, at
the disposal of the Regents for experimental purposes. Ample oppor-
tunities are here to be offered, under the same conditions, to test,
among other things, the productiveness of vines under different sys-
tems of pruning, and with different fertilizers. The results arrived
at are likely to be of great interest and value. The importance of
systematizing and coordinating work of this kind, so that each State
or section of country may profit by the investigations conducted in
sections having similar soil and climate, so that the same experiment
may not be many times multiplied to little purpose, seems likely to
be recognized by the National Government in the establishment of
cooperative experiment stations in all the States. Experiment sta-
tion work seems then to be clearly the direction in which agricult-
ural colleges are to prove their greatest value.

The nature and scope of many of the experiments that have been
conducted in the laboratories of the College of Agriculture, are already
quite well known through the bulletins that have, from time to time,
been issued from that department, but the matter is of sufficient



10

importance to warrant something of a resume of them in this con-
nection.

Perhaps the most important agricultural question in California, is
how to get an adequate supply of water suitable for irrigation pur-
poses. Without this supply, large stretches of country must remain
comparatively worthless. I say " an adequate supply of water suitable
for irrigation purposes," for a series of experiments conducted at the
University, have shown the fact — a fact of almost inestimable value —
that much of the water in California is so fully charged with delete-
rious minerals as to be, not merely worthless, but higlily injurious for
irrigation purposes. In a single instance the analysis of an ample
water supply proved its utter unfitness for irrigation purposes, and
saved to the projectors of an extensive irrigation project the loss of
several hundred thousand dollars, and to the owners, of the land
a still greater loss that would have resulted in the injury to the
land if the water had been distributed upon it. The importance of
this investigation has led to the analysis of several other most prom-
ising water supplies, some of which have shown, as in the case just
cited, that the water was worse than • worthless, while others have
shown it to be of such a quality as to warrant whatever expense
might be necessary to husband it with the utmost care. It has been
shown that even artesian water may be unfit for irrigation purposes.
I do not doubt that these investigations have of themselves, many
times over, repaid the State all that has been expended upon the
Agricultural Department of the University, besides preventing large
and unprofitable expenditures in the future, by showing the impor-
tant fact, that in many parts of the State no irrigation project should
be undertaken, not even the development of an artesian well, with-
out first knowing the constituents of the water that is to be utilized.

Analyses -of soils from different parts of the State have resulted in
similarly interesting and valuable discoveries. These analj^ses show
the peculiar adaptability of certain soils to certain cultures, or the
character of the fertilizers needed to maintain the culture to which
a given soil has already been put.

And, again, the experiments that have been made on wine pro-
duced in different parts of the State promise little less than a revolu-
tion in our viticultural industry. Certain varieties of vines are found
to be peculiarly suited to certain localities, and as ill suited to others.
Some districts are found to yield wine rich in tannin, but deficient
in acid, while in other districts the quantity of these constituents is
reversed. And so of other qualities. These investigations and analy-
ses must, at no distant day, result in so adapting vineyards to soils,
and in such an accurate knowledge of the constituents of the wines
of different localities, as to make it possible everywhere to grow to
the best advantage, and out of the product to produce blends that
may, perhaps, be superior to the unmixed product of any single dis-
trict. The immediate practical value of these investigations is well
demonstrated in the fact that planters are now, in some instances,
withholding their plantings or their graftings with the purpose of
being governed in their action by the results of experiments now
in progress. And yet, notwithstanding the magnitude of the interests
involved and the value of the results already attained, it would be
difficult to plan a more inadequate viticultural outfit than the Univer-
sity viticultural laboratory and cellar — if, indeed, the terms laboratory
and cellar may be applied to our viticultural quarters. The entire



11

building should be enlarged and remodeled, indeed, it should be
replaced by an entirely new building adapted in all its appointments
to the extended work that the viticultural department is called upon
to do. But however inadequate the appointments of the laboratory
and cellar the insufficiency of clerical and laboratory help is still
greater. The salary paid to the assistants in the laboratory is hardly
more than the wages of a day laborer, and yet the work has generally
been continued beyond ordinary business hours and, as a rule, dur-
ing holidays. The skill and experience that these young men have
gained in the work has prepared them for more remunerative employ-
ment elsewhere. That which makes their services valuable elsewhere
makes them peculiarly valuable to the University, and if not in
recognition of past services, certainly in the interest of the Univer-
sity, appropriations should be made sufficient to retain them and get
additional help.

The legislative appropriation of the last two years for agricultural
purposes has been expended in these investigations and experiments,
and in the introduction and distribution of new varieties of grasses,
cereals, fruit and other trees, and in the diffusion of other informa-
tion of interest and value to agriculturists. For details you are
referred to the accompanying report of Professor Hilgard.

Mechanics.

The attendance upon the College of Mechanics seems to indicate
either that there is not as yet felt to be any considerable demand
among us for mechanical engineers — a profession to which the course
in the College of Mechanics is introductory — or that the purpose of
the course is little understood, and that students failing to find in it
that which they expected, abandon their purpose of taking it in favor
of another course that seems to promise a readier or a better career.
It is, I think I may say, a very common opinion that it is the proper
purpose of the course to make highlj^ educated skilled mechanics,
but at any rate, skilled mechanics, and because it fails to do this, it
fails of its purpose. A short discussion of the subject seems there-
fore called for.

The cause of Avhatever misconception there is, is doubtless the fail-
ure to distinguish between the object of Technical and Industrial
education. The training of the technical school is designed for those
who wish to become engineers ; that of the industrial school, for
those who wish to become mechanics. The technical school is there-
fore a professional school, while the industrial school is a skilled
labor school — an apprentice shop. The mechanical engineer deter-
mines what kind of machinery is best suited to accomplish a desired
result, and makes the necessary plans and specifications for its
construction and operation. The mechanic makes and places the
machinery thus designed. The two callings touch and supplement
each other but do not at all coincide. It would add something to the
equipment of the mechanical engineer if he were a skilled mechanic,
but it is not a necessary part of his equipment, any more than it is
necessary that the architect should be able to frame the house that
he plans, lay its foundation in masonry, lath, plaster, paint, and
glaze it.

Why, then, it is asked, is a workshop connected with the College
of Mechanics, furnished with tools and machinery sufficient to do a
wide range of skilled work, if the student is not required, and not



12

even expected, to become skilled in the use of the tools and machinery?
If the purpose of a technical school is kept clearly in mind, it will
not be difficult to understand that the workshop is a laboratory, to be
used, not for the purpose of familiarizing the student with the tools
and processes of manufacture — not as an introduction to the machine
shop — but to acquaint him more intimately with the principles of
his profession, and render him expert in methods of investigation
and experiment. In the class-room the student theorizes and plans;
in the laboratory his theories and plans are, as far as possible, brought
to the test. He there learns whether the machine that he has designed
fulfills its i^urpose or fails of it, or what are its excellencies or defects.
It is the corrective that practice puts upon theory. And yet, although
this is the first and the main use of the workshop, and although skill
in the use of tools is not a necessary part of the education of a mechan-
ical engineer, it yet seems to me highly desirable that there should
be connected with every College of Mechanics a workshop sufficiently
ample and well equipped to offer every facility to such students as
have mechanical tastes and mechanical ingenuity, as well as scientific
tastes and ability, to attain to whatever skill they may wish in handi-
craft. I cannot doubtthat work in the shop, when undertaken because
of a love for it, reacts most favorably upon the studies of the class-
room. It is not merely a recreation, but a positive intellectual stimu-
lus and aid. And yet, shop work should not only not be allowed to
interfere with the prescribed work of the college, but the privilege
of the shop should be open only to those who attain proficiency in
the work of the class-room. If the student's tastes are in the direc-
tion of skilled manual work, and if he has mechanical ingenuity, he
should attend a school whose object it is to make skilled mechanics.
In this connection it is, perhaps, proper to say that it is to be greatly
regretted that we have not such a school — indeed, such schools — on
this coast; and I may add my belief that the multiplication of indus-
trial or mechanical schools throughout the country would tend, as
nothing else will do, to dignify labor, promote the well-being of our
people, and advance our mechanical industries.

In 1883 a series of experiments were made with a partial turbine
or tangential wheel, and also with hurdy-gurdy wheels. The experi-
ments with the tangential wheel were conducted by the class in
mechanics, under the direction of Professor Hesse and Instructor
Browne; those with hurdy-gurdy wheels were conducted by Mr.
Browne. The results of these experiments appeared in June, 1883,
as Bulletin No. I of the College of Mechanics, and form a contri-
bution to the literature of the subject of which they treat. It is the
purpose of the college to publish other bulletins, giving the results
of experiments that are conducted in the laboratary. Last year, two
students evidenced interest and skill in the use of tools, and were
accorded opportunities in the workshop to exercise their skill.

Mining.

It is hardly surprising, perhaps, that the largest attendance upon
the College of Mining immediately followed the great mining develop-
ments on the Comstock. An examination of the table would even
seem to warrant the belief that the entire University temporarily prof-
ited by that development, and later felt the depression that followed
the reaction. To students in mining, certainly, most promising careers
seemed to many at that time to be opening, and a greater number of



13

young men sought to avail themselves of the opportunities offered in
the College of Mining than presented themselves before or than have
presented themselves since. Judgments formed during the excite-
ment and over confidence attending such rich developments, as well
as those that followed the rapid working out of bodies of ore that were
thought to be all but inexhaustible, were doubtless, in many cases,
hasty. The substantial working out of the great Comstock ledge was
not infrequently taken as indicating the decay, if not indeed the col-
lapse, of mining industries in California. Indeed, this belief seems
still to be a common belief. It seems, therefore, to have been assumed,
as a matter of course, that there was likely to be but little opportu-
nity for the mining engineer or the metallurgist. Quite the opposite
conclusion would perhaps have been the more legitimate. The dis-
covery of a large ore deposit, and of economical methods of working it,
does not necessarily create a great demand for mining engineers and
metallurgists. They are most needed after the rich and easil\" worked
ores have been exhausted, and when the problem of profitably work-
ing low grade or rebellious ores is to be solved ; and when, also, expert
judgments are needed to determine whether certain ore indications
warrant the expenditure of considerable sums of money in testing the
indications. New and valuable mining deposits doubtless await
development, both in the United States and in Mexico, properties
that in the development and working will require the constant ser-
vice of the most competent engineers. It is probable, then, that
there never was a time when the prospect for a mining engineer or
a metallurgist was better than to-day. It can hardly be doubted
that better and more economical methods of working low grade and
rebellious ores will yet be discovered, and certainly no more creditable
or inviting work could be desired by a student of mining or an expert
metallurgist. For such work excellent facilities are offered in the
well equipped laboratory of the Mining Department. To the equip-
ment already in use important additions will soon be made, in a new
building and additional machinery.

The laboratory practice of the last two j'ears has consisted, in great
part, in approved methods of assaying lead, gold, silver, antimony,
copper, tin, nickel, cobalt, iron, and fuels. In this laboratory work,
the students have, as far as possible, taken part.

Civil Engineering.

The attendance upon the College of Civil Engineering has always
been fairly satisfactory — quite as large, perhaps, as was warranted by
the public demand for engineers. It has, somehow, long been felt
that civil engineering opened up a certain avenue to agreeable and
remunerative work. This idea was doubtless the result of the demand
for engineers begun by war and afterwards sustained by the enor-
mous railroad development that culminated in 1872. This extraor-
dinary development in railroad building created undue expectation
with regard to the demand for civil engineers, and a consequent over
supply of them. The falling off in the attendance upon the course
in engineering, therefore, seems not only natural, but in the main
justified by the outlook, although graduates of this department have,
as a rule, been reasonably successful in obtaining employment in
their line of work.

It is the purpose of the college to give to the student, not only the
necessary theoretical knowledge to enable him, if he is a man of



14

resources, to undertake the solution of difficult engineering problems,
but such practical knowledge as will enable him to direct the work
in detail.

To the resources of the Department of Civil Engineering and As-
tronomy, an astronomical observatory is soon to be added. Prof.
Soule has indicated the following as the main uses to which the
observatory is to be put:

"The foremost object will be to enable students, by means of the apparatus therein, to gain a
practical knowledge and proficiency in the application of the principles underlying the more
utilitarian portions of the science of astronomy' ; in other words, to employ the astronomical
instruments, in connection with theoretical instruction in the lecture room, to supplement by
trial the laws and rules developed in the latter; just as surveying instruments are employed in
the field to elucidate and familiarize the principles of surveying brought out in class. A second-
ary use will be, to stimulate in students the desire to prosecute original studies, such as of the



Online LibraryCalifornia. LegislatureAppendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) → online text (page 67 of 83)