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lunar, solar, and planetary surfaces and surroundings: and to this end I have devoted a fine
equatorial telescope, six and one eighth inches aperture, and an excellent solar-stellar spectro-
scope, for analyzing the light of sun and stars — a most enchanting field, even by itself. The
more practical exercises will consist in determining the errors of construction and adjustment
in each instrument, as compared with theoretical perfection, and in applying the proper cor-
rections to render observations practically faultless; to read, simultaneously, the sidereal clock
and mean time chronometer and compare them, one with the other; to observe, by means of
star transits, sidereal time: and thus to determine the error and the rate of the clock; to
do the same for the mean time chronometer by observations on the sun ; to determine the
latitude of the instrument by star transits, near the zenith, or by other methods; to deter-
mine the longitude of the observatory by electric correspondence with other observatories, as
that at Mount Hamilton, in connection with transits of stars, by lunar culminations, etc.; and
to practically solve other problems of use to the surveyor, geodesist, and navigator. To such
students as desire to follow the jDrofession of the astronomer, it will be open for practice in the
above, and other elementary operations necessarily preceding a higher course of instruction,
such as might be given at Mount Hamilton."

It is estimated that the $5,000 appropriated at the last regular ses-
sion of the Legislature for building and equipping an observatory,
will be substantially exhausted in the purchase of the necessary
instruments, and that an additional appropriation of $5,000 will be
necessary to complete the building, and prepare it and the instru-
ments for use. The chief instruments that have been recommended
for purchase are, a telescope, a mean time chronometer, a sidereal
clock, and a Davidson combination transit and zenith instrument.

The department is very much in need of additional surveying
instruments. It is estimated that $2,500 will be necessary to put our
stock in proper order.

Cheynistry.

It will be seen that the attendance upon the College of Chemistry
has not been large and has not greatly varied. It is to be regretted
that the laboratories of this college are not available to students in
the Colleges of Medicine, Pharmacy, and Dentistry. As heretofore,
the laboratories are open during the entire day, and students are at
liberty to spend all the time not devoted to other college exercises
in the line of work best suited to their objects in life. The rooms
occupied by this department are badly ventilated and incapable of
proper ventilation except at an expense that would not be warranted.
They are otherwise so unsatisfactory for chemical laboratory purposes,
and so desirable for other college purposes, that a separate building
should be provided for the College of Chemistry. For such a building
the Professor of Chemistry has prepared suitable plans — the result of
long experience.



15

Irregular Students.

It may well be that for lack of time or because of special tastes
and special aptitudes or for a special purpose, a student may wish to
devote whatever time he may have to some one study or group of
studies. He may, for example, wish to make a special study of the
English language and literature, or mathematics, or surveying, or
chemistry, or any other subject or group of subjects in which instruc-
tion is given in the University, to fit him to teach or otherwise make
use of his attainments. There can be no question, I presume, that
there should be some institution at which a student with proper qual-
ifications may enjoy such privileges, and it would hardly seem to
admit of question that he should look to a great University for them.
The desirability of thus extending the privileges of college instruc-
tion is being conceded in some of the best colleges in the country and
seems likely to become a settled educational principle. It seems to
have been the purpose of the framers of that part of the organic Act,
which relates to partial courses, to secure to the fullest extent such
opportunities at the University of California. It is, however, easy to
carry the principle too far. If, for example, it should become under-
stood that applicants of immature age and limited attainments may
be admitted to such courses, the effect must inevitably be to lower the
standard of admission to the University and demoralize the prepar-
atory schools. If an easy way should be made to gain a foothold in
the University, it would be natural for applicants to seek to enter by
that easy way. It has heretofore been thought to be a sufficient safe-
guard against the abuse of the partial course privilege, and it has,
therefore, been the policy of the several Faculties, to admit an appli-
cant as a partial course student, in English or Latin, or surveying, or
in any other subject, provided he could pass such an examination as
would satisfy the instructor, whose course he wished to take, that his
preliminary education in that branch of study was sufficient to enable
him profitably to pursue the subject in the University. Experience
seems, however, to show that ail examination of this character is not
a sufficient guarantee of the applicant's fitness for the work he pur-
poses undertaking, and not a sufficient protection to the University
against unworthy applicants, and I have little doubt, therefore, that
the several Faculties will adopt some common standard of examina-
tion which all applicants for a partial course must pass in addition
to the special examination that will be required in the subject to be
continued in the University.

There is, however, a class of partial course students, known as spec-
ial students, for which exceptions may be very properly made. It
not infrequently happens that young men, from twenty to twenty-
seven years of age, who have been engaged in surveying, or in teach-
ing, or in some occupation in which they have felt the need of more
advanced instruction than they have been able to obtain, come to the
University to mend their early deficiencies. They generally have
limited means, limited time, and wish to pursue a single branch of
study together with such correlated branches as bear most directly
upon the main subject. Such students are always earnest in their
purpose, faithful in their efforts, and in every way highly desirable,
and every privilege of the University by which they may profit should
be freely thrown open to them.

There are yet other special students to whom, and to whom alone,
the name of University student properly belongs — graduate students



16

or others who are already well advanced in attainments, and who
wish to pursue some study and its correlated branches beyond the
limits of the ordinary college course. It is in the highest degree
desirable that students of such attainments and aims should take up
their residence at our colleges and universities. Their presence is a
stimulus to higher aims ui)on the entire student body. The body of
special students is always likely to be small.

It must, therefore, be cause of general regret that the provisions of
that portion of the organic Act which relates to military drill are
found, in the judgment of the Board of Regents, to be such that
while military drill may be taken alone, no other study or studies of
whatever grade may be taken without it, and that these provisions are
so stringent in their terms as to override that other portion of the Act
before quoted, which seems to have been intended to invite to the
University this highly desirable class of students.

Military Di~ill.

During the last year more prominence has been given to military
drill than for some years previous, and as a consequence there has
been an increase in interest in the drill and in its efficiency.

Physical Laboratory.

The following abstract from the forthcoming Register, gives a suffi-
ciently minute statement regarding the Physical Laboratory :

During the past 3'ear most of the apparatus purchased with the legislative appropriation of
five thousand live hundred dollars, has been received and made available for use. The labora-
tory has been fitted with many conveniences for work, and now offers good facilities to students
who wish to pursue the study of Physics beyond the limits of the prescribed courses, whether
in connection with special work, such as electrical engineering or crystallography, or in the
study of physics itself. Such students can make special arrangements for the use of the labora-
tory.

There is great need of additional apparatus for use in connection
with the lectures on general physics. Most of the apparatus now in
use was bought fifteen years ago and was even then incomplete and
imperfect. Since that time new instruments for the more exact
determination of physical laws have been invented, so superior in
every waj' as to make most of the old of comparatively slight value.
It is also extremely desirable that the whole department of Physics
should be brought into the same building, so that its entire facilities
may at any time be readily accessible to the professor and instructor
for purposes of instruction and illustration. It is important, too,
that apparatus of the value of that desired for the department
should be better protected against the risks of fire than is possible
in North Hall. The rooms most suitable in all respects for the
department, are those now occupied by the physical laboratory and
the department of Chemistry in South Hall. And as these rooms
are in many respects unsatisfactory for chemical laboratory purposes,
the plan that suggests itself as most desirable is to provide a separate
building for the College of Chemistry, as was before suggested, and
leave to the department of Physics the rooms thus vacated.

Miiseu7n Building.

Other departments are in equal, indeed, in even more pressing need
of suitable accommodations, and no department more than that of



17

Natural History. The vast extent of the field to be covered by the
natural sciences, the brilliant discoveries that have been made in
every part of it, and the great popular interest that has been aroused
by them, have all led to great specialization and to greatly improved
methods and facilities for imparting instruction. And among the
most important of these improved facilities natural history collec-
tions stand first. We are all more or less familiar with the larger
or smaller collection of curiosities called a museum connected with
most of the colleges of twenty or thirty years ago, in which minerals,
butterflies, fossils, stufted birds, and shells were promiscuously
arranged, more with a view to artistic effect than according to any
known laws of scientific classification. This promiscuous collection
was usually committed to a Curator, whose main duty was to exhibit
it to the casual visitor of the museum.

All this is now changed. With specialization in the sciences has
also come specialization in collections. Instead of general collec-
tions of curiosities our colleges and universities now seek to make
carefully classified collections, or museums, of mineralogy, botany,
agriculture, biology, with its numerous subdivisions, paleontology,
historical geology, etc., each of which shall be in the immediate charge
of a specialist for purposes of instruction and research.

The use of the collections for the purpose of gratifying public inter-
est, or public curiosity, may not be disregarded, and for this work there
must needs be a general Curator, who, without pretending to be a spe-
cialist in more than perhaps a single department, which then would be
the subject of his special care, may yet have such a general knowledge
of the entire collection as will enable him to conduct visitors through
them with proper intelligence. If, then, these are the legitimate
objects of natural history collections, which I think no one will call
in question, it is important that the University Museum should have a
suitable building, and be as rapidly developed as possible in its sev-
eral departments. The larger the collections, the more extensive the
comparisons that may be made, and the more reliable the conclusions
reached. In this State there are many local problems in mineralogj' ,
geology, botany, and entomology to be solved; problems of great inter-
est to miners, farmers, fruit growers, and manufacturers. In the solu-
tion of these and kindred problems, the University, through its
scientific Faculties, may rightfully be expected to give great assistance,
but only in case proper collections are provided. Many instances
could be cited in which valuable assistance has been rendered in the
directions indicated, and many could also be cited of inability to give
the desired assistance through want of sufficiently large collections.

Indeed, no special instruction can be given in any department of
natural science without a collection of the objects with which that
science deals, and to give adequate instruction in any natural science
taxes the resources of the largest collections.

It is, therefore, highly desirable that some organized effort should
be made that shall insure the steady growth of our collections. Thus
far, starting with the collection of the Geological Survey as a nucleus,
they have been dependent entirely upon the good will and generosity
of friends. Our collections have much California material that is
greatly desired by eastern and foreign institutions, and that might be
exchanged with great advantage to us, but lack of funds has thus far
made it impossible to enrich our museum by this means.



18

But the systematic development that has been thus outlined calls
for a special museum building. For the purpose of devising some
suitable plan that should meet the demands of the several depart-
ments of Natural History and be ready for future reference, a meet-
ing of the members of the Faculties immediately interested was
called some months ago, at which it was agreed that the immediate
needs could be well met by the construction of a north and south
wing to the Bacon Library and Art building, in accordance with
what is understood to have been the original design for that build-
ing. The discussion resulted in the further conclusion that it would
be well to devote one wing to the collections, laboratories, work-
rooms, and lecture-rooms of the Departments of Geology and Min-
eralogy, and the other to the Departments of Agriculture and Biology.
Subsequently, detailed plans of the two wings were prepared and
indorsed by these same gentlemen. In the preparation of these
plans the best expert advice in the East was obtained relative to
the biological rooms, the Department of Biology proper being as
yet unrepresented in the University.

The main feature of the plan thus informallj^ discussed is the
grouping of all of these collections in the upper or art gallery floor,
so that commencing for example at the farthest extremity of the
north wing, a visitor would pass through a continuous succession of
rooms, each devoted to a single scientifically arranged collection,
then through the art gallery into the south wing, where a like
arrangement of collections would be found.

It will be seen that this plan would bring all the collections of the
University, including that of the fine arts, upon a single floor and in
direct connection, without in any way sacrificing the independence
.or usefulness of the collections for their main object, namely, instruc-
tion.

The first, or library, floor is designed for the laboratories, work-
rooms, and lecture-rooms, each set being directly under and in con-
nection with its corresponding museum above, so that classes could
be readily taken to and from the lecture-room and the collections
above. \Vhile this plan has in it much to commend, it is still not
the best plan. Leaving out of consideration the question of archi-
tectural fitness, it does not make adequate provision for the growth
that should be expected in the Department of Natural History in a
great University.

Mineralogy.

The appropriation for this department, made by the Legislature of
1880-81, is practically exhausted. The bulk of it was expended in
the purchase of cases for the museums of minemlogy, petrography,
and economic geology, for microscopes, and for instruments for the
goniometrical and optical investigation of minerals A small portion
of the original appropriation was reserved for the current minor
needs of the department.

No money whatever has been available even for the purchase of
specimens of important minerals and rocks not represented in the
collections.

One of the greatest needs of the department is a collection of
wooden models of crystals. If it were not for the generosity of two pri-
vate individuals who have loaned their collections, instruction in one
important branch of mineralogy would be practically impossible.



19 .

A suitable collection of models could be obtained for 1500. Still the
equipment is sufficiently full to enable the head of the department
to begin the investigation of the rocks and minerals of the State.
This is a work important in itself and important to many industries
of the State, and sufficient funds should be provided to continue it
with the activity and thoroughness that characterize the work of the
Agricultural department.

Letters of inquiry from individuals relative to the economic value
of accompanying specimens, and from educational institutions desir-
ing assistance in the determination of their collections, are constantly
received from all parts of the coast, and indicate, to some extent, the
demand there is for such an extension of the work as is here proposed.

For the development to which the department looks, such accom-
modations are needed as were suggested in the plan for a museum
building.

Mills' Chair of Philosophy.

The Univei-sity and the public are to be congratulated upon the
satisfactory filling of the Mills' Chair of Intellectual and Moral Phi-
losophy and Civil Polity, by the election of Geo. H. Howison, L.L.D.,
as Professor. The appointment was delayed in accordance with the
recommendation of Mr. Mills, for reasons that commended them-
selves to the Board of Regents.

The purpose and scope of the instruction to be given from this chair
will be best indicated by the following announcement of the course
of stud}^ recently made by Professor Howison:

UN^DERGEADUATE COURSES.
A. — Permanent.

I. THEORETICAL PHILOSOPHY.

I. Propcedeutic to Philosophy. The Logic underlying Grammar: Familiarization of the
Common Categories by their use in the Analj'sis of Propositions and Terms. Once a toeek
throughout the Sophomore year. Open to all students in Sophomore standing.

II. Introduction to Philosophy. Empirical Psychology, including Formal Logic, deductive
and inductive; General History of Philosophy. Three times a week throughout the Junior year.
Open to students who have completed Course I.

II. PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY.

III. Elementary Ethics, historically treated. Including a critique of Perfectionism and
Hedonism, of Necessity and Freedom, and of Optimism and Pessimism. Twice a xoeek during
the First Term of the Senior year. Open to students who have completed Course II.

IV. Elements of Civil Polity. The Nature of a State and its Bearing on the Limits of
Allegiance and Liberty; including the History of Political Theories. Twice a week during the
Second Term of the Senior year. Open to students who have completed Course III.

-B. — Alternating.
Two to be given each Term.

I. THEORETICAL PHILOSOPHY.

V. Descartes and Spinoza: Dualism and Monism. Twice a week during the First Term.
Open to students who have completed Course II.

V[. Spinoza and Leibnitz: Pantheism and Monadism, or Universalisra and Individualism.
Tioice a week during the Sccotid Term. Open to students who have completed Course V.

VII. Leibnitz and Locke: Rationalism and Empiricism. Tioice a toeek during the First
Term. Open to students who have completed Course II.

VIII. Hume and Kant: Development of the Scepticism latent in both Empiricism and
Rationalism; Critique of the Foundations of Agnosticism. Twice a week during the Second
Term. Open to students who have completed Course VII.



20

IX. The Ancient Development of Idealism : Socrates, Plato, Arietotle. Twice a loeek during
the First Term. Open to students who have completed Course II.

X. The Modem Development of Idealism: Berkeley, Hume, Kant; Fichte, Schelling, Hegel.
Twice a toeek during the Second Term. Open to students who have completed Course IX.

XI. The Philosophy' of Evohdion, partial and complete: Darwin and Spencer; Aristotle,
Leibnitz, and Hegel. Twice a iveek during the First Term. Open to qualified students of Phys-
ics and Biology who have completed Course II.

XII. The Philosophy of Science. The Principle and the Necessary Limits of Natural Science,
including the Scope and Exact Function of the Laws of Causality, Correlation, and Natural
Selection : with a critique of Du Bois-Reymond's Grenzen des Naturerkennens and Helmholtz's
Ursprung und Bcdeuiung der geomctrischen Axiomen. Twice a week during the Second Term.
Open to qualified students of Mathematics, Physics, and Biology, who have completed Course II.

XIII. Real Logic: Theory of Reason as the Principle of Truth and Existence. Induction and
Dialectic: Mill, Bain, Jevons ; Everett, Fichte, Hegel. Ihoice a week during the First Term.
Open to students who have completed Course II.

II. PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY.

XIV. Higher Ethics : the Problem of Free Will. Critical establishment of the Ground of
Moral Obligation and of the Supreme Principle of Moral Action. Twice a week during the
Second Term. Open to students who have completed Course III.

XV. Higher Ethics: the Problein of Evil. History and Criticism of Optimism and Pessim-
ism. Tioice a week during the Second Term. Open to students who have completed Course III.

XVI. Higher Civil Polity : the Philosophy of Rights. Plato and Aristotle : and Modern The-
orists from Grotius to Mill. Tioice a toeek during the First Tenn. Open to students who have
completed Course II.

XVII. The Philosophy of History. Comte, Hartmann, Duehring; Herder, Schelling, Schle-
gel ; Vico, Hegel. Tioice a week during the First Term. Open to students who have completed
Course II.

XVIII. Philosophy of Religion, historically considered. God, Duty, and Immortality, as
treated by the leaders of philosophy from Anaxagoras to Lange. 2'wice a week during the First
Term. Open to students who have completed Course II.

XIX. Philosophy of Religion : the Rational Foundations of Theism. Critique of Mill's Three
Essays and Kant's Dialectic of Pure Reason. Twice a toeek during the Second Term. Open to
students who have completed Course XVIII.

XX. Philosophy of Religion : Comparative Religions and the Evidence of Christianity. Test
of the Finality of the Christian Religion in the light of the Evolution of Religion. Twice a
toeek during the Second Term. Open to students who have completed Course III.

GRADUATE COURSES.
Studies of Master-works in the original : one to be conducted each term.

XXI. Plato. The Parnienides, Theoetetus, and Sophist. Twice a week during the First Term.

XXII. Hegel. The Phcenomenologie des Geistes. Twice a week during the Second Term.

XXIII. Kant. The Kritik der reineii Vernwnft. Three times a week during the First Term.

XXIV. Hegel. The Wissenschaft der Logik and the First Part of the Encyclopa'die der phi-
losophvicheti Wissenscaaften. Three times a week during the Second Term.

XXV. Aristotle The De Anima. Twice a week during the First Term.

XXVI. Aristotle. The Metaphysics. Books I, XIII: III-V; VII-IX; and XII. Twice
a week during the Second Term.

XXVII. Aristotle. The Politics. Three times a week during the First Term.

XXVIII. Hegel. Philosophic des Rechts. Three times a week during the Second Term.

XXIX. Kant. The Girundlegung zur Meiaphysik der Sitten and the Kritik der praktischen
Vernunft. Twice a week during the First Term.

XXX. Kant. The Kritik der Urtheilskraft. Twice a week during the Second Term.

Course in Pure Mathematics.

The Professor of Mathematics intends in the near future to pro-
pose a course in pure mathematics, leading to the Bachelor's Degree,
in order to meet the wants of the following classes of students:

(1) Those who, intending to make mathematical research their
special vocation, wish to continue their mathematical studies after
graduation, whether here, or in one of the Universities of Europe, or



Online LibraryCalifornia. LegislatureAppendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) → online text (page 68 of 83)