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Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) online

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that were grouped and treated as single subjects.

It will be observed that the percentage of students admitted without
conditions in 1884 was much smaller than ever before, and that the
percentage rejected and also the percentage conditioned in the several
subjects was much greater. This sudden and in many cases marked
difference, is doubtless due to the fact that three important schools
from which a large percentage of applicants have long been used to
enter without conditions, have been accepted as diploma schools, and
not to the fact that our examinations are so much more stringent than
heretofore.

It is interesting and instructive to know that the most serious difR-
ciencies occur in English. This, of course, shows that the singular
neglect of English that has so long been a conspicuous fact in our



28

sj'stem of education, has not yet been remedied. Indeed, a different
result could not so soon be expected. The work of changing, or
rather revolutionizing the teaching of a subject, is not brought aoout
in a day. Preparatory work in most of the subjects required for
admission has been done in accordance with well defined and suc-
cessful precedents. In English, however, the field is almost entirely
new. Few, if any, of the teachers of to-day were taught as they are
expected to teach. Indeed, the results now aimed at in the teaching
of English were hardly thought of a few years ago. Teachers are,
therefore, themselves learners. The hearty spirit of cooperation with
which our attempt to assist in elevating the standard of English
training has been met by the teachers of our State, deserves special
mention. The result of this interest is highly promising.



29



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English History






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Bomau History




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Grecian History


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Greek Composition




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Greek at Sight




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Anabasis


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Vergil _




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Cicero


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Latin Composition




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Latin at Sight




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U. S. History




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Arithmetic


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From Diploma Schools




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30

Counties Represented at the University.

Visits to different parts of the State have shown that the Univer-
sity is little known. The comparatively narrow limits from which
students are drawn appear in the following table, containing the
names of the counties represented for the present year, and for the
two preceding years, together with the number from each. Of the
fifty-two counties in the State, it will be seen that only thirty-five
have sent us students, and that two counties invariably send more
than twice as many as all the others combined. This showing is not
only a sufficient warrant for whatever special effort may be necessary
to make the privileges and opportunities of the University more
widely known and appreciated, but almost in the nature of a demand
for such effort.



Counties.



Alameda

Butte

Con tra Costa

El Dorado.

Lake

Los Angeles

Marin

Mariposa

Mendocino

Merced

Monterey -

Napa

Nevada

Placer

Plumas

Sacramento

Santa Barbara

San Benito

San Bernardino

Santa Clara

Santa Cruz

San Francisco

San Joaquin

San Luis Obispo

San Mateo



Counties.



1882-83. 188.3-84.



Sierra

Solano

Sonoma

Stanislaus.

Sutter

Trinity ._.

Tulare

Tuolumne.
Ventura _.
Yuba



Outside of the State.

Arizona

Central America.-
India

Japan

Nevada

Oregon

Sandwich Islands-
South America

Residence unascer-
tained



Totals.



215



216



241



Want of Preparatori/ Schools.

The most serious drawback to the University is the want of suitable
preparatory schools throughout the State, in fact, the entire absence
of them in many portions of it, and to this cause may, doubtless, be
attributed the slight representation of many counties in the Univer-
sity. The standard of admission to the University has, within a few
5'^ears, advanced; wdiile, under the discouragements of the new Con-
stitution, the establishment of high schools has been retarded. It
becomes, therefore, a very serious matter, pecuniarily, for parents in
the country, or in our smaller towns, to send their children to a dis-
tant part of the State to have them prepared for the University, and
afterward to continue them at the University for four years. And
then, too, parents very rightly shrink from sending their children
to school in our large cities, or near them, unattended, at an age
when habits and character are most rapidly forming, and when they
are most susceptible to unfavorable influences.

The reestablishment of high schools in all of our principal towns



31

would fill this gap between the grammar schools and the University,
and supply to communities the necessary information regarding the
more advanced education at the University, and stimulate the desire
for taking it. It must always be difficult to bring a people to prize
the higher education, if they are not accustomed to the encourage-
ment and support of the intermediate.

I can think of no more lasting monument, and none more powerful
in its influence for good, than the establishment of endowed schools
of the type and rank of Exeter and Adams academies, in the East.

Diploma Schools.

An important step toward establishing closer relations between our
higher grade public schools and the University, and a heartier coop-
eration between them, was taken last March by the Board of Regents,
in adopting the following resolution :

Upon the request of the Principal of any public school in California whose course of study
embraces in kind and extent the subjects required for admission to any college of the University,
a committee of the Faculty will visit such school, and report upon the quality of instruction
there given. If the report of such committee be favorable, a graduate of the school, upon the
personal recommendation of the Principal, accompanied by his certificate that the graduate has
satisfactorily completed the studies of the course preparatory to the college he wishes to enter,
may, at the discretion of the Faculty, he admitted without examination.

It is well known that a similar regulation has long been in force in
the University of Michigan, and that it has been attended with excel-
lent results in identifying the interests of the secondary schools- and
the University. Indeed, the results proved so satisfactory to the
University authorities, that private schools were-later admitted to the
same privileges as public schools; and now the privilege is extended
to schools, both public and private, in other States.

There can be no doubt, I presume, that the excellence of the public
school system in Michigan has been greatly promoted, if indeed, it is
not greatly due, to this cooperation between the University and the
secondary schools. The dependence of the University upon the sec-
ondary schools is, of course, absolute. Without them it can do noth-
ing, and without their good will and cooperation it must fall far short
of its full measure of usefulness. So, on the other hand, the Univer-
sity must always react upon the secondary schools, to their great
benefit. Parents can have no warrant that the public school of the
community in which they live offers as g,ood educational opportunities
as are offered in other communities, unless the scholarship in their
school is measured by the same standard that is applied to other like
schools throughout the commonwealth. It is quite true that the
standard set by the requirements for admission to a college or Uni-
versity may not be in accord with what is felt to be the needs of an
individual community, but it is, on the other hand, undoubtedly true
that the requirements for admission to our best colleges and Univer-
sities are coming more and more to consist of such subjects, and only
such, as should enter into the education of every member of a com-
munity — such subjects as will give to every pupil, whether he intends
to enter the University or not, the best education that he could have
up to that point. The result of giving to the University of Michigan
the power to set the standard of education in the secondary schools
throughout the State is, perhaps, the most evenly balanced system of
public schools in the United States. A further result of this coordi-



32

nation in the school system is an active spirit of cooperation between
the teachers in the secondary schools and those in the University.
While the Faculty of the college indicates what, from the college
standpoint, is desirable, the teacher, from the standpoint of the com-
munity, indicates what, in the temper of the community, and in the
quality and capabilities of the teachers, is possible. The tendency of
the University is constantly upward, and this upward tendency reacts
powerfully upon the schools in the desire of the teachers to meet every
new requirement made by the University; and this healthy stimulus
is felt, not only by the teacher, but by the community. It becomes
the ambition, not only of the teacher to see his school made a diploma
school, but of the community as well. Indeed, I am told that the
Principal of a high school in Michigan cannot feel at all secure in
his position if he fails within a reasonable time to get his school on
the list of diploma schools.

It was feared by some that the diploma system would have a ten-
dency to lower the standard for admission; but the effect, has been on
the contrary, to elevate it. It was believed by the several Faculties
at Berkeley that the good results that appear to have followed the
introduction of the system into the regulations of the University of
Michigan would follow its introduction into our own University.
Experience thus far seems to have justified this hope. Five schools
applied for the privilege previous to last June, two of which were soon
admitted. The course of study in one of the other three did not call
for text-books that sufficiently covered the requirements for admis-
sion, and the Faculty therefore declined to receive the school. A
very gratifying disposition to cooperate with the Faculty was shown
by the Board of Education having control of the school in question,
in the immediate authorization of the necessary text-books. The
school was thereupon accepted.

Another of the three made application so late in the term that it
was felt that there Avas not sufficient time left to make such an exam-
ination of the school as seemed necessary to warrant action. The
work done in one department of the third school appeared deficient,
and the school was not therefore admitted. Applications have thus
far been received this term from three additional schools.

It has by some been felt that the requirements of the resolution of
the Regents are unnecessarily strict, and too carefully observed by
the Faculties. This feeling indicates that the purpose of the regula-
tion was by some misunderstood. It is not intended that schools
shall be admitted until they have in all fairness, and to the satisfac-
tion of the Faculties, met the full requirements laid down in the
regulation of the Board of Regents.

The effect of the regulation has thus far unque^ionably been favor-
able to higher aims and higher scholarship in the preparatory schools,
and it therefore promises to be highly beneficial to the University.
It is my purpose, later, to institute a comparison of the records of
students admitted on diploma and those who enter on examination.

Proportion of Studeyits that Graduate.

The proportion of students that graduate, to the number that enter
the University, is small, but whether smaller than is usual in institu-
tions of like grade, I have not sufficient data to determine.

The following table shows the number of students that have entered
the several Freshman classes of the University as reguFar students,



33

the number that graduated, tlie per cent that graduated, the per cent
of the men entering who graduated, and the per cent of the women
entering who graduated. Any number in the column headed "num-
ber entering," indicates the number of students that entered the class
four years before the date at the left, the corresponding number in
the column headed "number graduating" shows the number that
graduated in that year. The other columns need no explanation.



Class of—


Number
Entering.


Number
Griidtiatiug.


Per Cent
Gniduating.


Per Cent
of Men.


Per Cent
ol Women.


1874 — - -


32
65
64
62
82

155
97
99

101
67
61
65


23
25
30
27
26
56
41
22
37
32
20
23


71

38
46
51
31
36
42
22
36
47
32
35






1875 -






1876


50
52
31
33
41
20
34
41
24
29


27


1877


50


1878.. -


37


1879 -. .-


72


1880


46


1881


40


1882


71


1883 ■


81


1884 .


87


188o» -


70







* For 1885, an estimate is made.



The reasons for the falling off, shown in the table, cannot be fully
known. There are, however, sufficient data to account for a very con-
siderable portion of it. Prominent among these reasons are limited
means, ill health, and poor preparation. From August 13, 1883, to
September 13, 1884, a period that includes the greater part of the
absences that are likely to occur for the two years, thirty-eight peti-
tions for leaves of absence were granted for terms varying from six
months to an indefinite period. Of these, six proved to be for a short
period only, fifteen gave lack of means as a reason, twelve ill health,
two business propositions, one the wish to make special effort to bring
up work in arrears; two gave no reasons.

During this same period sixty-four other students left college. Of
these, seventeen are believed to have withdrawn to avoid being drop-
ped into lower classes, or from the rolls of the University, seven
withdrew on account of ill health, ten to go into business, seven
failed to present themselves after enrollment, one removed from the
State, six left upon the advice of the Faculties, and eleven for reasons
not known. Of this total of one hundred and two students who
withdrew, twenty-two have returned, or are likely to return, nineteen
may return, and sixty-one are not likely to return. The sixty-one
includes those who assigned no reason for leaving; those who went
into business; those who withdrew to avoid being dropped; those
who did not return after enrollment; those who left after four years
without graduating; those who left by the advice of the Faculty;
those who left for reasons not known to the Faculty; the student who
removed from the State; and the one who returned to her class in
an eastern college.

Scholarships.

The proportion of j'oung men who have to leave the University
because of limited means is large. There are others- who manage to
remain, but with resources entirely inadequate. Scholarships yield-



34

ing from one hundred to one hundred and fifty dollars a year each
would enable many to remain who now have to leave, and many who
remain under great difficulties to remain with comfort. When it is
considered that an investment yielding from two to three thousand
dollars a year would quite satisfactorily bridge over serious difficul-
ties for fifteen or twenty deserving and promising students, it is
reasonable to hope that such a fund may ultimately be accumulated
for that purpose. In the light of these facts it can hardly be neces-
sary to say how mistaken is the ill humored assertion sometimes
made — that the University is an institution for the sons of the rich.

Smith of Students.

The number of students who leave because of impaired health
is noticeable in consideration of the fact that Berkeley is excep-
tionally healthful. It has sometimes been insisted that the work
required overtaxes them. It is the purpose of the Facultj^ to give
such an amount of work as will fairly occupy the time of the student
of good average ability, who has had reasonably good preparation.
It may be that one who acquires slowly, or who has had insufficient
preparation, may find the work at times severe. But whatever diffi-
culty there may be, is in a measure of the student's own choosing, for
the conventional college course of four j^ears is not an invariable
requirement of the Faculty. The student who finds the prescribed
work of any course too difficult for four years, has the liberty to
lengthen the time to four and a half, or even to five years. And this
plan has, in several cases, been very advantageously pursued. I wish
that the idea might at once prevail that the time in which and the
class with Avhich an education is to be gained are matters of compar-
atively little moment.

A distinguished oculist of San Francisco has expressed it as his
belief that much of the impaired eyesight of his patients is due to
the injudicious use of their eyes on the oars and boats. I fear that
some of the students have suffered from this cause.

G-ymnasium.

The importance of combining systematic physical with systematic
mental development, will hardly be questioned. But just how much
the efficiency of the mind is impaired by the infirmities of the body
can never be known, and it is difficult to convince any one that an
unknown quantity is of prime importance. That physical education
is of grave importance is becoming recognized by some of the best
colleges in the country. Indeed, such satisfactory results have fol-
lowed from systematic physical training, conducted upon scientific
physiological principles, that the gjannasium is rapidly assuming an
importance almost, if not quite, coordinate with many other branches
of education. And by the systematic physical training that has been
mentioned is not meant simple directions in athletics. It should be
clearly borne in mind' that it is not the purpose of a college gymna-
sium to make athletes, but to accompany the well balanced mental
training of the college with an equally well balanced phj^sical train-
ing. To that end it is fast coming to be recognized that the director
of a gymnasium should be, indeed must be, a man who, after obtain-
ing a thorough medical education, has made physical development
a special study.



35

In some of the college gymnasiums of the countiy, each student,
upon entering college, undergoes a careful physical examination, for
the purpose of determining his physical inequalities. He then has
assigned to him such special exercise in the gymnasium as will most
rapidly and effectually remedy his weakness and restore a proper
physical balance.

Similar examinations and assignments of work are continued at
intervals throughout the entire college course, and it often happens
that the student who enters in poor condition of bodily vigor, leaves
with a fine physique. To direction in the gymnasium are added lec-
tures on Phj'siology and Hygiene.

Through the liberality of Mr. A. K. P. Harmon, of Oakland, the
University has a. gymnasium building excelled by few college gym-
nasiums.

With slight additions every facility could be offered for that careful
and systematic training, to which reference has been made, and any-
thing less than which should not be thought of.

It certainly seems remarkable that our system of education should
not somewhere include skilled direction regarding proper exercises
and authoritative advice as to the conditions upon which a healthy
and vigorous physical development is possible. I trust that means
may be provided for such instruction and direction in this Univer-
sity.

Appropi-iaimis.

The committee appointed by the Board of Regents to inquire into
the needs of the several departments of the University, at Berkeley,
and recommend suitable appropriations, has done so. The report of
that committee will be brought to your attention as a separate doc-
ument. The recommendations contained in it deserve your earnest
consideration, and will, I trust, receive your hearty support.

Affiliated Colleges.

The following reports upon the affiliated colleges have been con-
densed from reports made by Prof. John Norton Pomeroy, of the
Hastings College of the Law; Prof. Robt. A. McLean, Dean of the
Toland Medical College; Prof. S. W. Dennis, Dean of the Dental Col-
lege; and Prof. W. M. Searby, Dean of the College of Pharmacy. In
condensing I have adopted the original wording whenever consistent
with the form of condensation that was made necessary by the limits
set for this report. I have not, however, deemed it necessary to
attempt by quotation marks to indicate the portions exactly quoted.

I take great pleasure in calling attention to the fact that the Fac-
ulties of these colleges are making an earnest attempt to advance
the standard of scholarship in the professions which their colleges
represent. However difficult it may be to appreciate the fact, it is
still a fact that until within a few years there was absolutely no pre-
liminary qualification worthy of mention required for admission to
most of the Colleges of Law, Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy in
the United States. About fifteen years ago the number of students
in one of the first medical colleges in the United States fell off one
half in a single year, because of the establishment of admission
examinations much less severe than those required for entrance to
the undergraduate department of our own University; and yet to
the graduates of this college were intrusted the issues of life and



36

death. Even at the present time there can hardly be said to be any
serious requirement for admission to these professional colleges
throughout the country. The importance, then, of any decisive step
in this direction is great.

The question of establishing written examinations for admission
to the law college of a character that will secure students with fuller
preliminary mental training, is now under consideration. Thefurther
question of requiring applicants for all colleges alike to pass the exam-
inations required for admission to some one of the undergraduate
departments of the University, and of conducting these examinations
simultaneously at Berkeley has been mooted. I need not say that
such a step would mark an era in professional education, and the
development of our University. I do not doubt that Colleges of Law
and Medicine will ultimately require an education equivalent to that
given in the usual college course as a requisite for admission.

Examinations have been established for admission to the Colleges
of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy. The Faculties of these col-
leges are fully alive to the importance of the steps already taken, and
stand ready for further steps whenever experience warrants such a
course.

The College of Pharmacy has suffered in numbers by the enforce-
ment of its requirements for admission, but it has gained in efficiency,
and in the confidence of the public.

It is proper for me to say at this place that the affiliated colleges
are conducted without expense to the State, and without sharing in
the income of the general University Fund. There is probably not
a professor or instructor in them who does not make serious personal
and professional sacrifices to attend to the demands of his college.
The returns that they receive from tuition fees are hardly worth men-
tioning. Their work is emphatically a work for the public good.

Law.

The Hastings College of the Law opened in 1878, but the three
classes were not completed until 1881. The first graduating class,
that of 1881, numbered forty-five members; the second, that of 1882,
numbered forty-one members, one of whom was a woman; the
third, that of 1883, numbered thirty-nine members, two of whom
were women; and the fourth, that of 1884, numbered twenty-eight
members. The number of students enrolled for the academic year,
1882-83, was one hundred and thirty-six. The number enrolled for
1883-84, was one hundred and thirty. The average age of the last
graduating class was a little over twenty-five years. The average age
of the body of students is about twenty-two years. By a regulation
of the Board of Trustees, no person is allowed' to enter the junior
class until he has attained the age of eighteen years. About twenty-



Online LibraryCalifornia. LegislatureAppendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) → online text (page 70 of 83)