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Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) online

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nine per cent of the students are college graduates. Under the liber-
ality of the founder, instruction in the college is virtually free, the
only charge being a fee of ten dollars each year for the purpose of
defraying incidental expenses, such as lights, fuel, etc. Applicants
for the junior class are examined as to their previous education, intel-
lectual culture, and general knowledge. Applicants who do not have
sufficient general knowledge and discipline to enable them to pursue
the study of the law with profit to themselves, and with advantage
to the State, are not admitted. In the Summer of 1881, out of about



37

seventy-five applicants, some twenty-five were rejected on these
grounds. Since that year the number rejected has been much less,
probably averaging not more than ten each year.

The number of students who enter and are enrolled during the
junior year is always much larger than the number of those who go
through the course and graduate. In the first class, which graduated
forty-five members in 1881, there had been enrolled more than one
hundred students. The second class, which graduated forty-one mem-
bers in 1882, had numbered during its junior year about eighty.

The reason of this diminution is to be found in the peculiar character
and position of this college. Being to all intents a free institution,
naturally a large number of young men and women enter and com-
mence the study of the law, who have, in reality, no special taste nor
fitness for that study, and who have not the knowledge and mental
training sufficient to enable them to pursue the study with ease.
They are attracted to the study from a vague notion that the legal
profession is an honorable one, while they have no real notion of
what qualities and attainments are necessary for even a slight degree
of success in the study. They soon find that the study of the law
requires time, labor, application, diligence, knowledge, and some nat-
ural aptitude or talents. Of this class, a large number voluntarily
drop out, cease the study, and quietly leave the college, and turn to
other pursuits, before the junior year is ended. Of a Junior class
which opens with seventy, perhaps twenty, on an average, will thus
voluntarily withdraw from the class and from the college during the
first year. Of those who do not thus voluntarily withdraw, but con-
tinue until the end of the year, another large portion are dropped
out and leave the college at the examination for promotion. All who
have been indolent and careless, and all who have no ability to com-
prehend the study and are thus unable to pass the examination, are
not promoted into the middle year, and are dropped. The same proc-
ess takes place in the middle year. The examination, at its close,
generally drops out a few more, so that the Senior class is necessarily
made up only of those students who have possessed knowledge, fitness^
■diligence, etc., sufficient to carry them through all these examinations.

The graduates are permitted, under the statute creating this col-
lege, and by the action of the Supreme Court, to be admitted to the
bar without any further examination.

The course of instruction is certainly as comprehensive and as
thorough as that of any other institution in the country. Extending
through three years, there is full opportunity to apply in the third or
senior year, in a practical manner, the principles and doctrines which
are studied in the two preceding years. The methods of instruction,
peculiar to this school, including the exercises in preparing pleadings
and other papers, and the examination of cases in the form in which
they arise in the lawyer's professional business, are intended to be at
once practical and scientific — scientific in the presentation and study
of principles and settled doctrines, and practical in familiarizing the
student with the modes of applying these j)rinciples and doctrines to
concrete facts.

It is sometimes rather foolishly objected to the Law School that it
will increase the number of lawyers in the State. The foregoing facts
show that this objection has no foundation in fact. The Law College
will have a tendency to lessen the number of lawyers, because only
those who are in reality fitted to be admitted to the bar can be gradu-



38

ated and admitted through its agency. It will necessarily raise the
standard of legal education and attainment in this State, and tend to
diminish the number by making a larger knowledge and more exten-
sive acquirements essential for admission and success.

Medicine.

During the session of 1883, there were sixty-three matriculants.
The Senior Class numbered thirteen ; the Junior, twenty ; and the
Freshman, thirty. The following table contains information of inter-
est regarding the classes graduating in 1883 and 1884:



Number of applicants for the degree

Number of applicants rejected

Average age of applicants

Graduates of colleges

Number having degree of A.B.



19

4

25 years.

4

3



Vi-

2

28 years.

2

2



The course of lectures and clinics during the session of 1883, con-
sisted of a preliminary session, beginning February first, and ending
April thirty-first, and a regular Session, beginning June first, and
ending October thirty-first. The year had been thus divided into
two sessions in order to give students an opportunity to dissect and
attend the clinics at the hospital to a greater extent than was pos-
sible during the regular session. Attendance upon the preliminary
session, however, was not required ; but it was found that a large
proportion of the students availed themselves of the advantages of
this extra course.

In the Catalogue of the Medical Department for 1883, it was
announced that in 1884, and each year thereafter, the regular session
would be lengthened to nine months, beginning February first, and
ending October thirty-first. Accordingly, the present session began
Monday, February fourth, with a class of forty-five matriculants.
The Senior class numbers fourteen ; the Junior, fifteen, and the Fresh-
man, sixteen.

The course of instruction now covers a period of thirty-six weeks,
exclusive of a vacation of two weeks in the middle of the term.
Didactic lectures are delivered five days in each week, at the college
building, and clinics are held every other day at the hospital. By
this arrangement the number of lectures in each subject is increased
by nearly one third ; and as the total time of th& course is materially
lengthened, the student has more time to read and dissect than under
the old arrangement.

The Didactic Chairs are: Theory and Practice of Medicine, Theory
and Practice of Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anatomy, Phys-
iology and Microscopy, Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Medical
Chemistry, Mental Diseases and Medical Jurisprudence, Diseases of
Children, and Hygiene. The Clinical Chairs are: Clinical Medicine
and Pathology, Clinical and Operative Surgery, Ophthalmology and
Otology, and Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Theory and Practice of Medicine: Seventy-two lectures are now
delivered in this subject, instead of sixty as heretofore. The. course
consists of a systematic history of disease and the means which expe-
rience has pointed out as curative.



39

Theory and Practice of Surgery: This branch also now embraces a
course of seventy-two lectures, during which the student is taught
the principles of surgical practice and drilled in the use of instru-
ments and surgical dressings.

Obstetrics and Gynecology: This chair includes both a didactic
and a clinical course, the former consisting of a series of one hundred
and eight lectures at the college, and the latter of thirty-six clinical
lessons at the City and County Hospital.

Physiology and Microscopy: Seventy-two lectures are delivered in
this branch, and when necessary they are illustrated by vivisections
and the practical use of the microscope.

Therapeutics: At the time of the last report this chair was vacant,
but has since been filled, and the course now consists of seventy-two
lectures, in which the various remedial measures for the cure of dis-
ease are fully described.

Materia Medica and Medical Chemistry: This course has been
lengthened from forty to seventy-two lectures, and comprises the his-
tory, method of preparation, and the medicinal action of the differ-
ent substances forming the materia medica. The combination of
drugs is illustrated by pharmaceutical and chemical experiments.

Anatomy: Seventy-two lectures are devoted to this branch, and
are illustrated by dissections of the cadaver, and by dry and wet
preparations of the various regions of the body. The course includes
a series of dissections by each student of the Junior and Freshman
Classes.

Medical Jurisprudence and Mental Diseases: A course of thirty-
six lectures upon this branch is given, in which the various phases
of mental derangement, and the legal questions involved in this class
of cases, are fully elucidated.

Hygiene: The course in this branch has been increased to thirtj'-
six lectures also, and explains the principles of modern sanitary sci-
ence, and the practical methods of reducing the evil effects of unsan-
itary conditions.

Clinical Medicine and Pathology: The practice of medicine is exhib-
ited to the class by a series of one hundred and eight clinics, in which
the students come directly in contact with the sick at the bedside,
and examine and prescribe for them, under the observation of the
Professor of Clinical Medicine.

Clinical and Operative Surgery: One hundred and eight clinics
are held in the surgical wards of the City and County Hospital, in
which all of the operations in surgery are shown to the students, and
the various surgical dressings and appliances are demonstrated upon
the patients.

Ophthalmology and Otology: Seventy-two clinics are held upon
diseases of the eye and ear during the session. The system of instruc-
tion is the same as that pursued in the medical and surgical wards.

Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: This clinic is held thirty-six
times during the term, and gives the senior students a practical famil-
iarity with the management of labor cases. Each student has one or
more cases, which he conducts throughout by himself. In the Gyne-
cological clinic, the students witness the operations performed for the
cure of surgical diseases in the female sexual organs.

Diseases of Children: This Chair has recently been added to the
Medical Department, and the course consists of thirty-six lectures, in
which the diseases peculiar to childhood are described.



40

Dentistry.

The number of students in attendance during the past three years,
and the number who have graduated, are shown in the following
table:



Number of matriculates

Attended full course of lectures

Average age of matriculates

Received degree of D.D.S.

Rejected on examination for degree



36
21

27J
8
1



33 25
23 -

24i ! 23i

7 I

3



Of the matriculates in 1882 and 1883, one was a graduate of Uni-
versity College and one of the New Orleans High School. Of those
who matriculated in 1884, one had graduated at the Spring Valley
Grammar School, one at the Jennings' Seminary, one at the Boys'
High School of San Francisco, one at the San Jose High School, and
one at the University of the Pacific.

The entire graduating class of 1882 was composed of dentists, whose
time of practice ranged between seven and twenty-four years, and
who took advantage of the provision in our regulations which makes
dentists of seven or more years practice, who pursue one full course
of study in this college, eligible to the degree of D.D.S. Of the grad-
uates of 1883, five completed the required two years course, while two,
one of whom had been ten, the other seventeen years in practice,
received their degrees on the completion of a one year course.

At the annual meeting of the Faculty, held December, 1882, upon
the declination of Professor Dennis to serve as Dean for the ensuing
year. Professor Goddard was elected. At the expiration of Professor
Goddard's term of service, Professor Dennis was again elected Dean.
The session of 1883 began with a preliminary term, extending from
March first until April thirtieth. The regular term began June first
and ended October thirty-first. With the session of 1884, the college
discontinued the preliminary term, and began a regular term of nine
months, lasting from February to November inclusive, with a pre-
liminary examination upon the elementary principles of English
composition, mathematics, and physics. These requirements place
the standards of admission to the college equal to those of the best
dental colleges of America and Europe.

The following is the time-schedule of instruction for the session of
1884:



9-12.
12- 3.

3- 4.

4- 5-



Mondoy.



Practical operative dentistry

Practical mechanical dentistry

Lecture on pathology and therapeutics
Lecture on mechanical dentistrv



Tv.z.%day.

9-10__: Lecture on operative dentistry

10-12.. I Practical operative dentistry

12- 2_.j Practical mechanical dentistry

2- 3 I Lecture on chemistry

3- 4.. I Lecture on physiology

4- 5.. Lecture on anatomy



41



i Wednesday.

9-11 - Practical operative dentistry

11-12 Lecture on surgery

12- 2 - . Practical mechanical dentistry

2- 5 - I Practical

i operative dentistry under clinical in-
! struction; one afternoon each week



Thursday.



9-10 Lecture on operative dentistry

10-12 Practical operative dentistry

12- 2 Practical nieclianical dentistry

2- 3 - I Lecture on chemistry

3- 4 - | Lecture on physiology

4- 5 Lecture on anatomy



I Friday.

9-ll__ Practical operative dentistiy

11-12_-| Lecture on surgery

12- 0 - I Practical mechanical dentistry

3- 4 I Lecture on pathology and therapeutics

4- 5 - ' Lecture on mechanical dentistry



Saturday.



9-12 - I Medical and surgical clinic at hospitals

2- 5 - I Work in

I chemical and histological laboratoi-ies



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 18S2-3.

Cash received from donations $535 00

Cash received from students 3,725 00

Total S4.260 00

Expenses, 1882 4,154 25

Balance on hand at end of term $105 35

Cash on hand and received. 1883 $3,213 65

Expenses, 1883 __ 2,259 90

Balance on hand at end of the term $966 75



The expenses of conducting the department consist in furnishing
material for carrying on the mechanical and operative departments.
No salaries are paid to professors, and but 8200 a term for three of the
demonstrators, who are obliged to spend three half days per week at
the college during the entire term.

Phan/mcy.

The number of students in attendance upon lectures and examina-
tions during the past two years is shown in the following table. Of
the Junior class, in 1884, one was a special student in chemistry:



Attemliug Examinations.



Atteucling Lectures, i—



Name ok Clas*.





1883.


1884. 1

1


Successful.


Unsuccessful.


Successful.


Unsuccessful.


Seniors


21

40

6


29

25

1


13
31


2
2


13
17


6




2


Students from the Med-
ical College













The degree of Graduate in Pharmacj'^ has been conferred upon
twenty-six candidates during the past two years.

The diminution in the number of students, during the present
year, was entirely in the Junior class, and was due to two causes:



42

First, the rule requiring all avIio do not present certificates entitling
them to enter one of the high schools of this State to undergo a pre-
liminary examination was enforced, and excluded some who had
not the necessary common school education ; and, secondly, the Dean
discouraged young men whose education was very deficient, or whose
knowledge of the rudiments of pharmacy was limited, from entering
the college before they had made up some of their deficiencies. It
is believed that these persons will be greatly benefited by the post-
ponement of their college studies, until they have more fully informed
themselves in those branches which the college is not especially
designed to teach, but which are necessary as preliminary to the lec-
ture courses.

The course of instruction consists of lectures on Chemistry, Materia
Medica, Pharmacy, and Botany. The instruction is designed to sup-
plement the practical knowledge acquired in the daily handling of
drugs, and compounding of medicines, which constitutes the occupa-
tion of the students. They are presumed to be familiar with most
medicinal and commercial chemicals, and with ordinary pharma-
ceutical processes, before they enter the college, where they receive
systematic instruction, which enables them to work more intelligently,
and carries them forward to an acquaintance wath the principles of
chemical and pharmaceutical science.

The Lectures on Chemistrii begin with elementary physics, showing
the general properties of matter, the forces of light and heat, and the
relations of these to chemical action. Then follows a concise course
of elementary and inorganic chemistry, including the electro-chem-
ical theory, equivalences of atoms and radicals, chemical notation
and nomenclature, and the laws of chemical combination. After-
wards the students are instructed in the more advanced departments
of chemical philosophy, concluding with organic chemistry, in which
the hydro-carbons, and their most important derivatives, the alco-
hols, ethers, organic acids, glucosides, alkaloids, etc., are studied.

The Lectures on Materia Medica treat of drugs and medicinal sub-
stances derived from the vegetable and animal kingdoms. They are
considered, not from the physician's but from the pharmacist's
standpoint. Hence their origin, purity, and chemical composition
occupy the principal place in this course. Those characters by which
each drug can be accurately identified; those indications which point
to inferiority or superiority in quality ; the means of detecting adul-
terations, and whatever tends to give the pharmacist an intelligent
idea of the nature of each article of the materia medica, find a place
in these lectures. The medicinal uses and doses are also given, and
the antidotes to such as are poisonous. These lectures are illustrated
by plates, specimens, and experiments.

The lectures on the Theory and Practice of Pharniacij are essentially
practical, and are accompanied by demonstrations in the various
pharmaceutical operations, such as the sources and management of
heat, its application to the processes of evaporation, simple, fractional,
and destructive distillation, sublimation, calcination, etc., as also in
the various means adopted for comminuting drugs, the processes of
solution, clarification, crystallization, dialysis, etc. The preparations
of the Pharmacopoeia are all studied, and the principles involved in
their manipulation explained. Urinalysis and the use of volu-
metric solutions in testing medicinal chemicals, conclude the course.

The chair of Botany is devoted to instruction in the Senior class



43

only (elementary botany being taught by the professor of materia
medica as a part of the Junior course in that branch), and the course
embraces the geography of plants, structural, functional, and system-
atic botany. The work is illustrated by dissections with microscopic
demonstrations.

The college is making satisfactory progress from year to year.
Having now a building of its own, its professors look forward to the
time when they shall be able to give a laboratory course in pharma-
ceutical and analytical chemistry. There is a suitable laboratory
room in the college building; professors stand ready to give the
desired instruction, and many of the students are anxious to take
such a course, and although only a few thousand dollars are neces-
sary for apparatus and appliances, yet, even, that small sum is want-
ing.

In the accompanying appendix will be found a tabulated state-
ment of the courses of study in the several colleges and courses at
Berkeley, a condensed financial statement, and a condensed state-
ment of the land agent. For detailed statements of receipts and
expenditures, and of the transactions of the land department, you
are referred to the Secretary's reports for 1883 and 1884.

Very respectfully submitted,

W. T. REID,

President.



REPORT OF PROFESSOR E. W. HILGARD.



President W. T. Reid:

Dear Sir: I submit herewith a report upon the present condition
of the department under my charge, in its several branches, and of
its operations during the past two j'ears.

INSTRUCTION.

As regards, first, instruction, I regret to say that the hopes I have
entertained of a rapid increase of students in the College of Agricult-
ure have not been realized. Since it has become apparent that the
agricultural course has ceased to be a safe harbor for the indifferent
student and an easy road to graduation, its numbers have perhaps even
fallen off; but there has been a corresponding increase of earnestness
among those who do attend, that will certainly serve the objects for
which the college was established better than the easy-going system
which, in times past, led to its being considered the "Botany Bay" of
the University. As matters now stand, those who really desire to
pursue agricultural studies can do so without difficulty, by coming
into the classes of either partial or special students, if they do not
desire to graduate. And if under this arrangement the college should
not have a graduate more than once in two years, it would still be
fulfilling its functions better than by graduating students who have
no serious thought of study, or of pursuing agriculture as a profession.

One serious drawback to the bona fide instruction, not only in the
agricultural course, but in the University at large, has been the
absence of a permanent provision for instruction in botany. When,
eight years ago, the subject was transferred to this department, it was
with no thought that it could permanently remain under the per-
sonal charge of the Professor of Agriculture; yet it might have so
continued but for the unexpected and somewhat overwhelming de-
velopment taken by the experiment station work. In attempting
to carry all that thus gradually fell to my share, my health gave way,
and although now so far recovered as to be able to carry the work of
instruction in agricultural chemistry, I am constrained to say that it
is altogether improbable that I will soon be able to resume so large
an amount of lecture work, even if the pressure of the experiment
station work left a physical possibility of doing so. While, therefore,
still formally in charge of the subject of botany, I must positively
decline to be held responsible, personally, for actual instructioii
therein, except in so far as the same can be brought within the lim-
its of the course of agricultural chemistry.

During the past two years instruction in botany has been given
during three months of one term, by Mr. E. L. Greene, an eminent



45

botanist, and with excellent results. During the past session, the
services of Mr. Greene not being obtainable, the second term's course
(economic botany) has been given in a somewhat modified form by
Mr. \V. G. Klee, in addition to his duties as gardener in charge of the
agricultural grounds, and without extra compensation. This course
was quite satisfactory, and unless a permanent arrangement should
be made for filling the chair of botany, I should recommend that
the same course be given by Mr. Klee during the coming term of this
session. But of course this could not be expected of him without
some additional compensation, should he return to his former posi-
tion after the close of his present engagement. I cannot, however,
too strongly urge the need of a permanent arrangement for instruc-
tion in botany, a subject which not only is of great intrinsic interest
and importance, but which is constantly sought for especially by
those students looking toward the position of teachers in the public
schools, or elsewhere. Classes of fifteen to thirty could be formed
each session without difficulty, were the matter once more put into a
definite and satisfactory shape. In its relations to the agricultural
course, the subject of botany stands as the doorway through which
a large number of students have been induced to pursue that course,
either fully or partially; and to its omission I attribute in a great
measure the failure to secure an increase of students during the past
two years.

It might be thought that this important subject ought to take pre-
cedence of the experiment station work, if the latter interferes with its



Online LibraryCalifornia. LegislatureAppendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1885v.1) → online text (page 71 of 83)