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in my own vineyard near Mission San Jose, chiefly the Californian
wild stock, with a small proportion of eastern wild varieties, to be
grafted upon.

Among the most pressing needs of this division of our work is,
also, a material increase of the library of ivorks on mtmdtural subjects,
both for reference and study; and the formation of a type collection of
grape varieties, for the identification of doubtful kinds. As regards
the former point, it can scarcely be questioned that the viticultural
library of the University ought, wdth a view to the commanding im-
portance of the subject, to be measurably complete, both as to the
literature of the past, and the current publications in the several
grape-growing countries of the world, wdth which we are trying to
compete. As j'-et our library lacks a large number of the most impor-
tant standard works of reference, without which no thorough work
can be done without frequent useless repetition of what has already
been done elsewhere.

A standard collection of grape varieties should, if possible, be
planted on the grounds of the University. But the fact that few
varieties only can ripen their fruit in the climate of Berkeley, and
the further disadvantage of the presence of the phylloxera among
the vines now on our grounds, renders the propriety of incurring the
required expenditure somewhat questionable until a location better
adapted to the purpose can be secured by donation or otherwise. In
the meantime a collection of dried specimens of the vine varieties,
including leaves, shoots, and ripe wood, would be of essential service
in the identification of doubtful kinds, so often cp,lled for. And such
a collection could be made at a comparatively trifling expense, in the
same manner as usual for other botanical collections. The chief
expense involved would be the traveling expenses, and compensation
of the collector, say one hundred and fifty dollars, all told.

GARDEN OP ECONOMIC PLANTS, ORCHARD, ETC.

Notes on the work in this department during the past two seasons
are given in Appendix No. 3, which, however, falls seriously short of
a proper showing, in consequence of the resignation of Mr. W. G.
Klee, which was required by the Regents upon his acceptance of an
appointment by the State Horticultural Society to go to the New
Orleans International Exposition in charge of the exhibit of the



53

native and cultiA'-ated plants of California. The loss of Mr. Klee's
services is greatly to be regretted, as it is extremely difficult to find
persons properly qualified for a position requiring not merely the
qualifications of a practical gardener, but also those (?f a botanist,
and trained observer capable of observing correctly, and reporting
in proper form and language, the results of experimental work.
Since to these qualifications Mr. Klee adds that of the command
of five languages, and of eight years' experience here on the spot,
together with an extended knowledge of the various portions of the
State, the void left by his resignation is a serious one, and, I trust,
will be but temporary, since the labor thrown upon me by the neces-
sity of training a new incumbent would form a most discouraging
overburden, and is incompatible with the proper discharge of the
numerous other duties already devolved upon me. During the pres-
ent "slack season" in our work, Mr. Klee's ordinary duties have been
divided out between the foreman, Mr. McLennan, Mr. Dwindle, and
myself.

The transcripts of the bulletins regarding the distribution of seeds
and plants, given in Appendix No. 3, show the varieties that have
been offered for distribution in either form. It should be stated, in
addition, that, during the season 1883-84, about eight hundred and
sixty invoices of seeds or plants were sent, about four hundred and
fifty to different addresses within the State; including about twelve
hundred plants of various kinds, seven hundred packages of seeds,
and three hundred and fifty pounds of roots, chiefly of the so called
" evergreen millet," or SorgJium halepense. Reports of results are now
qoming in, together with farther requests for seeds and plants, and it
seems likely that the distribution of the present season will at least
-equal that of last. Among the more important kinds may be men-
tioned the European oak, of which last season three thousand acorns
were sent out in lots of ten each; while during the present season
about one thousand year-old seedlings of the same are offered. I am
strongly impressed with the future importance of the European oak
as a hard-wood timber tree for this State, especially its northern and
middle portion, where its growth is nearly three times as rapid as
that of any of the Americ&n oaks thus far tried here, while its wood
is, throughout the Old World, the prominent one for the general
uses of hard woods, including cask staves. For the latter purpose
alone, its extensive planting should be carried forward as rapidly as
possible.

It had been hoped that we would this season have a large supply
of the seedlings of the European tanner's sumac for distribution; but
from a large amount of seed imported from France only a few plants
were obtained, and we are now propagating it as rapidly as possible
from slips, in order to supply a few hundred plants for tests in vari-
ous portions of the State. It may be thought that the gathering of
the leaves of this valuable shrub could not be made commercially
profitable with our high-priced labor. But this is one of the indus-
tries which, like silk culture, can be practiced on a small scale and
yield a welcome collateral income to women and children not other-
wise engaged, since the gathering can be done at several seasons dur-
ing the long time of growth allowed by our mild climate. Similarly,
the culture of the caper bush, which is a thorough success here at
Berkeley, is one adapted to homes where numerous children render a
little help from their hands a very desirable addition to family com-



54

forts. As our population increases, we must needs learn the value of
the small industries for which the generous soil and climate of Cali-
fornia affords such varied opportunities.

It seems very desirable that this branch of our work should be
provided with more ample means for the introduction and propa-
gation of useful plants from foreign countries. Up to this time most
of our stock for this ijurpose has been obtained by exchange or by
voluntary contributions.

I cannot omit to urge earnestly that provision be made for a new
and more perfect heating apparatus for the propagating houses. The
old one is so nearly worn out and so defective that during cold " spells "
it is barely possible to prevent damage from frost in the warm houses^
and our stock, embracing many valuable plants which it Avould be
very difficult to replace, comes out of the winter in such a depressed
condition that it requires many weeks to recuperate and serious losses
occur every spring.

To the limited accommodation afforded by these houses, and their
lowness, which compels us to dispose of our best plants just about
the time when they have reached a respectable size and show what
they are, I have repeatedly alluded in my reports, and can but reit-
erate what I have before said in regard to their inadequacy for our
needs and purposes. At present they are sorely in need of new paint,
but it seems hardly possible to afford this out of the funds available
for the purpose.

The orchard, which passed under the jurisdiction of my depart-
ment a few years ago, so badly pruned and so infested with insects
that many trees ultimately succumbed in the process of regenera-
tion, is now assuming, in some degree, the shape and usefulness orig-
inally intended. The trees are showing their natural form and are
bearing fruit, which subserves the purpose of study and verification
of varieties, and so far, as obtained in sufficient ciuantities, is either
sold for the benefit of the department or sent to charitable institu-
tions in the city and elsewhere. The persistent fight against the
insect pests has now progressed so far that we can conscientiouslj^
offer to distribute scions to those desiring to test varieties not usually
found in nurserymen's catalogues. Figures and descriptions of such
varieties have appeared in a previous report and would be largely
represented in the present one but for the absence of Mr. Klee. In
one respect our orchard is now almost totally deficient, viz.: in cher-
ries, of which a large variety was originally planted, but which died
after some years in consequence of having reached an undrained
surface of impervious subsoil. Until a drain of about a thousand
feet in length is laid through this tract, it will he useless to plant
anj^thing permanently on it. Our soil is naturally so heavy that
only underdraining can render it fit for the growth of cherries, or in
fact, for anything else requiring a deep and loose soil.

There is another portion of our grounds, really the best soil of the
field 'devoted to experimental field cultures, that stands in need of
underdrainage as the first condition of its usefulness for any of our
purposes. This piece will require a more extended system of drains,
probably about twenty-five hundred to three thousand feet in all. A
donation of one thousand feet of excellent drain tile was made
toward this purpose by the firm of Gladding, McBean & Co., of San
Francisco; but as j'et we have not been able to incur the expense



55

of laying it down. This subject is more specially discussed in Mr.
Dwinelle's report, which forms Appendix No. 2.

There is one branch of the work to which I have only casually
alluded, and which yet consumes a considerable amount of time.
This is the correspondence arising from letters of inquiry on a great
variety of subjects relating to agriculture, which, as well as oral con-
sultations, at certain seasons assumes such proportions as to be
enough to occupy, alone, all the time not given to instruction. I find
that, during twelve months ending October, 1884, three hundred and
seventy letters have been written by myself personally in replj' to
inquiries or in reporting the results of examinations. Oftentimes
such letters involve extensive research and discussion before an
intelligent answer can be given; and when during the planting season
they come at the rate of three or four a day, it becomes difficult to
keep pace, unaided, with the demand for information. Letters relat-
ing to subjects falling within Mr. Dwinelle's special line of Avork, are
ordinarily referred to him; and this, with the correspondence ad-
dressed to him directl}', is no small tax upon his time also.

In conclusion, I respectfully suggest that it will become necessary
to provide for more adequate compensation of the assistants in this
work, if it is to continue to be . efficiently prosecuted. The present
salaries of $900 per annum cannot long continue to form an induce-
nient for young men, who by this very work become fitted for respon-
sible and much better paid positions. As it has required years of
training to fit them for their present positions, so it would again
require years of unsatisfactory performance to train others. The
laboratories and cellar can be made most useful adjuncts to the
instruction of students, but upon condition that they are and remain
occupied by competent chemists. At the same time, the work itself
should not be hampered in its value and reliability by being handed
over to new relays of novices every few years. The competent worker
is worthy of corresponding compensation, and should have some
prospect of promotion placed before him.

It is a grievous burden and drawback to success and utility when,
every few years, a new, raw incumbent has to be trained in the per-
formance of the varied work called for by the nature of the case; and
the viticultural laboratory work, in particular, imitates so closely the
large-scale practice that an assistant will, in a short time, be able to
find profitable employment in the wineries now rapidly being estab-
lished all over the State. While it might be very desirable to thus
afford an opportunity for the scientific and practical training of
experts, it should not go so far as to clog or prevent the attainment
of the primary objects of an experiment station. If, as may be hoped,
it becomes feasible to employ, permanently, two working assistants
in the Viticultural Laboratory, the salary of at least one should be so
gauged as to secure a reasonable permanency of one well trained
man. The salary of the principal assistant should be from 81,200 to
$1,500, according to ability; that of the sub-assistant, similarly, from.
$900 to $1,200. Without adequate remuneration we cannot expect
such work as will form a safe basis for the heavy investments that
will be largely directed by its results.

The same applies, of course, to the assistant or assistants in the
general Agricultural Laboratory, who, in the course of time, become
competent analytical chemists; and when called off to better paid
positions are v^ry difficult to replace, and not without a grievous loss
of time, and of confidence in- the work done by the department.



56
FINANCIAL NEEDS.

The folloAving is a summary statement of the amount of appropria-
tions whicii I think necessary for the prosecution of the work of this
department.

A special committee of the Board of Regents reported early in this
year the following sums as being requisite for the work of the depart-
ment for the two ensuing years :

Department of A£;riculture (lecturers, salaries, culture, experiments, labor, etc.) 815,000 00

Department of Viticulture 3,000 00

Agricultural Laboratory , 1,800 00

For the purchase and distribution of plants and seed 400 00

For the distib'ution of bulletins of the College of Agriculture 300 00

Total ^ $20,500 00

Of these items, the second one especially would seem to require
reconsideration in view of the heavy and growing demands made
upon the viticultural laboratory, as stated above. The recommenda-
tion of the Viticultural Convention substitutes for the above item the
following:

For building of new viticultural laboratory, and equipment of same $10,000 00

For running expenses of same, at'$3,000 annually, for two years 6,000 00

Total for viticultural work $16,000 00

If in place of a new building sufficient for future requirements,
additions to the present building be made, the following alternatives
may be considered, viz.:

First — Addition of a single cellar compartment, with superstruc-
ture and equipments, caskage, and instruments. This would render
possible the work of another vintage season, or possibly two, at an
expenditure of about 81,500.

ISecond — Doubling of the present cellar room and foundation, and
erection of corresponding wooden superstructure of a stoiy and a half.
This would afford the necessary enlargement of the chemical labora-
tory, and storage room for perhaps six years to come. I estimate that
this enlargement, with necessary additional equipments, could be
carried out at an expense of about 15,500.

There can be no doubt that the erection of a larger building for
the permanent accommodation of a viticultural experiment station
would be the most economical for the State; for it can hardly be
questioned that a far greater need ^exists for such, an institution here
than in Europe, where, nevertheless, they are numerous. Successive
additions will never make as useful a building, nor as cheap a one as
can be constructed at once in accordance with a well digested plan.

Whichever alternative be adopted, the appropriation for current
expenses, as above recommended ($3,000 per annum for two years),
should be maintained, in order that the needed additions to the
laboratory and cellar facilities, and the services of an additional
chemist (sub-assistant), as well as the necessary labor, may be secured.

Regarding the need of an increase of the compensation of the
chemist employed in the general Agricultural Laboratory, I refer to
the statements made on the previous page.

In reference to the last item given in the committee'.s estimate, viz.:



57

$300 for distribution of bulletins, I state that unless the printing be
done by the State Printing Office, involving much delay and trouble
in the correction of the proof sheets, this item should be increased to
$500 for the two years; experience having shown that the increasing
demand for these current publications more than doubles the expense
incurred in the first issues.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

E. W. HILGARD,
Professor of Agriculture.

Berkeley, December 10, 1884.



APPENDIX.



APPEISTDIX.



TABULATED VIEW OF THE UNDERGRADUATE COURSES OF INSTRUCTION.





2

Q
o


i

Q

o

i


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„ c

§2
1 p

1 c.


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in

c


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o

5'
p


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o

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i

5'
§

3'


o
1

5"
V


9

i

g
t


Freshman Year, First Term.
Latin. — Liw _ _ __ _


4
4
4


4
4


(4)
(4J
(4)












Greek. — Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides












English. — English prose style


.4
1


4
1


4

1


4 4


Preparation of Summaries..


1 1


Themes. Four .










French. — Grammar and Translation




(4)
(4)


"(4)"


(4)

(4)

6


4
6


(4)

*(4)

6


»(4) .-

(4) 4

6 6


German. — Grammar and Translation




Mathematics. — Geometry — Solid and Spherical, Algebra.
Geometry — Solid and Spherical .




4


4


4
4

(4)




History. — Engclish, Seventeenth Century












Freshman Year, Second Term.
Latin. — Sallust, Horace .


4
4
4


4

(4)

4












Greek. — Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Euripides.
English. — English prose style










(4)


4


4


4


4 ! 4


Themes. Four . _


1


French. — Grammar and Translation




(4)

(4)


'(4)'


(4)

(4)

5


"(4")"
5


(4)

(4)

5


(4)

(4)

5




German. — Grammar and Translation




4


Mathematics. — Trigonometry, Analytical Geometry




S


Algebra


4


4


4




Chemistry. — Elementary Chemistry


4 j 4


4


4


4


History. — English, Eighteenth Century.






4

(3)




Sophomore Year, First Term.
Latin. — Terence, Plautus


3
3
3


3










Greek. — Euripides, Plato










English. — Old English: Grammar and Reading

Themes. Four .. .


3


(3)


1






(3)


..-|-...






French. — Grammar and Translation

German.— Grammar and Translation

Mathematics.- — Differential Calculus


t(3)
t(3)


(3)
(3)


W


(4)
(4)


"I'
4


(4)

(4)

4


(4)

(4)

4


"i


Trigonometry, Analytical Geometry

Chemistry. — Inorganic Chemistry


4


4


4








2


2


2


2


9


History. — General European


t(4)


4


4


(4)
4


Physics. — General Physics . _


4
3

9


3


3


3


Botany. — Structural and Physiological








3


Laboratory.
Chemistry. — Qualitative Analysis








8
4

3


8
4

3


8
4

3





Qualitative Blowpipe Analysis








4


Mechanical Drawing. — Instrumental Drawing, Descrip-
tive Geometry








3


(3)



* students in the College of Engineering are recommended to elect French. Those in the College of Mining
are recommended to elect German.

t Election must be made between French or German and Studies in History and Political Economy, and the
>^ourse of study elected must be pursued for two years.



61



Tabulated View of the Undergraduatk Courses of Instruction — Continued.






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1

O

o


i


o

as

£.5'

|l
S3

1 »
1 a
1 p.


B

i

5'
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o





1

g

5'

3'
f





c

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3

D
'S.

(i5


Q


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3'


sr

<B

s


Sophomore Year, Second Term.
Latin. — Horace, Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius


3
3
3


3


(3)












Greek. — Plato, .^schylus, Euripides












English. — History of English Literature


3


(3)










(3)


Themes. Four


..:::::






French. — Translation


(3)
(3)


(3)
(3)


'(47


4

(4)


"I'

4


(4)

(4)

4


(4)

(4)

4




German. — Translation .


4


Mathematics. — Integral Calculus _




Elementary Calculus .. _ .


(1)
(3)


(1)
3


(1)


(1)


(1)


Chemistry. — Elementary Chemistry. .








Inorganic Chemistry


2


2


2


2


?


History. — General European. ...


(4)
(4)


4


4
4


(4)

(4)

4


United States History










Physics. — General Physics


4
2

9


3


3


3


Botany. — Systematic and Economic








(2)
1?


Laboratory.
Chemistry. — Qualitative Analysis..








12


12


12


Botany. — Determination of Plants










Mechanical Drawing. — Instrumental Drawing, Descrip-
tive Geometry








3


3


3


3


(3)


Junior Year, First Term.
Latin. — Cicero, Quintilian, Juvenal


5
2

(3)


(5)




Greek. — Sophocles, Plato _.














English. — Shakespeare


(3)


(3)


...


t3




i3


(3)


Themes. Two


French. — De Stael, Moliere ._


(3)
(3)
(4)


(3)
(3)
(4)


(3)
(2)


(2)
(2)








3


German— Schiller, Ebers


2








Mathematics. — DiSerential Calculus






(3)


Agriculture. — Agricultural Chemistry




3








History. — General European


4

(4)

(4)

4


4
(4)
(4)

4


4

4

(4)

4










United States History












Roman Law ; Jurisprudence .












Physics. — General Phvsics












Analytical Mechanics „




6
2

"2"


4


4




Mechanical Drawing. — Graphostatics












Civil Engineering. — Surveying








2
2
1


*(4)


4
2


(2)
9


Zoology. — Comparative Zoology


(2)


(2)


(2)


Entomology. — Elementary and Economic




Botany. — Structural and Phvsiological ..


(3)


(3)












Mineralogy. — Crystallography, Terminology, and De-
scriptive . ..




9





2








Chemistry. — Chemical Philosophy










?


Laboratory.
Chemistry. — Qualitative Analysis








12


"I'
3

*{9)


t(15)
6


"I'


T>


Mechanical Drawing. — Simple machine parts










Graphostatics






1




Civil Engineering. — Field Practice ..








5




9


i'fi\


Junior Year, Second Term.
Latin.— Cicero, Juvenal


(2)

3

(3)


(2)






Greek. — Plato, Lysias












English. — Middle English


(3)


(3)










(3)


Old English




3




3


Themes. Two











* The Chemistry of the Literary Couree is required of those who did not pass tlie entrance examinations in
Chemistry, but it may be taken at any time during the couree.
X Required for degree of Mining Engineer.



62



Tabulated Vikw of the Undergraduate Courses of Instruction — Continued.





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o
%


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1 1


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5'

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(3)
(3)
1(4)


(3)


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3


German. — Schiller, Ebers _ - -


(3) 1 ^2)




2




....




Mathematics. — Differential and Integral Calculus


+^4^


1


(3)






3






















Political Economy. — General principles and laws


4

(4)


4
(4)


4

(4)


4








4















3
2
6
2


3
4


3

2
4






(2)


(2)


(2)


2


2






























4












2
1

12


— -


2


2












Laboratory.











t9

t(6)


(6)


1ft






















6
3


























»9


9




Senior Year, First Term.


(2)


(•?.\












(2) h\
















(3)
(3)


















(3)


(3)












Themes Two for CI Lit., Let., and Pol.














(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(3)


(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)


(2)

(2)


































































(3)




















2








2




(4)


(A\


4
4

(3)










Political Economy. — History of principles and laws


(4) C41


4








(4)


(3)
t(3)


(3)

t(3)






























3
3




Geology. — Dynamical and Structural


(3)


(3)


(3)


3


3


3


3


Petrography Methods etc , (1), (2), (3), (4), and (5)













3


















2
4


















4
2
3


6




























....


fS)














(3)

[18)
3


Laboratory,








12
3
















6


6


6










4


Mining Engineering. — Assaying



















* Required for degree of Mining Engineer.

t Required for degree of Metallurgical Engineer.



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