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not be able to load or discharge in the lay clays allowed for the pur-
pose, free of dockage charges. The port of Boston is, therefore, so
far as dockage charges are concerned, substantially a free port. We
may say it is a free port for ships. How stands the case with respect
to the goods which the ships carry?

There is a charge for landing goods from vessels on the wharves,
and for loading them on vessels from the wharves, which is called
wharfage. It is a charge against the goods, though the vessel dis-
charging or receiving the goods is liable for its payment.

The publication, called " Rates of Wharfage," is quite an elaborate
document of twenty double column octavo pages, and, we should
think, prescribes, as it was doubtless intended to prescribe, a rate for
every article that can become the subject of ocean commerce.

These articles, for the purpose of wharfage, seem to be divided into
three classes:

First — There are specific sums prescribed for specified articles.

Thus, on the very first page, we find the following sums prescribed
for the articles specified:

Axles, per set 2 cents

Churns, each 4 cents

Cider Mills, each ^ 10 cents

Corn Shellers, each 6i cents

Cotton Scrapers, each 4 cents

Cultivators, each 4 cents

Flour Mills, each 12i cents

Grain Cradles, each 2 cents

Grain Mills, each 12i cents

Head Scrapers, each 2 cents

Rollers, garden, each 10 cents

Rollers, field, each 20 cents

Root Cutters, each 6i cents

Straw and Stalk Cutters, each 6i cents

.And so on, indefinitely.

Second — On another, and large class of articles, the wharfage is
prescribed according to their weight.

Thus, we have:

Anchors, per 2,240 pounds 60 cents

Antimony, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Anvils, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents



54

Arsenic, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Coal, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Cordage, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Alum, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Bleaching powders, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Copperas, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Cream Tartar, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Madder, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Ore, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Pipe clay, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Plaster Paris, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Zena Umber, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Junk, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Old metals, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Dye woods, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Engine, steam, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Engine, locomotive, per 2,240 pounds 60 cents

Engine, steam stationary, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Feed, per 2,000 pounds 30 cents

Hay, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Iron, pig or rod, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Iron, bar or bundle, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Iron, bloom, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Iron, hoop, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Iron pipes, per 2,000 pounds ^ 40 cents

Iron, railroad, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Iron, Russian slab, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Iron, sheet or boiler plate, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Steel, bars or bundles, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Bale rope, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Ballast stone, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Dirt or sand, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Barilla, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Barytes, per 2,240 pounds . 40 cents

Boilers, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Brue, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Brimstone, per 2,240 pounds, loose 40 cents

Gutta percha, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

India rubber, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Paris white, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Rice, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Saltpeter, per 2;240 pounds 30 cents

Shot, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Sugar, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Hemp, Ken tuck, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Bags, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Machinery (over 1,000 pounds), per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Marble (over 1,000 pounds), per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Cannon (over 1,000 pounds), per 2,240 pounds 60 cents

Car wheels, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Castings, brass or iron, per 2,240 pounds 40 ceuts

Chain cables, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Chairs, railroad, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Chalk, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Chemicals, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Copper, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Lead, all kinds, per 2,240 pounds , 30 cents

Tin, pigs or slabs, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Nitrate of soda, per 2,240 pounds 30 cents

Whalebone, per 2,000 pounds 40 cents

Boxwood, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Camwood, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Cedar, per 480 feet, gross measure 50 cents

Corkwood, per 2,240 pounds 50 cents

Ebony, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Fustic, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents'

Granadillo, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Hache wood, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Lignumvita, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Logwood, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Mahogany, per 480 feet, gross measure 50 cents

Redwood, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents



55

Rosewood, per 2,240 pounds 40 cents

Satin wood, per 480 feet, gross measure 50 cents

Lumber — Boards, per 1,000 feet 40 cents

Joist, per 1,000 feet 40 cents

Plank, per 1,000 feet 40 cents

Dimension, per 1,000 feet 40 cents

Clapboards, per thousand 30 cents

Pickets, per thousand 30 cents

Lath, per thousand ^ 10 cents

Shingles, per thousand 10 cents

Firewood, per cord 30 cents

To the above it will be sufficient to add that no article, charged by
the ton, is charged at a less rate than 30 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds.

Third — There is still another class of goods, described as "measure-
ment goods," in which the wharfage rate is prescribed for the cubic
foot. Goods belonging to this class are charged half a cent per cubic
foot, or 20 cents per ton of 40 cubic feet.

RATES OF DOCKAGE AND WHARFAGE IN THE HARBOR OF BALTIMORE.

Sections 57, 58, 59, and 21, of Article 22, of the City Code of Balti-
more, copied and forwarded with the letter of Mr. Hutton, given above,
prescribe the rates of dockage on vessels and wharfage on goods, at
the wharves belonging to the Maj'^or and City Council, or any public
wharf in the City of Baltimore, and at the wharves belonging to or
rented by the State.

Section 57 provides that all vessels lying at any of the city wharves
shall be charged dockage as follows:

Vessels of 10 and not exceeding 50 tons measurement, one (1) dollar
per day.

Vessels of 50 and not exceeding 100 tons measurement, one and
one half (1?) dollars per day.

All vessels over 150 tons measurement, one cent per ton per day.

All vessels outside of first tier, half price.

For all firewood landed on any of the city's wharves, 12? cents per
cord, but such wood not to remain on the wharf over five days.

It also provides that all vessels, except those laden with firewood,
lying at wharves belonging to or rented by the State, shall be charged
dockage as follows:

Vessels occupying the first tier, one cent per ton per day.

Vessels occupying the second tier, two thirds of a cent per ton per
day.

Vessels occupying places beyond the second tier, a half a cent per
ton per day.

Section 58 provides that all vessels occupying the first and second
tiers, shall pay double the above rates for every day they so occupy
them above six, and treble for every day above twelve; unless they
shall have been authorized to remain longer by the Harbormaster,
shall be detained by ice, or be aground, in which cases they shall be
required to pay only single wharfage. It also authorizes the Harbor-
master to extend the time for all vessels, lying at public wharves,
over the prescribed six days, whenever he may think the public
interests will be promoted thereby, and no injury result to individ-
uals ; it also further provides that if two or more vessels, owned or
employed by the same party, shall occupy the same berth succes-
sively, such party shall pay wharfage as if they were one and the
same vessel.



56

WHARFAGE, OR TOLLS ON GOODS.

Section 59 provides that all goods, wares, and merchandise landed
on the public wharves from vessels lying at said wharves, or placed
on the said wharves for the purpose of shipment, or for exposure for
sale, shall pay for each day the same shall remain thereon, or for any
fraction of a day, the following rates of wharfage:

Bags of coffee, ginger, pepjier, or any other articles iu similar bags, each 1 cent

Bales of merchandise, cotton, drygoods, etc., each 4 cents

Barrels of every description, containing merchandise or otherwise, each 2 cents

Boxes of sugar, drygoods, and foreign drugs, gums, etc., each 3 cents

Boxes of raisins, soap, tin, candles, etc., each ^ cent

Castings of all kinds, per ton 15 cents

Carriages, wagons, or carts, each 12i cents

Coal, per ton of 28 bushels, plaster, etc 5 cents

Cordwood, per cord 6J cents

Cordage, per ton 15 cents

Crates of ware or hampers of bottles, etc., each 4 cents

Dye woods of all kinds, per ton 15 cents

Grain per bushel, and all other articles sold by the bushel, other than the products of

the State of Maryland i cent

Grindstones, each • 1 cent

Hides, per hundred 30 cents

Leather, per 100 sides 15 cents

Hogsheads and pipes of every description, containing merchandise or otherwise, each. 6i cents

Hemp, iron, or steel, per ton 5 cents

Kegs of nails, shot, raisins, butter, lard, etc., each 1 cent

Shingles and laths, per 1,000 . 2 cents

Tierces of every description, containing merchandise or otherwise, each 4 cents

All other goods not enumerated in the above list, to pay in propor-
tion. In case goods are discharged from one vessel into another, half
the above rates are charged. The above rates are charged to the
owner or consignee of the goods, and, in the event of there being
none, to the master of the vessel.

WHARFAGE ON LUMBER, ETC.

Section 21 provides that " on all that part of the city wharf prop-
erty known as the City Dock and Jones' Falls, the same lying inside
the drawbridge," the rates of wharfage shall be for each and every
day the article shall remain on the wharf, as follows :

On lumber and timber, per thousand feet 1 cent

On shingles, per thousand : i cent

On latins, per thousand J cent

On firewood, per cord 1 cent

RATES OF DOCKAGE IN NEW YORK HARBOR.

From the copy of the " Rules and Regulations and Rates of Wharf-
age," acccompanying the letter of Mr. Gumming to the Board, we
learn that the legal rates of dockage on vessels in the Harbor of New
York, are as follows:

Each rate is for a day of 24 houi's, or any part thereof.

For vessels of 200 tons or under, 2 cents per ton,- over 200 tons, $4 for first 200 tons and i
cent for each additional ton.

For outside berths, when not receiving or discharging cargo or ballast, 200 tons or under, 1
cent per ton ; over 200 tons, $2 for first 200 tons, i cent for each additional ton.

For North River barges, market boats, barges, sloops employed in the waters"t)f this State, and
schooners, exclusively emjiloyed in waters of this State : under 50 tons, 50 cents ; 50 tons and.



57

less than 100 tons, 62^ cents; 12i cents additional for each additional 50 tons, or any part
thereof. But no boat or vessel over 50 tons shall fay less than 50 cents.

For other vessels or floating structures, not used for freight or passenger transportation : 200
tons or under, 4 cents per ton; over 200 tons, $8 for first 200 tons, and 1 cent for each addi-
tional ton.

For vessels actually in clam and oyster trade : 200 tons or under, in side berth, li cents per
ton ; outside berth, 1 cent per ton. But no vessel shall pay less than 25 cents, nor less than for
one day.

For vessels freighting brick on Hudson River, and canal boats while loading or discharging,
50 cents; while unloaded, 30 cents. But if berth is changed between two piers, duritig any one
day, one half only of these rates for each berth.

WHARFAGE ON GOODS.

For goods, merchandise, and materials, on any pier, wharf, or bulkhead, 5 cents per ton after
remaining thereon 2-4 hours.

RATES OF DOCKAGE IN THE HARBOR OP SAN FRANCISCO.

The rates of dockage in the Harbor of San Francisco are as follows :
Each rate is for a day of 24 hours, or any part thereof.

Vessels under 50 tons, per day $0 50

Vessels over 50 tons and under 75 tons, per day 1 00

Vessels over 75 tons and under 100 tons, per day 2 00

Vessels over 100 tons and under 150 tons, per day 3 00

Vessels over 150 tons and under 200 tons, per day 4 00

Vessels over 200 tons and under 250 tons, per day 5 00

Vessels over 250 tons and under 300 tons, per day 6 00

Vessels over 300 tons and under 400 tons, per day 7 00

Vessels over 400 tons and under 500 tons, per day 8 00

Vessels over 500 tons and under 600 tons, per day 8 50

Vessels over 600 tons and under 700 tons, per day 9 50

Vessels over 700 tons and under 800 tons, per day 10 50

Vessels over 800 tons and under 900 tons, per day 11 00

Vessels over 900 tons and under 1,000 tons, per day 11 50

Vessels over 1,000 tons and under 1,100 tons, per day 12 50

Vessels over 1,100 tons and under 1,200 tons, per day 13 50

Vessels over 1,200 tons and under 1,300 tons, per day 14 50

Vessels over 1,300 tons and under 1,400 tons, per day 15 50

Vessels over 1,400 tons and under 1,500 tons, per day 16 50

Vessels over 1,500 tons and under 1,600 tons, per day 17 50

Vessels over 1,600 tons and under 1,700 tons, per day 18 50

Vessels over 1,700 tons and under 1,800 tons, per daj' 19 50

Vessels over 1,800 tons and under 1,900 tons, per day 21 00

Vessels over 1,900 tons and under 2,000 tons, per day 22 60

Vessels over 2,000 tons and under 2,200 tons, per day 23 50

Vessels over 2,200 tons and under 2,500 tons, per day 25 00

For each additional 100 tons 50

The above are the rates for vessels while discharging cargo.
The rates for vessels while loading, or receiving or discharging
ballast, are half the above.

KATES OP DOCKAGE ON LIGHTERS.

A dockage rate of one cent per ton per day will be charged on all lighters in the following
cases :

When discharging or loading at a wharf.

When discharging into Or loading from a vessel lying at a wharf.

When transporting from a wharf to a vessel, or from a vessel to a wharf, but one dockage
charge per day will be made, which must be paid at such wharf.

When a lighter is charged, or has paid, dockage for any day, she may use the same or any
other wharf, during that day, without further charge, no matter how often she may leave and
return ; provided, a receipt for payment at the first wharf is produced.

The rates for vessels idle, are the same as for vessels loading, from
about the first of August to the first of February of each year; for



58

the remainder of the year, they are, by special action of the Board,
half those rates, or one quarter of full or discharging rates.
The rates for vessels repairing are one quarter of full rates.

RATES OF TOLLS.

Tolls is the charge on goods for being landed on, or loaded from, a
wharf.
The rates of tolls in the Port of San Francisco are as follows:

TOLLS PER LOAD.

Tolls on loads hauled on or off a wharf are as follows :

On single loads (except where the article hauled is charged otherwise than by the ton)

not exceeding 2 tons weight or 80 cubic feet measurement 10 cents

On single loads (except where the article hauled is charged otherwise than by the ton)
exceeding 2 tons, weight or measurement, for each additional ton, or part of a ton, an

additional 5 cents

Loads will be estimated by weight or measurement, as the one mode or the other will

give the greater number of tons.

TOLLS PER TON.

On every lot of goods, more than a single load, the tolls must be collected by the ton
(except on articles charged otherwise than by the ton) as follows :

On general merchandise, per ton. (The ton will be by weight, 2,000 pounds, or meas-
urement, 40 cubic feet, as the one or the other will produce the greater revenue) 5 cents

On all kinds of grain, seeds, flour, millstuffs, jDer ton (2,000 pounds) 5 cents

Ou beans, peas, and all vegetables, per ton (2,000 pounds) 5 cents

On all fruit, per ton (2,000 pounds).^ 5 cents

On hay, per ton (2,000 pounds) 10 cents

On agricultural implements, to wit: reapers, mowers, headers, separators, horse rakes,
hay presses, plows, cultivators, and wheeled vehicles, knocked down, per ton (40 cubic

feet) 5 cents

On salt, perton (2,000 pounds) 5 cents

On iron, per ton (2,000 pounds) 5 cents

On charcoal and coke, per ton (2,000 pounds) 5 cents

On lime and cement, per ton (2,000 pounds) 5 cents

On fire brick, per ton (2,000 pounds) 10 cents

On coal, per ton (2,240 pounds) 5 cents

On railroad iron and pig iron, per ton (2,240 pounds) 5 cents

On asphaltum, ores, paving stones, and ballast, per ton (2,240 pounds) 5 cents

On gypsum, per ton (2,240 pounds) 5 cents

TOLLS CHARGED OTHERWISE THAN BY THE TON.

On the following articles, toll must be collected as follows :

On fir, redwood, spruce, and all soft wood lumber, per 1,000 feet, board measure 5 cents

On oak, hickorj', ash, and all hardwood lumber, per 1,000 feet, board measure 10 cents

On lumber, or timber, discharged in the water in any slip, dock, basin, or canal, the same
as if discharged on a wharf.

On piles discharged in any slip, dock, basin, or canal, per pile 3 cents

On fence posts, per 100, or fractional part thereof 5 cents

On railroad ties, per 1,000 feet of lumber, board measure, or fractional part thereof, con-
tained therein ^ 5 cents

On redwood shingles, per 40 bundles, or fractional part thereof ' 5 cents

On cordwood, per cord 5 cents

On tan bark and stave bolts, per cord 10 cents

On bricks, per 1,000, or fraction thereof 10 cents

On wool, in sacks, per sack 2 cents

On wool, in bales, strapped, per bale 3 cents

On hides of cattle (green or dry), per hide i cent

On sheep skins, per skin j\ cent

On goat skins, per skin. ^ cent

On deer skins, per skin ^ cent

On seal skins, per skin ^ cent

On skins, not specified, per skin ^ cent

On hops, in bales, per bale , 2 cents

On cattle, horses, and mules, per head 5 cents

On colts and calves under a year old, per head 2 J cents

On sheep and ho'gs, per head IJ cents



59

Reapers, mowers, horse rakes, hay presses, gang plows, cultivators, and wheeled vehicles,

set up, each 10 cents

Headers and separators, set up, each 20 cents

On empty whisky barrels (merchandise), each 1 cent

On empty flour, sugar, lime, and cement barrels (merchandise), each j cent

On empty packages, being returned to the owner, who uses them to send commodities to

market in, no tolls will be collected.
On any package of merchandise carried by hand on to any wharf or landing (except
domestic supplies for private individuals, intended for consumption and not for sale)

weighing less than 100 pounds 5 cents

On wheat, barley, oats, rye, and corn, lauded from barges or vessels on Sections 1 and 2
of the seawall, or hauled thereon from other wharves or from warehouses, the tolls
are, per ton (2,000 jjouuds) 5 cents

Grain will be allowed to remain in the sheds without further charge, in addition to the tolls
for landing or hauling on the wharf, fifteen days.

Since the close of the period covered by this report, the time for
which grain may remain in the slieds, without the payment of addi-
tional tolls, has been extended to thirty days.

COMPARISON OF THE AGGREGATES OF THE CHARGES IN THE HARBORS
OF BOSTON AND SAN FRANCISCO.

As we have seen, the rate in the Port of Boston for measurement
goods is 20 cents per ton of 40 cubic feet; in the Port of San Fran-
cisco it is 5 cents. Thus it is just four times as great in the former as
in the latter.

In the former the rate for goods taken by weight ranges from 30 to
60 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds, and the average is perhaps as high as
35 cents. In the latter- the rate is 5 cents per ton of 2,000 pounds,
except in the case of a few articles, such as coal, railroad and pig
iron, asphaltum, ores, paving stones, and ballast, in which the rate is
5 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds.

Thus on goods of this class the average rate in the Port of Boston
is more than six times as great as in the Port of San Francisco.

It is perhaps not easy in all instances to make an entirely satisfac-
tory comparison of the rates on articles for which specific sums are
prescribed in the Boston tariff with the rates on like articles imported
here, according to their weight or measurement. We have no doubt,
however, as the result of a somewhat careful examination of the sub-
ject, that the specific rates charged are equivalent, on the average, to
30 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds, or in the case of measurement goods,
to 25 cents per ton of 40 cubic feet.

The average rate on goods of this class in Boston is, we think, five
times the rate on like goods here.

If our estimates are correct, the case stands as follows:

On measurement goods the rate in Boston is four times the rate in
San Francisco; on goods which have a specific rate, five times; and
on goods which are charged according to their weight, six times.

We entertain no doubt that the average rate there, on all goods of
all classes, is five times what it is here.

Assuming now:

First — That vessels in the Port of Boston pay no dockage; and.

Second — That goods discharged from vessels on the wharves, and
loaded on vessels from the wharves, in that city, pay, as wharfage,
five times the amount the same goods would pay as tolls, if discharged
in and loaded from the wharves in the Harbor of San Francisco,
the following conclusion is inevitable, with respect to the relative



60

aggregate charges on commerce, for dock and wharf accommodations,
in the two ports:

During the two fiscal years ended June 30, 1884, there was received at San Fran-
cisco, for dockage $530,170 86

For the same period for tolls 346,163 44

Total - $876,334 30

Now had toll been collected at the Boston wharfage rates, the
receipts from tolls would have been §346,163 44X5=$1,730,817 20.

Thus our tolls would have been but a little over 820,000 less than
double both the dockage and tolls actually collected. That is, while
Boston is substantially a free port for ships, the charges on the goods
which the ships carry are double the charges on both the ships and
goods in the Port of San Francisco.

COMPARISON OF THE RATES OF DOCKAGE AND WHARFAGE AT THE
PORT OF BALTIMORE WITH THOSE OF SAN FRANCISCO.

Wharfage.

A comparison of the rates of wharfage on goods in the Port of Bal-
timore, shows that, with the exception of the rates on coal and iron,
they are on the average 30 per cent higher than in San Francisco.
On those two articles, which, no doubt, are handled in very large
quantities, the rates are the same as here, to wit: 5 cents per ton.
The average rates, including those on coal and iron, are probably 20
per cent higher than the rates in the Harbor of San Francisco.

From this last remark, however, grain, shipped from the grain
elevators, must be excepted. There is neither dockage charge on ves-
sels loading with grain at the elevators, nor wharfage charge on the
grain.

Dockage.

If we assume that the lay days, allowed vessels in the Port of Bos-
ton, in which to load and discharge, are the number which, on the
average, they require for these purposes, the dockage charges on ves-
sels in the Harbors of Baltimore and San Francisco will compare as
follows :



Name of Vessel.


Tonnage of
Vessel.


Days Loading.


Days
Discharging.


Amount Dockage
in San Francisco.


Amount Dockage
in Baltimore.




500

750

1,050

1,200


25
25
35
40


10
10
15

20


$191 25
236 25
406 25
580 00


$175 00




262 50




525 00




720 00










Totals -








$1,413 75


$1,682 60













Thus the dockage on vessels of the tonnage specified, taking the
days to load and discharge, allowed by the Boston regulations, would
be 19 per cent greater under the Baltimore than under the San Fran-
cisco rates.



61

Following are the records of the vessels named in this harbor,
taken from the Wharfinger's books:



Name of Vessel.


Tonnage of
Vessel.


Days Loading.


Days
Discharging.


Dockage
Collected.


Dockage Under
Baltimore Rates.


Sem i aole


1,438
1,482
1,581
1,811


36
22
39
35


16
21
21
19


$561 00
528 00
708 75
766 50


$747 76


Davy Crockett

Jabez Howes

St. Francis


637 26
948 60
977 94


Totals .-








$2,564 25


$3,311 66


i 1 1







Thus the dockage on these vessels, charged according to the Balti-
more rates, would have been 29 per cent greater than it actually was.

We might institute comparisons between the amounts actually col-
lected from the steamers of the lines running to this port, and the
amounts they would be required to pay if charged according to the Bal-
timore rates; but such comparisons could only show that the latter
would exceed the former by still larger percentages, as the rates for



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