Copyright
California. Legislature.

Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1893 v.3) online

. (page 1 of 146)
Online LibraryCalifornia. LegislatureAppendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1893 v.3) → online text (page 1 of 146)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


^OCUMEWTS OEP^R.^,^^



Rpow^




SAN FRANCISCO
PUBLIC LIBRARY

REFERENCE
BOOK



Not to be taken from the Library



SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC LIBRARY



M 1 7 laQI 3 ''223 90188 9254



Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

San Francisco Public Library



http://www.archive.org/details/appendixtojourna18933cali



ANNUAL REPORT



STATE BOARD OF HOKTIOIJLTURE



STATE OF CALIFORN [x\,



Kou lym.















"1












^^FO^h^



»'«>oc.. jeoii-^J" —



8 A R A xM i: N 'i' :
-' aTE office, ::;:::: a. J. Johnston, sift, staik rKiNTiNG.



' 18 92.



c



CALIFORNIA

STATE BOARD OI" HORTICULTURE.



ELLWOOD COOPER, President Saiiia Barbara,

Coiniuidsioner fur the Loa Augek'ii District. .

L. W. IJIJCK, Vicu-i'ieaittent Vai-aville,

ConuniaMioner lor tlie Napa District.

B. RDNYON, Treasurer Courtlaiid,

Coiiuuissiuner fur tliu 8acraiueiitu District.

J. L. M Grill EK, Auditor San Francisco,

Commissioner for tiie ritute at Large.

FKANK A. KIM HALL... Xaiiunal City,

Cuuimissiouer for tlie State at Large.

A. F. WHITE Sanla Kosa,

('onimibsioner lor lliu Sonoinu Di.Mtriit.

FREU. C. .MILES... - I'enryn,

Conunissioner for the El Dorado District.

I. II. THOM.VS Visalia,

Cunimissiyner for the San J(^>a<iuin District.

A. HLOCK .sanlu ( Una,

Cuintuiasioner for the San Francisco District.

U. M. LELONCi, Secretary Ex oiri.io Chicl llmiiiultural Olllcer.

ALEXANDKK CRAW giuui.nlinc «»in. er.

ELLA F. IIALLAHAN Clerk.

O^ii-r o/tUr Hoard:
No. 2'M Sirritu SruuKr, San Fua.ncisco.



CONTEXTS.



IXTRODUCTORY— TRANSACTIONS OF THE BOARD. AND COMMISSIONERS'

REPORTS.

Page.

Chap. I.— Transactions of the State Board of Horticulture 5-30

II.— Commissioners' Reports 31



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF B. M. LELONG.
Secretarj- and ex officio Chief Horticultural Officer.

PART I.

Chap. I.— Review of the Fruit Season . - 55

II.— Condition of Fruit in California. - 61

III. — Nuts, Berries, and Miscellaneous Fruits - 84

IV.— The Dried Fruit Market - - 90

PART II.

HISTORY A>"D importance OF THE PRUSE INDUSTRY IX CALIFORNIA.

Chap. I. — History of the Prune 95

II.— Methods of Cultivation 98

III.— Picking and Curing -.- 118

lY. — Prunes in Europe— Production and Markets 122

PART III.

NEW VARIETIES OF FRUIT; METHODS OF CURING AND ADULTERATIONS.

Chap. I.— New Varieties of Fruits 129

II.— Adulterants in Olive Oil 133

III.— Preparation of the Lemon for Market 138

PART IV.

propagation, budding, GRAFTING, AND APPLIANCES.

Chap. I. —Growing Seedlings - - - 145

II. — Budding, Manner and Appliances . . - - 15S

III.— Grafting, Methods Applicable to Various Trees.. 170

PART V.

INSECTS INJURIOUS AND BENEFICIAL. WITH TREE DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES.

Chap. I. — Insect Pests and Tree Diseases 183

IT. —Scale Insects, and Remedies for tlieir Destruction 195

III.— Beneficial Insects; Species that Prey upon Destractive Insects 208

lA'.— Resistant Stocks; Apple Roots Resistant to the Woolly Aphis 223

v.— The Blastophaga; Fig Caprification. or the Setting of the Fruit .-. 227



vi CONTENTS.

Page.

Transactions of the Fourteenth State Fruit Growers' Convention 263

Transactions of the Fifteenth State Fruit Growers' Convention 367

Index.... 4S1



ERRATA.

On page 99 (the square sj'stem) read number of trees to acre "one hundred and eight"
instead of "one hundred and nine;" also, in table (square) on page 104, and in line 11
(same page) from below.



REPORT.



Office State Boakd of Horticulture, )
San Francisco, Cal,, January 23, 1892. )

Hon. H. H. Markham, Governor of California:

Sir: In accordance with law, we have the honor to submit herewith
our report for the year 1891, being the third annual report since the
law was amended (Act of 1889) from biennially to annually, and the
eighth report since the inception of our Board. The delay in its prepara-
tion was through circumstances over which we had no control.

FINANCIAL statement.

The forty-second fiscal year closed June 30, 1891, and the following
are the expenditures for the year:

Stenographer. - - - 200 00

Postage - - - - 690 85

Sundries . - - - If f^

Traveling expenses -. - ' jell \n

Supplies ^^4 17

Repairs... -^34 30

Telegrams ■ 61 4o

Expressage, freight, and cartage - - ^424 58

Publishing ^'2!^ ?2

Furniture - 548 50

Papers - - - - 64 25

Messenger - f^* ^

Special agents and experimenting <5,ioy au

,i;i2,524 .36

Balance from forty-first fiscal year - |26 02

State appropriation 12,500 00

$12,526 02
Expenditures.. 12, 524 m

Balance til 66

The expenditures of the present (forty-third) fiscal year, up to Decem-
ber 31st, are as follows:

Library !pl,272 90

Janitor ^^0 90

Rent - 675 00

Postage - — - — - 12150

Sundries - 'Jl ^^

Traveling expenses.. - - - 547 10

Supplies:.. - 50 60

Repairs-.. - 16 25

Telegrams - - ^- ^;?

Expressage, freight, and cartage. - - i<^'' ^^



2 REPOKT OF STATE BOARD OF HORTICULTURE.

Publishing .f 1,910 25

Furniture -. 200 00

Papers.. 31 85

Messenger — 43 00

Special agents and experimenting _. .. 468 05

$5.691 78

State appropriation .. $10,000 00

Expenditures 5,691 78

Balance $4,308 22

SALARY FITXU.

Appropriation $4,800 00

Expended 2,400 00

Balance $2.400 00

EXPERT TO FOREIGN COUXTRIES.

Appropriation $5,000 00

Expended 1,500 00

Balance $3,500 00

Respectfully subtnittecl.

ELLWOOD COOPER,

President

B. M. Lelong, Secretary.

Subscribed and sworn to before me, January 23, 1892.

[seal] ALVAN FLANDERS,

Notary Public.



INTRODUCTORY.



TRANSACTIONS OF THE BOARD



COMMISSIONERS- REPORTS.



CHAPTER I.

OF THE

STATE BOARD OF HORTIOULTLTRE.



March 10, 1890.

The Board met in Los Angeles pursuant to a resolution adopted at
the meeting held in Fresno, November 8, 1889. The following Com-
missioners were present: Messrs. Block, Buck, Kimball, Miles, Mosher,
Runyon, Thomas, and President Cooper. Absent: Commissioner White.

The minutes of November 4-8, 1889, were read and duly approved.

Nominations for the position of Vice-President, made vacant by the
resignation of Commissioner Peck, were then declared in order.

On motion, the Secretary was directed to cast the vote of the Com-
missioners present for Commissioner Buck.

The Secretary cast the vote of the Commissioners present for Com-
missioner L. AV. Buck, for the position of Vice-President, and he was
declared unanimously elected by President Cooper.

The report of the Secretary was read, covering the period since the
last meeting of the Board, and was ordered placed on file.

The Treasurer's report was then read, making the following exhibits:

Appropriation... $12,500 00

Total expenditures since last report up to March 1, 1890. $3,714 92

Amount expended up to last meeting 6,569 61

10,284 58

Balance ' $2,215 47

SALARY FCXD.

Appropriation $4,800 00

Expended 3,200 00

Balance $1.600 00

The report of the Treasurer was, on motion of Commissioner Block,
ordered placed on file.

REPORT OF THE EXECUTI^T: COMMITTEE.

The Executive Committee then presented their report, as follows:

San Francisco, Cal., March 1, 1890.

To the honorable State Board of Horticulture of California:

Gentlemen: Your Executive Committee beg leave to present for your
consideration the following report, which is the result of their examina-
tion of the books, accounts, and vouchers in the office of the Secretary
of the Board, as well as of all the property under the control of the



6 REPORT OF STATE BOARD OF HORTICULTURE.

Board, including office furniture, fixtures, library, etc., made at the office
of the Board, February 24 and 25, 1890:

First — The book of original entry, covering the period from July 1,
1888, to Februar}'^ 8, 1890, every entry being examined in detail, clearly
showed the amount paid and for what it was paid.

Second — We examined as a whole all the bills paid by the Board from
date of removal to present offices, about July 14, 1887, to February 8,
1890, and compared each bill with the receipt showing its full payment.

Third — We examined and appraised all the furniture, in most in-
stances relying upon the bills for value, and where no bills were found,
the value was estimated.

Fourth — The library we found to contain the following number of
books: Twenty-one volumes turned over by the former to present Sec-
retary; two hundred and two volumes secured through exchange; six
hundred and eighteen volumes bought, and two hundred and eighty-
seven volumes bought in paper covers or without covers, and which have
been bound or are in process of binding — one thousand one hundred
and twenty-eight volumes in all, and valued as follows: Twenty-one
volumes, $210, estimated. The values of the following Avere ascertained
from the bills: Nine hundred and five volumes, $1,235 90; two hun-
dred and sixty-two volumes, $100. One thousand one hundred and
twenty-eight volumes, $1,545, total value of library.

Fifth — Electrotypes and woodcuts, forming an exceedingly valuable
collection, covering about eighteen superficial feet, cannot have cost less
than $1,000, although we did not separate the bills of items, so as to
determine the exact cost. These cuts and electrotypes number three
hundred and sixty pieces, some of them as many as five separate
subjects.

Sixth — We found an itemized account of old furniture, waste paper,
rubbish, and truck sold, amounting to $79 50, said amount having been
turned into the State Treasury.

Seventh — We found by the Secretary's report a balance of $2,214 27
remaining to the credit of the Board to carry on all its operations till
the close of the present fiscal 3^ear, June 30th. The average monthly
expenses for the nineteen months from July 1, 1888, to February 1, 1890,
have been about $520. Applying this average to the remaining months
of the present fiscal year, we find that $2,600 will be required. However,
from this amount there should be deducted one month's rent, $135, not
embraced in the above statement, and also the sum of $223 64 in value
of postage stamps now on hand, thus leaving the amount at the disposal
of the Board about equal to the probable expenses to be incurred before
the close of the present fiscal year.

Eighth — A careful examination of the various rooms and offices of
the Board disclosed the fact that the total value of the furniture, fix-
tures, carpets, etc., amounted to $2,700, which amount does not include
the expense of putting up the various partitions, painting, etc.

Ninth — The actual running expenses of the Board, based on the
amount disbursed in the nineteen months, July 1, 1888, to February 1,
1890 (not including salaries, which are provided for by law, nor the
purchase of any permanent property), is estimated to be as follows:



TRANSACTIONS OF THE BOARD. 7

Expenses of members of Board attending two Conventions $640 00

Expenses of members of Executive Committee attending two meetings 340 00

Expenses, incidental, two Conventions '. . 150 CO

Expenses ot stenographer, two Conventions 500 00

Traveling expenses of two clerks, two Conventions... _ 160 00

Expenses one year's rent, twelve months, at $135 per month 1,650 00

Incidental office expenses, twelve months. - 1,284 00

Postage stamps, $105 per month, twelve months 1,260 00

Total -.. - $6,154 00

This estimate is based entirely on the average expenses of the Board
during the period reviewed, but cannot fairly represent our future
requirements, especially when we consider the constantly increasing
demands made on the Board for many purposes, among which we may
mention the increasing demand of fruit growers for experimental work
in suppressing our numerous fruit pests, and the study of diseases of
trees and plants; the largely increased expense of the annual report,
consequent upon its increased size. The present report being larger
than any previously published, a greater sum will be required in its
distribution, not only in postage, but in express and freight charges, in
drayage, in paper for wrapping, in boxes for transportation in quantity
to Conventions and districts. In fact, we may say that the work of the
Board is increasing so fast in importance that its expenses, with the
most rigid and exacting economy, cannot be estimated at less than
$6,250 for the coming fiscal year.

Tenth — A careful examination of the books of the Secretary develops
the fact that during the period from April 17 to July 1, 1887, there was
no money in the State Treasury with which to pay the absolutely indis-
pensable expenses of the Board, and that the Secretary paid such bills
to the amount of -$414, and that no portion of such indebtedness has
been refunded to Mr. Lelong. We also found that Mr. Lelong had also
-paid out '$166 78 in discounts on State warrants, a part of such dis-
counts having actuallj" been paid to the officers of the Board. We also
found bills to the amount of -$80 18, which were paid by the Secretary,
and no part thereof has been returned to him.

We further found that while acting under the instructions of the
Board, during the presentation and pendency of the amended horti-
cultural bill before the Legislature, that the Secretary incurred expenses
for traveling and other incidentals to the amount of $362 30, itemized
statements being rendered for every disbursement. We therefore find
that there is now due to Mr. Lelong the sum of $1,023 71, for moneys
actually disbursed by him for account of the State Board of Horticult-
ure, -which sum does not embrace any charge for interest, which is
properly chargeable for the use of his money.

For the coming fiscal year, June 30, 1S90, to June 30, If 91, the appropria-
tion is I $12,500 00

Minimum estimate for expenses $6,250 00

Due Secretary 1,023 71

7,273 71

Leaving a probable balance of .- $5,226 29

The publications of the Board must sustain the enviable character of
the horticulturists of our State, and to do it every step must be an
advancing one; and in this regard, we may say that we believe the dis-
semination of exact knowledge deduced from experiments, through the



8 REPORT OF STATE BOARD OF HORTICULTURE.

medium of our loublications, to be the most important feature in the
work of our Board.

To summarize, we beg to say that after a careful examination of the
offices of our Secretary, we find that his duties have been performed in
an exceedingly satisfactory manner. We find the furniture and fixtures
of the offices of the Board to be of a useful and not of an extravagant
character, when the importance of this department is considered.

The general arrangement, neatness, and good order maintained at all
times is highly commendable to our Secretary, and is worthy of great
praise.

Respectfully submitted.

FRANK A. KIMBALL,
J. L. MOSHER,
ELLWOOD COOPER,

Executive Committee.

Commissioner Block made a few complimentarj'^ remarks and said he
was, indeed, very glad that such report was made, and moved that the
report be received, adopted, and spread in full upon the minutes of the
Board, as the sentiments of the Board toward the Secretary, for the
efficient services performed by him since his accession to the office.
INIotion carried unanimously.

Commissioner Block moved that the Executive Committee be and are
hereby given full power to settle the account due the Secretary in any
way they choose. Motion carried.

On motion of Commissioner Block, Commissioners Cooper, Mosher,
and Miles were appointed to draft a suitable set of resolutions in
memory of the late General M. G. Vallejo, former Treasurer and
Commissioner.

The President made a statement with regard to a parasite that is
now destroying the red scale in Florida.

Commissioner Block moved that the Executive Committee be author-
ized to procure said parasite for distribution in this State. Motion
carried.

On motion of Commissioner Block, the Secretary was granted a leave
of absence of eight weeks,- said leave to be taken under the direction of
the Executive Committee.

On motion, the Board took a recess, to meet at the call of the Presi-
dent, out of respect to the memory of the late General Vallejo.



RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT.

March 14, 1890.

The Board met pursuant to adjournment. All the Commissioners
were present except Commissioner White.

The committee appointed to draft resolutions of respect to the
memory of the late General Vallejo, submitted the following:

Whereas, It has uleased Almighty Ood to remove from our midst General M. G.
Vallejo, our former Treasurer, and Commissioner for the Sonoma District; therefore,
be it

Jiesolved, That in the death of General Vallejo we liave lost a warm friend, and the



TKANSACTIONS OF THE BOARD. 9

State a dutiful servant, who for many years occupied the position of Treasurer of this
dejiartment ;

Resolved, That we, the State Board of Horticulture, in session at Los Angeles, this
the fourteenth day of March, 1890, extend to the family of the late General Vallejo our
sympathy and condolence in this their great bereavement;

" Nenolved, That these resolutions be spread in full upon the minutes of the Board, and
that a copy be engrossed and attested to by the officers of this Board, and transmitted
to tlie family of the late General Vallejo.

ELLWOOD COOPER,
J. L. MOSHER,
FRED. C. MILES,

Committee.

Commissioner Block moved that the resolutions be adopted and
spread in full upon the minutes of the Board, and a copy be transmitted
to the family of the late General Vallejo. Motion carried unanimously.

Commissioner Block moved that the next State Convention of Fruit
Growers be held at Santa Cruz, the date thereof to be fixed by the
President. Motion carried.

Commissioner Buck moved that when the Board adjourn, it do so to
meet at Santa Cruz, at the call of the President. Motion carried.

On motion of Commissioner Block, the subject-matter with regard
to lithographic plates for the next annual report was referred to the
Executive Committee, with full power to act.

The committee appointed to draft resolutions with regard to the work
performed by the Secretary, presented the following:

To the honorable State Board of Horticulture:

Gentlemen : We most respectfully recommend the adoption of the following resolution
as the sentiments of this Board towards our Secretary:

Resolved, That the thanks of the State Board of Horticulture are due and are hereby
tendered to B. M. Lelong, Secretary of said Board, for the able and efficient manner in
which he has performed the duties of his office, from the date of liis accession to the
office to the present date, and especially in the collection and preparation of the material
for the report of this Board for the year 1889.
Respectfully submitted.

FRANK A. KIMBALL,
A. BLOCK,
L. W. BUCK,

Committee.

Adopted by unanimous vote.
The Board then adjourned.



REPORTS OF OFFICERS.

November 18, 1890.

The Board met in pursuance to call, at Santa Cruz. The following
Commissioners were present: Messrs. Block, Buck, Miles, Mosher, Run-
yon, Thomas, White, and President Cooper. Absent: Commissioner
Kimball.

The minutes of March JO-14, 1890, were read and approved.

treasurer's report.

The Treasurer, Sol. Runyon, presented his report from March 10 to
October 7, 1890. Said report showed the following exhibit:

Expenditures— March 5,1890 - - .$364 93

Expenditures— March 31, 1890 -. - - 1,848 32

Total - - $2,213 25



10 REPORT OF STATE BOARD OF HORTICULTURE.

Leaving a balance from the forty-first fiscal year of $1 02, wliich, with $25 discount
from a bill for Stenographer's fees, leaves a balance of $26 02, which is credited to the
forty-second fiscal year.

FORTY-SECOND FISCAL YEAR.

July 11, 1890 - - $2,756 75

July 80, 1890 - - - 402 80

August 19. 1890 -.- 362 85

September 4, 1890 - 483 24

September25, 1890 - - 853 58

October 7, 1890 - - - - 734 12

$5,593 34

Balance forward from forty-first fiscal year $26 02

Appropriation... . . 12,500 00

12,626 02

Balance $6,932 68

On motion of Commissioner Block, the report was accepted and ordered
placed on file.

secretary's REPORT.

The report of- the Secretary was read, covering the period since the
last meeting, as follows:

To the honorable State Board of Horticulture:

Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit to your kind consideration
this brief report, as your Secretary, since your last meeting:

The annual report of the Board for the year 1890 has just been issued,
although it is still in process of binding. This report contains four
colored lithographic plates, eleven photo-engraving plates, and numerous
wood engravings. I exceedingly regret that press of time should not
have permitted further investigations; this, however, will be followed
through the winter months, and the results of the experiments so made
will be issued from time to time in bulletin form.

In accordance with your views as expressed at the last meeting, the
Executive Committee has caused an investigation to be made with
regard to the parasites and predaceous insects that have been reported
to exist in various parts of Florida, These investigations were carried on
very extensively, and the results have been published in bulletin form.
The orchards that had beeji reported as having been freed of scale insects
by parasites were carefully examined, and were found to be yet infested,
although very slightly. No parasites were found that had decreased the
pests, but the trees had thrown off, or rather outgrown them to a certain
extent, by the use of chemical fertilizers, which were applied to the soil
very freely. By this method the trees are made to outgrow the damaged
or infested parts of the trees. Everything that was considered of any
value to horticulturists was looked into, and the trip was indeed very
inexpensive, and the information obtained has proved of much good.
We are now in communication with parties in various countries, and
consignments of parasites and predaceous insects will be secured in this
way.

The Executive Committee has had three meetings since your last
session. At the meeting of July 1, 1890, there were present Commis-
sioners Cooper, Kimball, and Mosher. November 18th to 21st, inclusive,
was the date fixed for the holding of the Fourteenth State Fruit Grow-
ers' Convention, at Santa Cruz.

A meeting was called for July 30th, but no (luorum being present,



TRANSACTIONS OF THE BOARD. 11

Chairman Mosher adjourned the meeting to August 13th. Accordingly,
the committee met to consider applications for the position of Quaran-
tine Officer. After due consideration of all applications before them,
Alexander Craw was selected as such. On motion of Commissioner
Cooper, Mr. Craw was made ex officio Entomologist of the Board. Said
appointment was made to take effect September 1, 1890. Miss Ella Hal-
lahan was instructed to fill the office during said interim.

It was ordered that two glass houses be immediately erected for the
protection and propagation of the Vedalia through the winter. In
accordance with the order made by the Executive Committee, bids were
called for the erection of two glass houses covering orange trees eighteen
feet high. The lowest bidders were J. M. Griffith & Co., of Los Angeles.
Their bid was as follows:

Material for two glass houses ,. $390 00

Glass and glazing 156 75

Hooks and hinges 2 00

Four hundred and eighty-six feet sash 8 17

Carpenter work 26 00

Total $582 92

Apart from this there were a few extras, amounting to $12 05; the
painting cost $23 50, and the sixty-four square feet of fine brass wire
mesh, used in the ventilators, at 55 cents per square foot, cost $31 68,
making the total cost, complete, $650 15. These houses are very sub-
stantial, and will last many years to come. They were erected upon the
grounds of Col. J. R. Dobbins, at San Gabriel. Colonel Dobbins has
kindly offered to assist the Board in the undertaking. He will care for
and watch the progress made by the Vedalia during the winter months
without charge. Last winter it appeared very much as if the Vedalia
had died out, and perhaps it was clue to the efforts of this Board that
they were preserved through the winter. Many colonies were placed in
various parts late in winter, and from these places they were distributed
all over the State in the spring. In the spring none could be found
anywhere in the State, except where they had been colonized by the
Board. The committee has felt that the risk of their living through
the winter unprotected is too great, and it is to prevent any possibility



Online LibraryCalifornia. LegislatureAppendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the ... session of the Legislature of the State of California (Volume 1893 v.3) → online text (page 1 of 146)