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tin strong wind ; you face the bay and the mainland. 'I hen will
be no storms of any kind from May to November no rain, and

the air is cool and delightful, f dwell on this, as here is char
acteristic California)! life in the open al its best, by the Sea.
There may be six thousand persons here. '| he two boats a day
from Los Angeles bring and take twelve hundred, and hundreds
come and go in yachts with which the little bay is filled, nol to
speak of the fleet of glass-bottom boats employed to examine
the beautiful kelpian forests that cover the slopes of this island
mountain.

Sea angling is the chief sport, llere is the Tuna Club with
its fish museum of trophies, testing credulity, with gianl fishe
taken with delicate tackle. I Ore anglers congregate from all

over the- world and try conclusions with the greal Santa Cata

Una swordfish, the eastern variety, the black sea bas of three

57



or i«»ur hundred pounds, the game yellowtail, twenty to forty
pounds, the beautiful white sea bass of fifty pounds, and many
more, all taken with rod and reel.

The Tuna Club offers beautiful prizes for the largest fish
with lightest tackle, the idea being to encourage fair play. This
island is now a Fish Reservation and protected from netting of
all sorts which has threatened it for years. Camping, automo
biling, coaching, trail and mountain climbing, tennis, bathing
and water polo arc a few of the sports and pastimes of this oil
shore playground. The summer, as well as the winter, gives it
a peculiar emphasis as an out of door land.

When the East is blanketed with snow, thousands seek the
Pacific Coast because they can spend every day of the winter
out of doors. The State roads are a revelation. There are more
motor ears in California than in any other state. Especially in
the south, a network of line asphaltum roads cover the country
from Cos Angeles to San Diego — up in the San Bernardino
mountains, in the range back of San Diego, in the valleys along
shore. Even at Santa Catalina there is one of the finest motor
roads in the country, from Avalon to I lowlands, twenty or
thirty miles over the mountains and overlooking the sea.

Everywhere from Burlingame, near San Rrancisco, to Corn
nado, One finds Country Clubs, which are centers of out door
interests in winter: Santa Barbara, Pasadena — the latter has
four, Altadena, Annandale, San Gabriel and Midwick — Los
Angeles, Coronadb, Avalon, San Diego, Riverside, etc. Here
golf and tennis rage, while at Burlingame, Pasadena, Riverside,
Santa Barbara and Coronado polo holds the held.

Then there are great out of door festivities. Chief among
them is the Pasadena Tournament of Roses, when thousands
gather to see the games and sports possible in California on
lanuary first ; when the chariot races of old Rome are run, great
football and polo teams contest, Spanish games are revived, the
Sierra Madre, capped with snow, looking down on the valley of
San Gabriel and its wealth of flowers, a land of the orange,
lemon, olive and vine. It is this wonderful climate, this possi
bility of life in the open in winter, that has brought five hun-
dred thousand people from the hast and Middle West to Los
Angeles in twenty years, and seen the cutting up of the great
ranches of the north. It is the possibility of life here through
the year, winter and summer, that has made all California a
playground for all the people all the time.



EL CAMINO SIERRA

The Third Trunk Highway for California and Its Importance

to the State

By W. G. Scott

Executive Secretary. Inyo Good Road Club; Chairman Division of National

Parks, Member Council of National Advisors. National

Highways Association.

BR] EFLY e x p r e - - e d,
California's highway sys-
tem as provided by the
Highway Act, consists of two

main-trunk lines extending the
length of the State from Ore-
gon to Mexico. One is along
the coast, the other approxi-
mately parallel, east of the
Coast Range, traversing the
length of the great valleys in
the interior.

With these two trunk lines,
the county seats of outlying
counties are to be connected
by lateral or branch highway-,
which enter into and become a
part of the general system.
This plan for all that part
of the State. lying west of the summit of the Sierra Nevada
.Mountains seems adequate — but conditions are very dissimilar
in that portion lying east of the Sierra Nevadas, which is a large
and important part of the State, sometimes designated as Trans-
Sierra California, consisting principally of Modoc, Lassen and
Plumas counties in the north, and Alpine. Mono and Inyo
counties in the eastern center — all bounded by Nevada on the
east.

There are many Californians in the great valleys and along
the coast who are prone, either to regard the crest line of the
Sierras as the eastern limit of the State, or to under-estimate
the importance of that vast territory lying east of the Sierra
Nevadas, yet inside the boundary of California.

To afford a slight idea of the extent of territory in the six
counties named, we will select a single county. Inyo, with an




59



area oi 10,01') square miles, within which you could pul the
whole State <»i Massachusetts and slill have enough lefl Eor a
fair-sized county, [nyo and Mono county nexl on the north
combined, have an area of I3,()l n s<|iiare miles. While Belgium,
with more Mian six million inhabitants and 2,900 miles of rail
road, lias an area oi only 11,400 square miles.

The county seats oi these live large and importanl Trans
Sierra counties cannol be connected directly with the main
trunk line of the valley because of the greal harrier of the Sierra
Nevada Range from 12,000 to 14,000 feel in heighl which inter
venes. The I'ii and Beck'worth Passes in the north are the
most feasible routes for laterals to conned with the \ alley
trunk line the county seats of Modoc, Lassen and Plumas
counties, while the Sonora and Tioga I'asses farther south
afford connection for the county seals of Alpine, Mono and
[liyo counties.

Bui there are other very important physical conditions which

must be taken into the consideration Oi highway connection for

Trans Sierra California. The eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada
Range is precipitous with a notable absence of foothills, which
admits of a highway along the east base of the Sierras from
I ,os A.ngeles to Lake Tahoe thai has been formally christened

El (annuo Sierra, and which for a long time has hcen an est ah

lished route for travel through Kern, Inyo and Mono counties
and the towns of Mojave, Lone Line, Independence, Big Tine,
Bish( ip and Bridgep< u I

From the last named town to Lake Tahoe, aboul seventy

miles north, is a road authorized by the Stall' and nearly com

pleted, through Markleeville and Woodfords in Alpine County.

Lake Tahoe is the terminus of a Stale road from Sacrament o,
hence Bridgeport, the county seal of Mono County, is joined to
the Stale load system, which circumstance makes it a desirable
poinl of connection for the road from the county seat of Inyo
County, Independence, ahout 110 miles south. This laet has

keen duly recognized by the Highway Commission and it now

has a survey force in the field moving north from Independence

towards Bridgeport, preliminary to work oi construction.

I'd ('amino Sierra is intersected al Lit; Line by a trans

continental highway from New York City the MidlandTrail.
This greal cross-continenl route has hcen surveyed and mapped

its entire length hv the American Automobile Association and
60



ii has been incorporated in a projected system of National 1 1 is 1 1
ways, by the National Highways Association. At Mono Lake,
El Camino Siena is intersected by the Tioga Pass Eiighway,
lately acquired by the Federal Government.

Willi the assistance of Los Angeles and Kern counties <»n
the south and the further aid oi convid labor where necessary,
ii is assured thai in the near inline the road known as El
Camino Siena will be a boulevard the entire distance from Los
Angeles to Lake Tahoe. This to-be world famous highway
should be continued north from Tahoe through Truckee, Sierra
ville, Quincy, Susanville and Alturas towards Lakeview, Ore
gon. This would make a third main trunk line easl of the
Sierras, affording much needed opportunity for communication
between adjacenl counties and l»\ laterals through the passes
named, connection with tin- main trunk valley system. In
addition ii would permil direcl access from the easl i<> the
proposed National Parks oi Mounl Shasta and Mounl Lassen
the live American volcano, which now enables California t«>
compete with Italy, and to Lake Tahoe, to the world famed
\ (i semite and to the proposed, enlarged Sequoia Park farther
south thai will surpass in magnitude anything ol the kind in
either the old world or the new.

Willi this accomplished, there would be made accessible an
extensive area of the State hitherto neglected, where enormous
resources promise rich reward for development.

Astonishing as would be the local benefits, scarcely less sur
prising would be the Slate growth and prosperity resulting from
the myriad of tourists attracted by the magnificence of Shasta
standing a1 the northland gate, the grim and weird Lassen
helpless victim oi ,i hidden gianl in a destructive mood; beauti
ful Tahoe, thai inland sea of liquid emerald whereon are
mirrored the clouds <»i day and the stars oi night; Mono, the

Dead Sea of the West, where the very desolation lends entrance

nieiit to the scene; Yoseinite, thai masterpiece oi Creation; the
Inyo Glaciers, and Mount Whitney nearesl the sky the mon
arch of all the mountain kings the first In all of California to
receive each morn the greeting oi the regal Sim and the last
each nighl to receive his parting benediction.

The foregoing is hut slighl suggestion of the importance of
the highway with a hundred by ways, each by way with ;i hun
dred wonders I'd Camino Sieri a,



SUNRISE OVER THE SIERRAS
By Henry Meade Bland

/ mind me how one day-hreal( long ago,
I heard the wild swan play his magic horn;
Heard the cold north wind blow his pipe forlorn.
Heard the sweet stream purl gently to and fro
In oaten meadows; while the lyric flow
Of field-lark hymn called to the splendid morn
Until the sun, a light divine, new-horn.
Lifted, — a wild flash o'er the virgin snow.

Then stood I lil(e the holy orient priest.
Who gave to fire a mystic sacred name,
And ever burned his altar in the East;
Or lil(e the Poet-l(ing who raptured came
At morn, as to a pentecostal feast.
And saw Jehovah in the Rising Flame!




62



THE EXPOSITION— ITS PURPOSE AND HOW TO
APPRECIATE IT




E



By Alvin E. Pope,
Chief, Departments of Education and Social Economy

XP( )SITI< )NS had their
origin in the early trade
fairs and festivals. As
these developed they were
gradually transformed from an
exchange of goods to an ex-
change of ideas. The modern
International Exposition col-
lects the latesl ideas in all
fields of human activities, dis
plays them graphically and ar-
ranges them so as to present a
panorama of present civiliza-
tion suggesting the trend of
future progress. Most of these
ideas were previously confined
within a very restricted terri-
tory or known to a very lim-
ited number of experts. The
Exposition disseminates these
ideas throughout the world, not only originating many world-
wide movements, hut giving great impetus to movements already
under way.

The Chicago Exposition was followed by a widespread cam-
paign for the beautifying of our cities. The St. Louis Exposi-
tion added new impetus to this movement, and through the
German exhibits, brought about a change in our method of
home construction and interior decoration. The Panama-Pacific
International Exposition will give further effect to these move-
ments and in addition introduce new color features and new
forms of lighting and illumination. The Congress of Religions
at the Chicago Exposition pacified the intense antagonism
among religious creeds and organizations, and brought about a
better spirit of toleration and co-operation among the churches.
The St. Louis Exposition was marked by the great force it gave
to the arts and sciences. ' The Department of Social Economy



63



of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition was planned with
the hope that this Exposition would be followed by increased
activities in all fields of social service.

It was impossible to secure a separate building for the Social
Economy exhibits, so they were housed in four different build-
ings. Exhibits from various nations, states, municipalities and
national organizations occupy about one-half of the Palace of
Education. Most of the United States Government Social
Economy exhibits and of many publishing houses fill about one-
fourth of the Palace of Liberal Arts. Banking, Insurance and
Industrial Welfare exhibits cover nearly one-fourth of the floor
space of the Palace of Mines, and the New York City building
contains the entire Social Economy exhibit from that city. The
scattering of exhibits has somewhat interfered with the effi-
ciency of the Department, and for lack of adequate space many
important exhibits which had been planned and financed were
abandoned.

The policy of the Department of Education was to secure
exhibits by invitation and to confine each exhibitor to some
special educational feature in which he excelled and in which he
was able to teach the world a lesson. In each case it was not
only necessary to secure the co-operation of those invited, but
in addition to arrange means of financing the exhibit. By thus
selecting all attainable high peaks of modern educational prog-
ress, the Department hoped to prevent unnecessary experimental
work and to direct all efforts toward the ideals attained by the
most progressive educators. With this accomplished it will
result in a saving of time and energy of thousands of teachers,
of hundreds of thousands of pupils, and of millions of dollars.

In visiting the Exposition avoid a large party. One can
profit more by being alone or with not more than two com-
panions. Purchase a guide book. It will be useful here and at
home. Secure a general view which will give an idea of its
underlying principles. This can be done by taking one of the
white cars or roller chairs near the Fillmore Street or Ferry
entrance and come down the Avenue of Palms, through the
Avenue of Nations, to the Massachusetts building, returning
along the Marina. Starting at Machinery Hall, come leisurely
back through the courts, circling the lagoon in front of the Fine
Arts building. This trip should be made both by day and by
night. Do not hurry. Enjoy it — You will absorb much.

64



Beginning at the Palace of Education, make a leisurely sur-
vey of the various exhibit palaces, passing through Liberal Arts,
Manufacturers, Varied Industries and Machinery Hall, returning
through Mines, Transportation, Agriculture, Food Products,
Fine Arts and Horticulture. Then visit a few of the foreign and
state buildings in the same manner. Most of these buildings
are not open for inspection until after eleven o'clock, while the
exhibit palaces are open at nine.

After this casual survey begin the thorough study of some
particular exhibit of interest. Follow this up by an exhaustive
study of as many exhibits as possible. You will find most of
them arranged for the casual inspection of the general public,
but containing information for the amateur, material for the
professional and suggestions for the trained expert. Each vis-
itor will find that he himself belongs first to one and then to
another of these classes, and that he will benefit in proportion
to the effort and time he devotes to serious study.

An eminent educator accepted, at a great sacrifice, a position
as a member of the International Jury of Awards on the theory
that he always received more than he gave in such work. He
had been searching years for a plan of reorganizing his Depart-
ment of Sociology. When he saw the Social Economy exhibits
displayed here, he knew exactly what he wanted. They had
suggested a solution of his problem. He is now reorganizing
that department in the university of which he is the head.

Study exhibits. Study them diligently and exhaustively.
Your pleasure, appreciation and benefit is limited only by time,
effort and capacity. Study the Exposition thoughtfully and you
will carry home much which will benefit yourself, your friends
and the community.



65




Tower of Jewels

Standing guard over the Central Court of the Universe is the
Tower of Jewels, the most commanding' architectural unit in the
Panama-Pacific International Exposition. It faces the main en-
trance to the grounds and rises in successive stages from a square
base of 125 feet to a height of 435 feet. Hanging pendent, so
that by day they flash back the rays of the sun, and by night
the many colored lights that play upon them, are myriads of
jewels. While the Tower is a composite in architecture, the



66




Night Illumination, Tower of Jewels



Roman arch and the Corinthian and Doric columns predominate.
The tower loses much in effectiveness in the day. At night,
when the searchlights play upon it, all harshness is removed ;
deep rich color gives place to soft tones and tints in perfect
harmony until the tower stands clean-cut and sharp as a cameo
against the dark sky and the hills of Marin. Seen from distant
points on the grounds, or from the city heights, the view is
overpowering.



Tower by Carrare and Hastings, New York.



67




Arch of the Setting Sun, Court of the Universe

The Central Court of the Exposition is the Court of the
Universe. It is symbolic of the significance of the Exposition
as celebrating the completion of the Panama Canal, and also of
the closer unity of all nations and peoples. The entrance on the
south is by way of the Tower of Jewels. The Court opens to
the Marina on the north, germinating in the Column of Progress.
The Arch of the Rising Sun markes the east entrance, that of
the Setting Sun (our illustration) the west entrance. The
Nations of the East are featured on the former and the Nations
of the West on the latter of these arches. These wonderful
groups are produced by Messrs. Calder, Sentelli and Roth.




Inside the Court of the Four Seasons

The Court of the Four Seasons, by Henry Bacon of New
York, is one of the beauty spots of the Exposition. The center
is occupied by a pool, and the Court is edged with greenery.
In the four corners are the fountains of Spring, Summer,
Autumn and Winter, by Furio Piccirrilli. The seasonal paint-
ings by Milton Bancroft are in the colonnades. Albert Jadger's
group of "Harvest" or "Plenty" stands above the great niche,
and the Fountain of Ceres by Evelyn Beatrice occupies the
front space.



69




Palace of Education

The Palace of Education topped with its great half-dome,
fronts on the Avenue of Palms on the south, and looks out to
the west across the lagoon to the Palace of Fine Arts. The
north, west, and two south entrances are decorated with appro-
priate panels, the relief panel of "Education" above the main
south entrance and designed by Gustave Gerlach, being most
effective. The Palace of Education is the southwest unit of the
main group and lies separated from the Palace of Liberal Arts



70




•iHiaiiii!




Great Dome of the Palace of Education

by the Court of Palms. At either side of this Court and stand-
ing, one at the corner of the Palace of Education, the other at
the corner of the Liberal Arts Palace, are the two Italian towers
210 feet in height. Marking the entrance to the Court is the
famous sculpture by James Earl Fraser, "The End of the Trail."
The Palace of Education covers nearly five acres and was built
at a cost of more than $300,000.



71










Looking Across the Fine Arts Lagoon at the
Palace of Education

The Fine Arts Lagoon lies between the main exposition on
the east and the Palace of Fine Arts on the west. The Palace,
in its exterior treatment and the surroundings, is in itself an
art exhibit. As one glimpses the structure from a distance, the
appearance of age and .weathering in its walls, the twining
vegetation and the suggestion of open courts and colonnades,
reminds one of an ancient ruin or bits of old Kenilworth. The
architect is B. R. Maybeck of San Francisco.

72




Palace of Horticulture

The great glass dome of the Palace of Horticulture is one
of the features of the Exposition. In beauty of line and deli-
cacy of proportion, there is nothing to surpass it. The dome
stands 182 feet in height, the diameter being 152 feet. Resting
upon the dome is a cap or basket 100 feet in circumference.
The ornamentation is most effective. At night the dome is
lighted by searchlights from the interior, and the wonderful
play of color in its graceful movement around the dome is a
charming spectacle. Bakewell and Brown, San Francisco, are
the architects.



73




Main North Portal, Palace of Transportation

The main north portal of the Palace of Transportation is in
the Plateresque treatment, uniform with that of the north
facades of all four palaces fronting on the Esplanade. This
building' covers seven acres. On the east is the Court of the
Ages, on the south the Florentine Court, and on the west the
Court of the Universe., The cost of this palace was a half
million of dollars.



74




California Building

Of the several magnificent State Buildings, that of California
takes high rank. It is the largest state building ever con-
structed for an Exposition. Built on the old Spanish Mission
style of architecture, it fronts the Marina on the south, with the
May of San Francisco on the north. In the patio between the
wings is a reproduction of the forbidden garden of the Santa
Barbara Mission. The architect is Thomas H. F. Burditt.



75



EDUCATIONAL CONGRESSES AND CONFERENCES



By James A. Barr, Director of Congresses,
Panama-Pacific International Exposition




N



•ATIONAL and inter-
national congresses on
Education, Science,
Literature, Industry and So-
cial Service have, since the
Paris Exposition of 1889, been
a leading feature of all expo-
sitions. In their congresses
these expositions have had a
central theme. The central
thought at the Chicago Expo-
sition in its congresses was
given expression by the World
Parliament of Religions. The
central thought of the St.
Louis Exposition in its con-
gresses was learning, as ex-
emplified by the World's Con-
gress of Art and Science. The
ten years since the St. Louis Exposition have been years of
social, educational, economic and industrial unrest. Communi-
ties, states, nations, the world as a whole, have been groping
for a solution of problems along such lines. In the sense of
meeting with the needs of the world, of giving the greatest
possible help to state, national and international organizations,
the central thought of the many congresses, conferences and
conventions to be held in or near San Francisco in 1915 will be
Service, — social, educational and industrial service.

Practically all of the national and international organizations
of the world have been invited to hold regular or special meet-
ings or to send delegations to San Francisco to participate in
the activities of the Exposition. Up to date, 851 congresses,
conferences and conventions have been scheduled to meet in or
near San Francisco with specific dates named. The greatest of
the groupings, both in number and importance, is that pertain-
ing to Education. A total of 129 educational conferences will be
held under the general auspices of the Exposition.



76



CALIFORNIA'S EDUCATION EXHIBIT— THE PANAMA-
PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION

By W. D. Egilbert, Commissioner-General of California




I



N this — the world's great-
est lesson to the present
generation — the Panama-
Pacific International Exposi-
tion, California endeavored and
has succeeded in making an in-
delible impression upon the
world educationally and eco-
nomically. The result of Cali-
fornia's participation in the ex-
position upon the minds of all
who have seen it has been re-
markable ; the benefits in the
years to come will be potential.
Not only will this lesson abide
with those who are fortunate
to receive it first-hand from
this city of wonder by the
Golden Gate, but the coming
generations will reap in no
small degree the fruits of this world in epitome.

This lesson taught by the exposition — in which Cali-
fornia is a directing factor — will serve to co-ordinate the


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