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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the Forty-first session of the Legislature, 1915 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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Law Lib. I



C30
1916
V. 2

COPY 1




UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



SCHOOL OF LAW
LIBRARY



AT

LUS ANGELES

LIBRARY



THE

CODES OF CALIFORNIA



AS AMENDED AND IN FORCE AT THE CLOSE (JF THE

FORTY-FIRST SESSION OF THE LEGISLATURE

1915



IN FOUR \ GLUMES



EDITF.D BY

JAMES M. KERR



VOLUME TWO
C IVIL UODK



LOS ANGELES
WAYSIDE PRESS

IMItl.ISIlKIO
1<J15

130103



OrfY \

Copyright, 1915,
By James M. Kerr.



x'^




CONSPECTUS.



.SertiiillS.

TITLE OF THE ACT 1

PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS 2-21

DIVISION FIRST. (Sees. 25-653zb.)

PART I. PERSONS 25-42

II. PERSONAL RIGHTS 43-54

III. PERSONAL RELATIONS 55-276

Title I. Marriage 55-181

Chapter I. The Contract of Marriage 55-80

Article I. \ alidity of Marriage 55-63

II. Authentication of Marriage' 68-79a

III. Judicial Determination of \ oid

Marriages 80

Chapter II. Divorce 82-148

Article 1 . Nullity 82-86

II. Dissolution 90-107

III. Causes for Denj'ing Divorce 111-132

l\ . General Provisions 136-148

Chapter III. Husband and Wife 155-181

Title II. Parent and Child 193-230

Chapter I. By Birth 193-215

II. By .\doption 221-230

Title III. Guardian and Ward 236-258

IV. Master and Apprentice 264-276

PART IV. CORPORATIONS 283-653zb

Title I. General Provisions Applicable to all Cor-
porations 283-410

Chapter 1. Formation of Corporations 283-321b



Articl


e I.




II.


Chapter


II.


Articl


e I.




II.


Chapter


III.


Articl


e I.




II.




III.




IV.


Chapter


IV.



CONSPEJCTUS

Sections.
Corporations Defined and How

Organized 283-30()a

By-Laws, Directors, Elections, and

Meetings 301-3211)

Corporate Stock 322-349

Stock and Stockholders 322-328

Assessment of Stock 331-349

Corporate Powers 354-393

General Powers , 354-365

Records i77,Z7^

Examination of Corporations .... 382-384
Judgment Against Corporations... 388-393
Extension and Dissolution of

Corporations 399-403

V. General Provisions Affecting Cor-
porations 403a, 404

VI. Foreign Corporations 405-410

Title II. Insurance Corporations 414-453hh

Chapter 1. General Provisions 414-422

II. Fire and Marine Insurance Cor-
porations 424-432

III. Mutual Life, Health, and Accident

Insurance Corporations 437-452

l\ . Mutual Benefit and Life Associa-
tions ■. 452a. 453

\'. Corporations to Discover Fire and
Save Property and Human Life

from Destruction Thereby 453a-453c

\\. Life. Health, Accident, and Annuity
or Endowment Insurance on tlie

Assessment Plan 453d-453p

\'II. Title Insurance Corporations 453s-453z

\TII. Mortgage Insurance 453aa-453hh



OONRPEOTTTS

Sections.
Title III. Railroad Corporations 454-494

Chapter I. Officers and Corporate Stock 454-459

II. Enumeration of Powers 465-478

III. Business, How Conducted 479-494

Title IV. Street Railroad Corporations 497-511

V. Wagon Road Corporations 512-524

VI. Bridge, Ferry, Wharf, Chute, and Pier

Corporations 528-531

VII. Telegraph and Telephone Corporations 536-540
VIII. Water and Canal Corporations 548-552

IX. Homestead Corporations 557-566

X. Savings and Loan Corporations 571 -583b

XI. Mining Corporations 586-590

XIa. Corporations for the Formation of
Chambers of Commerce, Boards of
Trade, Mechanics' Institutes, and

Kindred Associations 591-592e

XII. Religious, Social, and Benevolent Cor-
porations 593-605

Xlla. Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty

to Children and Animals 607-607g

XIII. Cemetery Corporations 608-616

XIV. Agricultural Fair Corporations 620-622

XV. Corporations to Furnish Light for

Public Use 629-632

XVI. Building and Loan Associations 633-648a

XVII. Colleges and Seminaries of Learning.. 649-651
XVIII. Consolidation of Colleges and Institu-
tions of Higher Education 652, 653

XIX. Co-operative Business Corporations... 653a
XX. Co-operative Business Associations. . .653h-6531
XXI. Non-Profit Co-operative Agricultural,
Viticultural, and Horticultural Asso-
ciations 653m-653s

XXII. Non-Profit Co-operative Corpora-
tions 653t-653zb



CONSPECTTTR

Sections.
DIVISION SECOND. (Sees. 654-1426s.)

PART I. PROPERTY IN GENERAL 654-749

Title I. Nature of Property 654-663

II. Ownership 669-742

Chapter 1. Owners 669-672

II. Modifications of Ownership 678-726

Article I. Interest in Property 678-703

II. Conditions of Ownership 707-711

III. Restraints upon Alienation 715-718

IV. Accumulations 722-726

Chapter III. Rights of Owners 732. 7iZ

IV. Termination of Ownership 739-742

Title III. General Definitions 748, 749

PART II. REAL OR IMMOVABLE PROP-
ERTY 755-940

Title I. General Provisions 755

II. Estates in Real Property 761-811

Chapter I. Estates in General 761-781

II. Termination of Estates 789-793

III. Servitude 801-811

Title III. Rights and Obligations of Owners.. .. 818-843

Chapter I. Rights of Owners 818-834

Article I. Incidents of Ownership 818-827

II. Boundaries 829-834

Chapter II. Obligations of Owners 840-843

Title IV. Uses and Trusts 847-871

V. Powers [Repealed] 878-940

PART III. PERSONAL OR MOVABLE PROP-
ERTY 946-995

Title I. Personal Property in General 946, 947

II. Particular Kinds of Personal Property.. 953-995

Chapter I. Things in Action 953-955

II. Shipping 960-973

Article I. General Provisions 960-966

II. Rules of Navigation 970-973



CONSPKCTTTS

Sections.

Chapter III. Products of the Mind 980-985

IV. Other Kinds of Personal Prop-
erty 991-995

PART IV. ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY ... l()0U-1426s

Title I. Modes in which property may be ac-
quired •. . 1000, 1001

II. Occupancy 1006. 1007

III. Accession 1013-1033

Chapter I. To Real Property 1013-1019

II. To Personal Property 1025-1033

Title IV. Transfer 1039-1231

Chapter I. Transfer in General 1039-1085

Article I. Definition of Transfer 1039. 1040

II. What May Be Transferred 1044-1047

III. Mode of Transfer 1052-1060

I\'. Interpretation of Grants 1066-1072

\'. EflFect' of Transfer 1083-1085

Chapter II. Transfer of Real Property 1091-1115

Article I. Mode of Transfer 1091-1096

II. Eflfect of Transfer 1104-1115

Chapter III. Transfer of Personal Property ... 1135-1 153

Article I. Mode of Transfer 1135. 1136

II. What Operates as a Transfer .... 1 140-1142

III. Gifts 1146-1153

Chapter IV'. Recording Transfers of Real

Property 1158-1218

Article I. What May Be Recorded 1158-1165

II. Mode of Recording 1169-1173

III. Proof and Acknowledgments of

Instruments 1 180-1207

IV. Eflfect of Recording, or of Want

Thereof 1213-1218

Chapter V. Unlawful Transfers 1227-1231

vii



CONSPECTUS

Sections.

Title V. Homesteads 1237-1269c

Cliapter 1. General Provisions 1237-1261

II. Homestead of the Head of a Fam-
ily 1262-1265

III. Homestead of Other Persons 1266-1269

IV. Alienation of Homestead of Insane

Persons . . .' 1269a-1269c

Title VI. Wills 1270-1377

Chapter 1. Execution and Revocation of Wills 1270-1313

II. Interpretation of Wills 1317-1351

III. General Provisions Relating to

Wills 1357-1377

Title VII. Succession 1383-1409

VIII. Water Rights 1410-1422

IX. Hydraulic Mining 1424, 1425

X. Locating Mining Claims, Tunnel

Rights, Mill-sites 1426-1426s

DIVISION THIRD. (Sees. 1427-3268.)

PARTI. OBLIGATIONS IN GENERAL 1427-1543

Title I. Definition of Obligations 1427-142^'

II. Interpretation of Obligations 1429-1451

Chapter I. General Rules oi Inlcrpretalior . . . . 1429

II. Joint or Several Obligations 1430-1432

III. Conditional Obligations 1434-1442

I\'. Alternative Obligations 1448-1451

Title III. Transfer of Obligations 1457-1468

IV. Extinction of Obligations 1473-1543

Chapter I. Performance 1473-1479

II. Ofifer of Performance 1485-1505

III. Prevention of Performance or

Offer 1511-1515

I\'. Accord and Satisfaction 1521-1524

\'. Novation 1530-1533

\I. Release ..1541-1543



CONSrEOTTTS

Sect ions.

PART II. CONTRACTS 1549-1701

Title I. Nature of a Contract 1549-1615

Chapter 1. Definition 1549, 1550

II. Parties 1556-1559

III. Consent 1565-1589

IV. Object 1595-1599

V. Consideration 1605-1615

Title II. Manner of Creating Contracts 1619-1629

III. Interpretation of Contracts 1635-1661

IV. Unlawful Contracts 1667-1676

V. Extinction of Contracts 1682-1701

Chapter I. Contracts. How Extingiiislied 1682

II. Rescission 1688-1691

III. Alteration and Cancelation 1697-1701

PART III. OBLIGATIONS IMPOSED BY

LAW 1708-1715

IV. OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM

PARTICULAR TRANSACTIONS. 1721-3268

Title I. Sale 1721-1798

Chapter I. General Provisions 1721-1741

Article I. Sale 1721, 1722

II. Agreement for Sale 1726-1734

III. Form of the Contract 1739-1741

Chapter II. Rights and Obligations of the

Seller 1748-1778

.Article I. Rights and Duties Before Deliv-
ery 1748, 1749

II. Delivery 1753-1758

III. Warranty 1763-1778

Chapter III. Rights and Obligations of the

Buyer 1784-1786

I\'. Sale by .\uction 1792-1798

i.K



CONRPKOTTTS

Sections.
Title II. Exchange 1804-1807

III. Deposit 1813-1878

Chapter 1. Deposit in General 1813-1828

Article I. Nature and Creation of Deposit .. 1813-1818

II. Obligations of the Depositary 1822-1828

Chapter II. Deposit for Keeping 1833-1872

Article I. General Provisions 1833-1840

II. Gratuitous Deposit 1844-1847

III. Storage 1851-1857

1 1 la. Warehousemen 1858-18581

I\'. Innkeepers 1859-1863

\'. Finding 1864-1872

Chapter III. Deposit for Exchange 1878

Title IV. Loan 1884-1920

Chapter I. Loan for Use 1884-1896

II. Loan for Exchange 1902-1906

IIL Loan of Money 1912-1920

Title V. Hiring 1925-1959

Chapter I. Hiring in General 1925-1935

II. Hiring of Real Property 1941-1950

III. Hiring of Personal Property 1955-1959

Title VI. Service 1965-2079

Chapter I. Service With Employment 1965-2003

Article I. Definition of Employment 1965

II. Obligations of the Employer 1969-1971

III. Obligations of the Employee 1975-1992

IV. Termination of Employment ....1996-2003

Chapter II. Particular Employments 2009-2072

Article I. Master and Servant 2009-2015

II. Agents 2019-2022

III. Factors 2026-2030

IV. Shipmasters 2034-2044

V. Mates and Seamen 2048-2066

\I. Ship's Manager 2070-2072

Chapter III. Service Without Employment .. .2078. 2079

X



CONSPKr'TT'S

Sections.

Title VII. Carriage 2085-2209

Chapter I. Carriage in General 2085-209U

11. Carriage of Persons 2096-2104

Article 1. Gratuitous Carriage 2096

II. Carriage for Reward 2100-2104

Chapter III. Carriage of Property 2110-2155

Article I. General Definitions 2110

II. Obligations of the Carrier 2114-2122

III. Bill of Lading 2126-2132

IW Freightage 2136-2144

V. General Average 2148-2155

Chapter I\'. Carriage of Messages 2161,2162

\ . Common Carriers 2168-2209

Article I. Common Carriers in General .... 2168-2177

II. Common Carriers of Persons 2180-2191

III. Common Carriers of Property ... .2194-2204
I\'. Common Carriers of Messages. .. 2207-2209

Title VIII. Trusts 2215-2289

Chapter I. Trusts in General 2215-2244

Article I. Nature and Creation of a Trust .. .2215-2224

II. Obligations of Trustees 2228-2239

III. Obligations of Third Persons. .. .2243, 2244
Chapter II. Trusts for the Benefit of Third

Persons i 2250-2289

Article I. Nature and Creation of the Trust .2250-2254

II. 01)ligations of Trustees 2258-2263

III. Powers of Trustees 2267-2269

I\'. Rights of Trustees lIji-221':,

\. Termination of the Trust 2279-2283

\T. Succession or Appointment of

New Trustees 2287-2289

Title IX. Agency 2295-2389

Chapter I. .\gency in General 2295-2356

Article I. Definition of Agency 2295-2300

II. Authority of Agents 2304-2326

xi



('ONSPRCTTTS

SfM'lions.
Til. Mutual ( )l)lii4ati()ns of Principals

and Third Persons 2330-2.V39

]\'. Obligations of Agents to Third

Persons 2342-2345

V. Delegation of Agency 2349-2351

W. Termination of Agency 2355,2356

Chapter II. Particular Agencies 2362-2389

Article I. Auctioneers 2362, 2363

II. Factors 2367-2369

III. Shipmasters and Pilots 2373-23S5

l\. Ships' Managers 2388.2389

Title X. Partnership 2395-2520

Chapter I. Partnership in General 2395-2418

Article I. What Constitutes a Partnership . .2395-2397

II. Partnership Property 2401-2406

III. Mutual Obligations of Partners .. .2410-2413

IV. Renvinciation of Partnership 2417,2418

Chapter II. General Partnership 2424-2472

Article I. What is a General Partnership.. .. 2424

II. Powers and Authority of Partners. 2428-2431

III. Mutual Obligations of Partners . .2435-2438

I\'. Liability of Partners '. 2442-2445

\'. Termination of Partnership 2449-2454

\'I. Liquidation 2458-2462

VII. Of the Use of Fictitious Names. ..2466-2472

Chapter III. Special Partnership 2477-2510

Article I. Formation of Partnership 2477-2485

II. Powers, Rights, and Duties of the

Partners 2489-2496

III. Liability of Partners 2500-2503

IV. Alteration and Dissolution of the

Partnership 2507-2510

Chapter IV. Mining Partnership 2511-2520

xii



CONSPECTUS

Sections.

Title XI. Insurance 2527-2766

Chapter I. Insurance in General 2527-2649

Article I. Definition of Insurance 2527

II. What May Be Insured 2531-2534

■ III. Parties 2538-2542

IV. Insurable Interest 2546-2558

\'. Concealment and Representation. 2561-2583

\I. The Policy 2586-2599

VII. Warranties 2603-2612

VIII. Premiums 2616-2622

IX. Loss . .2626-2629

X . Notice of Loss 2633-2637

XI. Double Insurance 2641,2642

XII. Reinsurance 2646-2649

Chapter II. Marine Insurance 2655-2746

Article I. Definition of Marine Insurance.. 2655

II. Insurable Interest 2659-2665

III. Concealment '. 2669-2672

IV. Representations 2676, 2677

V, Implied Warranties 2681-2688

VI. The Voyage, and Deviation 2692-2697

VII. Loss 2701-2712

VIII. Abandonment 21\(i-n2>l

IX. Measure of Indemnity 2736-2746

Chapter III. Fire Insurance 2752-2757

\\ . Life and Health Insurance 1762-2766

Title XII. Indemnity . .2772-2781

XIII. Guaranty 2787-2866

Chapter 1. (uiaranty in (ieneral 2787-2825

Article I. Defiiiitioii of (hiaranty 2787,2788

11. Creation of Guaranty 2792-2795

111. Interpretation of (iuaranly 2799-2802

1\'. Liability of Guarantors 2806-2810

V. Continuing- Guaranty 2814, 2815

VI. Exoneration of Guarantors 2819-2825

xiii



CONSPECTUS

Sections.

Chapter II. Suretyship 2831-2866

Article I. Who Are Sureties 2831,2832

II. Liability of Sureties 2836-2840

III. Rights of Sureties 2844-2850

I\'. Rights of Creditors 2854

V. Letter of Credit 2858-2866

Title XIV. Lien 2872-3080

Chapter I. Liens in General 2872-2913

Article I. Definition of Liens 2872-2877

II. Creation of Liens 2881-2884

III. Effect of Liens 2888-2892

IV. Priority of Liens 2897-2899

V. Redemption from Liens 2903-2905

VI. Extinction of Liens 2909-2913

Chapter II. Mortgage 2920-2973

Article I. Alortgages in General 2920-2942

II. Mortgages of Real Property 2947-2952

III. Mortgages of Personal Property . .2955-2973
Chapter III. Pledge 2986-3011

IV. Bottomry 3017-3029

V. Respondentia 3036-3040

VI. Other Liens 3046-3065

VII. Stoppage in Transit 3076-3080

Title XV. Negotiable Instruments 3086-3262

Chapter I. Negotiable Instruments in General. 3086-3165

Article I. General Definitions 3086-3095

II. Interpretation 3099-3104

III. Indorsement 3108-3125

IV. Presentment for Paymenl 3130-3137

\'. Dishonor 3141-3151

\\. Excuse of Presentment and

Notice 3155-3160

\I1. Extinction 3164,3165

xiv



CONSPECTUS

Sections.

Chapter II. Bills of Exchange 3171-3238

Article I. Form and Interpretation 3171-3177

II. Days of Grace 3181

III. Presentment for Acceptance 3185-3189

IV. Acceptance 3193-3199

\'. Acceptance or Payment for

Honor 3203-.U07

\'l. Presentment for Payment 3211-3214

\'II. Excuse of Presentment and

Notice 3218-3220

\'III. Foreign Bills 3224-3238

Chapter III. Promissory Notes 3244-3248

IV. Checks 3254, 3255

V. Bank Notes and Certificates of

Deposit ' 3261.3262

Title XVI. General Provisions 3268

DIVISION FOURTH. (Sees. 3274-3543.)

PART I. RELIEF 3274-3425

Title I. Relief in General 3274, 3275

II. Compensatory Relief 328L-3360

Chapter I. Damages in General 3281-3294

Article I. General Principles 3281-3283

II. Interest as Damages 3287-3290

III. Exemplary Damages .. 3294

Chapter 11. Measure of Damages 3300-3360

.\rticlc [. Damages for Breach of Contract .. 3300-3319

II. Damages for Wrongs .3333-3341

III. Penal Damages 3344-3348

W. General Provisi'ns 3353-3.1^0

Title III. Specific and Preventive Relief 3366-3423

L liajjier I. General Principles 3366-3369

a. Specific Relief 3375-3415

XV



CONSPECTUS

Sections.

Article I. Possession ot Real Property 3375

II. Possession of Personal Propertj'. 3379, 3380
III. Specific Performance of Obliga-
tions 3384-3395

IV. Revision of Contracts 3399-3402

\'. Rescission of Contracts 3406-3408

VI. Cancelation of Instruments 3412-3415

Chapter III. Preventive Relief ....■ 3420-3423

PART II. SPECIAL RELATIONS OF DEBT-
OR AND CREDITOR 3429-3473

Title I. General Principles 3429-3433

II. Fraudulent Instrument and Transfers. . .3439-3442
III. Assignments for the Benefit of Credit-
ors 3449-3473

PART III. NUISANCE 3479-3503

Title I. General Principles 3479-3484

II. Public Nuisances 3490-3495

III. Private Nuisances 3501-3503

PART IV. MAXIMS OF JURISPRUDENCE. ...3509-3543



CIVIL CODE.

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A CIVIL CODE

[Approved March 21, 1872.]

The people of the state of California, represented in the
senate and assembly, do enact as follows:

TITLE OF THE ACT.

§ 1. This act shall be known as the Civil Code of the
State of California, and is in four divisions, as follows:
I. The first relating to persons.
II. The second to property.

III. The third to obligations.

IV. The fourth contains general provisions relating to
the three preceding divisions.

History: Enacted Marcli 21, 1872.



PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS.

2. When this code takes effect.

3. Not retroactive.

4. Rules of construction.

5. Provisions similar to existing laws, how construed.

6. Actions, etc., not affected.

7. Holidays.

8. Same [repealed].

9. Business days.

10. Computation of time.

11. Certain acts not to be done on holidays.

12. Joint authority construed.

13. Words and phrases, how construed.

14. Certain terms defined.

15. Good faith, what constitutes [repealed].

16. Degrees of care and diligence [repealed].

17. Degrees of negligence [repealed].

18. Notice, actual and constructive.

19. Constructive notice. [When deemed.]

20. Effect of repeal.

21. This act, how cited.



§2. WHEN THIS CODE TAKES EFFECT. This code
takes effect at twelve o'clock noon on the first daj^ of Janu-
ary, eighteen hundred and seventy-three.

Hi.st(irj-: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§ 3. NOT RETROACTIVE. No part of it is retroactive,
unless expressly so declared.

Htstiiry: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION. The rule of the
common law, that statutes in derogation thereof are to be
strictly construed, has no application to this code. The
code establishes the law of this state respecting the sub-



§§ 5-7 CIVIL CODE.

jects to which it relates, and its provisions are to be liberallj'
construed with a view to effect its objects and to promote
justice.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by the Code Com-
mission, Act March 16. 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 332;
amendment declared unconstitutional in Lewis vs. Dunne, 134
Cal. 291, 86 Am. St. Rep. 257, 66 Pac. Rep. 478, 55 L. R. A. 833.
See Code Civ. Proc, Pt. I, Introductory note.



§5. PROVISIONS SIMILAR TO EXISTING LAWS,
HOW CONSTRUED. The provisions of this code, so far
as the}' are substantially the same as existing statutes or
the common law, must be construed as continuations there-
of, and not as new enactments.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 16, 1901,
Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 332; unconstitutional, see history,
§ 4 ante.



§6. ACTIONS, ETC., NOT AFFECTED. No action or
proceeding commenced before this code takes effect, and no
right accrued, is affected by its provisions.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§ 7. HOLIDAYS. Holidays within the meaning of this
code, are every Sunday, the first day of January, the twelfth
day of February to be known as Lincoln day, twenty-second
day of February, thirtieth day of Alay, fourth day of July,
ninth day of September, first Monday in September, twelfth
day of October, to be known as "Columbus day," twent}'^-
fifth day of December, every day on which an election is held
through [out] the state, and every day appointed by the
president of the United States or by the governor of this
state for a public fast, thanksgiving or holiday.

If the first day of January, twelfth day of February, twenty-
second day of February, the thirtieth daj^ of May, the fourth



PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS. § 8

day of July, the ninth day of September, the twelfth day of
October, or the twenty-fifth day of December falls upon a
Sunday, the Monday following is a holiday.

Every Saturday from twelve o'clock noon till twelve o'clock
midnight is a holiday as regards the transaction of business
in the public offices of this state, and also in political divisions
thereof where laws, ordinances or charters provide that
public offices shall be closed on holidays; this shall not be
construed to prevent or invalidate the issuance, filing, service,
execution or recording of any legal process or writtcMi in-
strument whatever on such Saturday afternoons;

[Public schools.] And provided further, that the public
schools of this state shall close on Saturday, Sunday, the
first day of January, the thirtieth day of May, the fourth day
of July, the twenty-fifth day of December and on every day
appointed by the president of the United States or the gov-
ernor of this state for a public fast, thanksgiving or "holi-
day. Said public schools shall continue in session on all
other legal holidays and shall hold proper exercises com-
memorating the day. Boards of school trustees and cit}'-
boards of education shall have power to declare a holiday in
the public schools under their jurisdiction when good reason
exists therefor.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended ISSO, Code Amdts.
1880 (C. C. pt.), p. 9; 1889, Stats, and Amdts. 1889, p. 47; 1S93,
Stats, and Amdts. 1893, p. 186; 1897, Stats, and Amdts. 1897, p.
14; March 18, 1907, Stats, and Amdts. 1907, p. 565, Kerr's Stats,
and Amdts. 1906-7, p. 899; February 19, 1909, Stats, and Amdts.
1909, p. 23; March 27, 1911, Stats, and Amdts. 1911, p. 520.



§8. SAME [repealed].

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; repealed by Code Commis-
sion amendment of March 16. 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1,
p. 332; held unconstitutional, see history, § 4 ante; repealed, Act
Feb. 20, 1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 11.



§§9-13 CIVIL CODE.

§9. BUSINESS DAYS. All other clays than those men-
tioned in section seven are to be deemed business days for
all purposes.

History: Enacted March 21, 1S72; amended by Code Commis-
sion, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 332; held
unconstitutional, see history, § 4 ante; amended Feb. 20, 1905,
Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 11.

§ 10. COMPUTATION OF TIME. The time in which
any act provided by law is to be done is computed by ex-
cluding the. first day and including the last, unless the last
day is a holiday, and then it is also excluded.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§ 11. CERTAIN ACTS NOT TO BE DONE ON HOLI-
DAYS. Wherever any act of a secular nature, other than
a work of necessity or mercy, is appointed by law or con-
tract to be performed upon a particular day, which day falls
upon a holiday, it may be performed upon the next business
day, with the same effect as if it had been performed upon
the day appointed.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§ 12. JOINT AUTHORITY CONSTRUED. Words giv-
ing a joint authority to three or more public officers or other
persons are construed as giving such authority to a majority
of them, unless it is otherwise expressed in the act giving
the authority.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§ 13. WORDS AND PHRASES, HOW CONSTRUED.

Words and phrases are construed according to the context
and the approved usage of the language; but technical words
and phrases, and such others as may have acquired a pe-
culiar and appropriate meaning in law, or are defined in the



PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS. § 14

succeeding section, are to be construed according to such
peculiar and appropriate meaning or definition.

Hi.st<rry: Enacted March 21, 1S72.



§ 14. CERTAIN TERMS DEFINED. Words used in
this code in the present tense include the future as well as the



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