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Same — Against validity of transaction from mental weakness
of party.— See 4 L. 637.

Same — As evidence. — See 3 A. C. 70, 72.

Same — As to authority or power— Of attorney appearing in
action.— See 21 L. 848.

Same — Same — Of defendant's servant to make sale of intoxi-
cating liquor. — See 41 L. 672.

Same — Same — Of insurance agent to make parol contract of
insurance. — See 22 L. 773.

Same — As to dedication and abandonment. — See 6 L. 261: IS L.
146. s.

Same — As to effect of drunkenness on testamentary capacity. —
See 39 L. 226.

Same — As to evidence, on appeal. — See 8 A. C. 205, 208: 9 A. C.
84, 168.

Same— As to fraud.— See 1 L. 520; 4 L. 832: 31 L. 646.

Same — As to identity of person from identity of name. — See
17 L. 824.

Same — As to incorporation. — See 22 L. 276.

Same — As to laws, officers, and judicial matters. — See 2 L. 609:
10 L. 857; 12 L,. 574; 21 L. 471; 49 L. 787; 67 L. 40.

Same— As to legitimacy. — See 8 L. 102; 10 L. 660.

Same — As to negligence, force and effect of state law.'^. — See 4
Fed. Stats. Ann. 574, note.

Same — As to notice of defect in street from lengtli of time it
existed. — See 5 L. 255.

Same — As to payment. — See 4 A. C. 430; 7 A. C. 721, 723.

Same — As to probate of will, in another state. — See 48 L. 136.

Same — As to revocation of missing will.- — See 38 L. 433.

Same — As to suicide. — See 35 L. 263.

Same — Conclusiveness. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 1962 and
note.

Same— Controvertible. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 1963 and
note.

Same — Dedication, of, from use. — See 6 L. 261.

Same — -From failure to produce evidence. — See 14 L. 470.

Same — From failure to testify or to produce best evidence. — ■
See 1 Obiter Dig. 703.

134G



EVIDENCE GENERALLY. § 1823

Same — From marriage ceremony. — See 14 L. 540-543.

Same — In favor of judgment. — See 11 L. 159.

Same — In relation to contractual matters. — See 1 L. 191; 2 L.
816; 12 L. 845; 24 L. 370; 33 L. 796; 42 L. 506; 48 L. 309, 318.

Same — Same — Bills and notes. — See 10 L. 677: 12 L. 8 45; 16 L.
206; 17 L. 326; 18 L. 35.

Same — Of care or negligence and skill— As to generally, see
1 L. 448; 2 L. 820; 13 L. 33; 37 L. 837; 40 L. 142; 56 L. 223.

Same — Same — Of person killed by another's negligence. — See
16 L. 261.

Same — Of continuance, as to generally. — See 16 L. 620.

Same — Same— Of insanity. — See 4 A. C. 491; 35 L. 117: 36 l^. 726.

Same — Same — Of sanity. — See 35 L. 117.

Same — Of judgment. — See 10 L. 454.

Same — Of legal mortgage. — See 6 W. & P. 554U.

Same — Of malice from evil intent. — See 2 L. 13U.

Same — Of mortgage. — See 1 L. 346.

Same — Of negligence from accident. — See 15 L. 33: 68 L. 799.

Same — Same — Overcome by the uncontradicted testimony,
when. — See 4 Fed. Stats. Ann. 574, note.

Same — Of ouster. — See 6 W. & P. 5540.

Same — Of payment. — See "Payment," this note.

Same— Same — As to generally. — See 1 L. 628: 6 W. & P. 5541.

Same— Of sanity. — See 35 L. 117; 36 L. 721-726; 40 L. 742.

Same — Of survivorship among those who perish in common
calamity. — See 50 L. 863, 869.

Same — Of want of probable cause, from discliarge of defend-
ant, conclusiveness of. — See 60 L. 486.

Same — On charge of fraud. — See 1 A. C. 809.

Same — Specific presumption, as to several. — See Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. P. § 1950, note.

Same — That letter received in reply is genuine. — See 11 A. C.
887.

Presumptive evidence. — See "Presumptions," this note.

Same — As to generally, see 6 W. & P. 5541.

Previous conversation, parol evidence of to show intention of
party to written contract. — See 6 L. 35.

Prima facie case, as to, see 6 W. & P. 5549.

Prima facie evidence — As to generally. — See 6 W. & P. 5549.

Same — Certificate of notary, is of protest. — See 4 A. C. 639.

Same — Sufficient evidence. — See 7 W. & P. 6762.

Same — Validity of statute making certain facts to be. — See 6
A. C. 746.

Primary evidence, telegram left for transmission or delivered,
is.— See 8 A. C. 270.

Private docuinent. — See '"Documentary evidence," this note.

Privies, admissions by, admissibility of in evidence. — See 20
Cent. Dig. col. 1774, §§822-882; 8 Decen. Dig. p. 846. §§229-
236 (6).

1347



S 1823 (^ni)lO OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. [Pt. IV.

Privileged communications, as to admissibility of, and waiver.
— See 6 L. 481; 8 L. 103; 15 L. 268; 17 L. 188; 67 L. 92Z.

Probable cause, in malicious prosecution. — Sco 6 W. & P. 5620-
5627.

Probable evidence, as to, see 6 W. & P. 5627.

Production of evidence and order of proof, as to g^ent-rally, see
■Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 1825 subd. 5 and note; also 4 A. C. 556; 6
A. C. 573; 10 A. C. 323.

Same — Duty of court to compel production of evidence for use
in another jurisdiction regardless of its admissibility. — See G
A. C. 577.

"Proof," distinguished from "evidence." — See 3 W. & P. 2523.

Proof of judicial proceedings of states, etc. — See 3 Fed. Stats.
Ann. 37 and notes.

Public document. — See "Documentary evidence," this note.

Real evidence — As to generally.— See 6 A. C. 557; 7 A. C. 228;
10 A. C. 658.

Same — Exhibit to jury of child whose paternity is in issue. — •
See 6 A. C. 560; 52 L. 500-505.

Same — Impression made on minds of jurors by view. — See 10
A. C. 663.

Railway fires, presumption of negligence. — See 15 L. 40.

Rebutting evidence, as to, see 7 W. & P. 5987.

Receipt, as evidence.- — See 29 L. 737-740.

Relevancy, materiality, and competency of evidence — As to
generally. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§ 1868, 1870 and notes; 5 L.
121, 466; 3 L. 69, 83, 383, 445; 13 L. 370, 440, 474; 28 L. 318; 34 L.
452; 41 L. 672; 42 L. 432; 44 L. 438; 46 L. 420; 64 L. 474; 20 Cent.
Dig. col. 215, §§ 123-459; 8 Decen. Dig. p. 625, §§ 99-156.

Same— Competency of.— See 20 Cent. Dig. col. 626, §§438-459:
8 Decen. Dig. p. 716, §§ 148-156.

Same — Facts in issue and relevant to issue. — See 20 Cent. Dig.
col. 215, §§123-296; 8 Decen. Dig. p. 625, §§99-117.

Same — In negligence cases. — See 1 L. 627; 5 L. 255; 10 L. 366;
12 L. 559; 25 L. 716; 40 L. 143; 48 L. 389.

Same— In will cases.— See 1 L. 203; 2 L. 669; 39 L. 227; 68 L.
295.

Same — Materiality. — See 20 Cent. Dig. col. 592, §§424-437; 8
Decen. Dig. p. 711, §§ 143-147.

Same — Res gestae. — See 20 Cent. Dig. col. 403, §§297-387; S
Decen. Dig. p. 650, §§ 118-128.

Same — Similar facts and transactions. — See 20 Cent. Dig. col.
527, §§388-423; 8 Decen. Dig. p. 688, §§129-142 (5).

Repetition of libel and slander, evidence of, as to admissibility
in action. — See 12 A. C. 103.

Representative, admissions by, admissibility in evidence. — See
20 Cent. Dig. col. 1261, §§883-1002; 8 Decen. Dig. p. S60, §§237-
253 (3).

1348



EVIDENCE GENERAIJvV. §1823

Res gestae — As to generally, see 20 Cent. Dig. col. 103. §§ '297-
387; 8 Decen. Dig. p. 650, §§ 118-128.

Same — Declarations as part of. — See 1 Ohit<-r Dig. 70.=>.

Same — Declarations of infant too young to be sworn on trial.
— See 65 L. 318.

Resemblance. — See "Bastardy," tbis note.

Same — As evidence of relationship. — See 6 A. C. 560; 52 L. 500-
505.

Review of evidence on appeal. — See 5 A. C. 45: 6 A. C. 946; 9
A. C. 923; 10 A. C. 285.

Robbery — As to evidence of and sutficiency of proof of. — Sop 5
A. C. 688; 8 A. C. 123.

Rules of evidence. — As to generally. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 710.

Same — Legislative power over. — See 1 A. C. 121; 6 A. C. 744;
9 A. C. 449.

Same — Same — Validity of statute making certain facts prima
facie evidence. — See 6 A. C. 746.

Satisfactory evidence, as to, see 7 W. & P. 6335.

Search for witness, evidence of unsuccessful, admissiliility of.
—See 8 A. C. 468.

Secondary evidence — As to generally. ^See 8 A. C. 268, 412: 9
A. C. 481; 7 W. & P. 6378.

Same — Admissibility of as to contents of document. — See 8
A. C. 413.

Same — Admissibility of to prove contents of instrument
altered or destroyed by person offering such evidence. — See 9
A. C. 484.

Sex of witness, effect of on reliability of testimony. — See 2
Moore on Facts 1069-1085.

Sight. — See "Light and sight," this note.

Similar facts and transactions, relevancy and competency. —
See 20 Cent. Dig. col. 527, §§ 388-423; 8 Decen. Dig. p. 688. §§ 129-
142 (5).

Similar transactions, admissibility of evidence of in prosecu-
tion for false pretenses. — See 10 A. C. 906.

Same — In prosecution for forgery. — See 9 A. C. 4 56.

Slight evidence, as to, see 7 W. & P. 6521.

Smell, testimony involving sense of, as to generally, see 1
Moore on Facts 364-368.

Sound and hearing, testimony involving, as to gonorally, see
1 Moore on Facts 233-290.

Speed, testimony involving estimate of, as to generally, see
1 Moore on Facts 397-452.

Spiritualism, evidence of belief in, to establish want of
capacity to make will. — See 10 A. C. 617.

Statement made to witness by another, where latter admits
statements but has forgotten facts stated, admissibility of t.-sti-
mony as to. — See 12 A. C. 706.

Strong corroborating circumstances, as to, see 7 W. & V. 6C99.

1349



S 1823 CODR OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. [Pt. IV.

Strongly corroborative, as to, see 7 W. & P. 6699.

Subscribing witnes.s, non-expert opinion of admissililc whfn. —
See 39 L. 715, 720.

Suffering and pain, eoniplaiuls of, atlini.ssiliilit y of in cNidcnce.
—See 13 K 464.

Sufficiency of evidence. — See "Weiglit and .sufficiency," tliis
note.

Same — As to generally, see 7 W. & P. 662; 1 Obiter Dig. 712.

Same — Prima facie evidence, as to. — ^See 7 W. & P. 6762.

Suicide — Declarations or written statements by insured,
previous to death, as evidence of. — See 8 A. C. 1114.

Same — Presumptions and evidence.- — See 8 A. C. 1111.

Tables of expectancy in life, conclusiveness of. — See 40 L. 560.

Tangible evidence, as to, 3 W. & P. 2523.

Taste, testimony involving sense of. — See 1 Moore on Facts
358-367.

Telegram — As evidence. — See 3 A. C. 566.

Same — Admissibility on behalf of person receiving in reply to
another. — See 44 L. 438.

Same- — Left for transmission, or message delivered, is best or
primary evidence. — See 8 A. C. 270.

Telephone, conversation by, as evidence. — See 1 A. C. 801; 8
A. C. 447; 9 A. C. 168; 17 L. 440.

Testamentary capacity, presumption as to effect of drunken-
ness on. — See 39 L. 226.

Testator, declarations of — Not made at time of execution of
will, admissib'.lity on question of undue influence. — See 5 A. C.
608; 10 A. C. 600.

Same — Upon issue of revocation of will which cannot be
found.— See 3 A. C. 960; 10 A. C. 535.

"Testimony" distinguished from "evidence." — See 3 W. & P.
2523.

Threats, as to admissibility of evidence of. — See 8 A. C. 438;
9 A. C. 194; 10 A. C. 321, 323.

Time and distance, calculation of, weight and sufficiency of
evidence. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 712.

Time of day, memory of. — See 2 Moore on Facts 986-991.

Title, declaration in disparagement of, adm.issibility of in
evidence. — See 2 A. C. 4.

Touch, testimony involving sense of, as to generally. — See 1
Moore on Facts 369.

Trade-mark, certificate of registration, as evidence. — See 7
Fed. Stats. Ann. 331; 10 Fed. Stats. Ann. 412.

Trials of right of property, between Indians and white per-
sons, evidence in. — See 3 Fed. Stats. Ann. 376.

Trust, parol evidence to establish or vary. — See 6 L. 47; 10 L.
401; 13 L. 622; 17 L. 270; 27 L. 464.

Typewriting. — See "Handwriting," this note.

1350



EVIDENCE GENERALLY. § 1823

Same — Comparison of by expert. — See 20 Cent. Dig. col. 3495,
§§2381-2391; 8 Decen. Dig-, p. 1474, §§561-567.

Same — Testimony as to generally, see 1 Moore on Facts 604-
726.

Same — Value and weight of expert testimony as to. — See 42 L.
771.

Same — Value and weiglit of non-expert testimony, as to. — See
64 L. 315.

Unanswerable evidence, as to, see 8 W. & P. 7148.

Uncontradicted testimony — As to generally, see 1 Moore on
Facts 111.

Same — Contradiction l)y circumstances. — See 1 Moore on Facts
136-149.

Same — Disinterested witness. — See 1 Moore on Facts 114-121.

Same — Expert or opinion evidence. — See "Expert testimony
and witnesses," and "Opinion evidence," this note.

Same — Interested or otherwise biased witness. — See 1 Moore
on Facts 122-135.

Same — Improbable testimonj'. — See 1 Moore on Facts 136-149.

Same — Subject-matter of testimony as affecting. — See 1 Moore
on Facts 149-152.

Same — Weight and sufficiency of. — See 4 A. C. 982; 12 A. C.
245.

Undue influence presumed from unnatural or unrea.'ionahle
character of will. — See 7 A. C. 894.

Unstamped document, public, as evidence. — See 1 A. C. 24.

Value and effect of evidence. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 1825
and note.

Value of condemned land, relevancy and materiality of evi-
dence to show. — See 3 L. 383.

Vessel — Burden of proof — Action for loss in \'oyage. — See 4
Fed. Stats. Ann. 863, note.

Same — Same — In action for loss Ity fire. — See 4 Fed. Stats.
Ann. 838, 839, note.

Same — Prosecution for seduction of female on, corroliora live
evidence necessary. — See 7 Fed. Stats. Ann. 2.

Same — Testimony as to courst; and sailing of. — Si e 1 Moore
on Facts 477-510.

View by jury, impression nn minds of jurors. re;il evidence. —
See 10 A. C. 663.

Weather, as involved in ami affecting i)rnhal)iliti<>s of tfsti-
mony. — See 1 Moore on Facts 453-476.

Weight of evidence. — See "Weight and sufflcii-ncy of evi-
dence," this note.

Same — As to genfi-all>', see 8 W. & I'. 74 2S.

Weight and sufficiency of evidencf — As to generally, si'c 3
A. C. 747; 4 A. C. 615; 6 A. C. 408; 8 A. C. 412; 9 A. C. 530; 2 L.
340; 3 L. 190, 802; 4 L. 383, 778; 5 L. 159; 7 L. 799; 10 L. 606; 29

1351



S 1823 CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. [Pt. IV.

L,. 346; 36 L. 735; 39 L. 720; 40 L. 145, 560, 742; 41 I.. 673: 42 L.
771; 44 L. 846; 48 L. 378; 62 L. 871; 64 L. 315; 20 Cent. Dig. col.
3565, §§2424-2459; 8 Decen. Dig. p. 1496, §§584-601 (5); 8 W. &
P. 7428.

Same — Calculations of time and distance. — See 1 Obiter Dig.
712.

Same — Consideration of witness's conduct on stand. — See 1
Obiter Dig. 711.

Same — Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus. — See 81 A. D. 330.
331; 86 A. D. 474; 14 A. S. 45; 2 Moore on Facts 1209-1218; 1
Obiter Dig. 712.

Same — In appellate courts. — See 2 Moore on Facts 419-429.

Same— In will cases. — See 2 L. 669; 24 L. 577; 38 L,. 441-452.

Same — Legal principles control in considering. — See 1 Obiter
Dig. 712.

Same — Not always with number. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 711.

Same — Number of witnesses does not always determine. — See 1
Obiter Dig. 711.

Same — Expert testimony. — See 39 L. 328-333; 42 L. 755-767.

Same — Of interested witness. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 710.

Same — Of uncontradicted testimony. — See 4 A. C. 982.

Same — Of women. — See 2 Moore on Facts 1069-1085; 1 Obiter
Dig. 710, 711.

Same — Positive and uncontradicted testimony. — See 4 A. C.
982; 1 Obiter Dig. 711.
. Same — Sufficiency of. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 712.

Wills — Evidence admissible to show that instrument not testa-
mentary on its face was intended to take effect upon maker's
death. — See 12 A. C. 287.

Same — Hearsay testimony to prove execution or to overcome
presumption of revocation. — See 3 L. 850; 38 L. 436-453.

Same — Inquisition of drunkenness as evidence on issue of
testamentary capacity. — See 39 L. 227.

Same — Parol evidence relating to. — See 3 L. 849; 6 L. 322; 8 L.
749; 16 L. 321; 68 L. 384.

Same^^Relevancy and materiality of testimony as to capacity.
— See 6 L. 669.

Same — Undue influence presuiued for unnatural or unreason-
able character of. — See 7 A. C. 894.

"Woman — Testimony of. — See 2 Moore on Facts 1069-1085.

Same — -Weight and sufficiency of testimony of. — See 1 Obiter
Dig. 710.

Written adinissions, weight of. — See 2 Moore on Facts 1321.

Written evidence, as to, see 8 W. & P. 7544.

Written instruments, as to, see 8 W. & P. 7544.

X-ray pliotographs, as evidence. — See 8 A. C. 435; 35 L. S15.

Youth or children, testimony of, reliability of. — See 2 Moore
on Facts 1047-1062.

1352



PROOF— LAW OF KVIDENOK. S§ 1824, 1825

§1824. DEFINITION OF PROOF. Proof is the effect of
evidence, the establishment of a fact by evidence.

History: Enacted March 11, 1872.

As to many miscellaneous matters of evidence, see note § 1823,
ante.

Proof — As legal evidence, see 6 W. & P. 5686.

Same — As statement of facts, see 6 W. & P. 568G.

Same — Burden of.— See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§1869, 1981 and
notes.

Same — Degree required. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § ISlT, ;ind
note.

Same — Definition of. — See 6 W. & P. 5684.

Same — Distinguished from evidence. — See 6 W. & P. 5685.

Same — Same — From probability. — See 6 W. & P. 5686.

Same — Extent of.— See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 1867, 18G9 and
notes.

Same — Limits of. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§ 1868, 1870 and
notes.

Same — Order of. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§ G07, 2012 and
notes.



§ 1825. DEFINITION OF LAW OF EVIDENCE. The law of

evidence, which is the subject of this part of the code, is a col-
lection of general rules established by law:

1. For declaring what is to be taken as true without proof;

2. For declaring the presumptions of law, both those which
are disputable and those which are conclusive; and,

3. For the production of legal evidence;

4. For the exclusion of whatever is not legal;

5. For determining, in certain cases, the value and effect of
evidence.

Hitttory: Enacted March 11, 1872; amended by Code Com-
mission, Act March 8, 1901, Stats, and Amdts, 1900-1, p. 239, act
held unconstitutional, see history, § 5 ante.

1 C. A. 374, 379, 82 P. 223, 225 (cited with other sections —
ante § 1823, post §§ 1829 et seq.).

As to exclusion of evidence, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§ 1S67,
1868 and notes.

As to law of evidence — Definition. — See 5 W. & 1'. 4024.

As to many miscellaneous matters of cvidfiice, see note 8 1S23,
ante.

1353



§§ 182G, 1827 CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. [Pt. IV.

As to presumptions — Generally, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P.
§§ 1959. 1961-1963 and notes.

Same — Of evidence. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§ 19Sl-20r,4 and
notes.

As to value and effect of evidence, sec Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P.
§ 2061 and note.



§1826. THE DEGREE OF CERTAINTY REQUIRED TO
ESTABLISH FACTS. The law does not require demonstra-
tions; that is, such a degree of proof as, excluding possibility
of error, produces absolute certainty; because such proof is
rarely possible. Moral certainty only is required, or that
degree of proof which produces conviction in an unprejudiced
mind.

History: Enacted March 11, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. for 10 pars, annotation.

80 C. 574, 582, 584, 603, 22 P. 266, 268, 269, 274, 5 L. 498 (con-
strued)'; 130 C. 1, 8, 62 P. 297 (construed); 130 C. 27, 39, 62
P. 386 (applied); 139 C. 392, 395, 73 P. 172 (construed); 141 C.
548, 549, 75 P. 188 (cited); 143 C. 394, 398, 77 P. 177 (cited):
1 C. A. 423, 425, 82 P. 396 (cited with § 1835 post).

As to amount of proof required, in general, see 96 A. D. 525-
529.

As to many miscellaneous matters of evidence, see note
§ 1823, ante.

As to proof, see ante § 1824 and note.

As to question of reasonable doubt, see Kerr's Cyc. Pen. C.
§ 1096 and note; also 1 Moore on Pacts § 59.

As to satisfactory evidence, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §1835
and note.

§ 1827. FOUR KINDS OF EVIDENCE SPECIFIED. There
are four kinds of evidence;

1. The knowledge of the court;

2. The testimony of witnesses;

3. Writings;

4. Other material objects presented to the senses.

History: Enacted March 11, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. for 4 pars, annotation.
61 C. 404 (cited); 107 C. 206, 209, 40 P. 336 (construed with
§ 1954 post).

1354



DEGKKIOS— DEFINITIONS. S§ 1828-1830

As to kiiowh'dg'e of coiirt, in s"pneral, st-c Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
1*. § liS75 and note.

As to many miscellaneous matters of evidence, see note
§ 1823, ante.

As to other material objects, see Kerr's Cye. C C. P. § 195 4
and note.

As to private Avritings, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. I'. §§ 1929 et scq.
and notes.

As to public writings, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. S§ 1.S92 et se(i.
and notes.

As to testimony of witnesses, in general, see Kerr'.s Cyc. C.
C. P. §§ 1844 et seq. and notes.

As to witnesses, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. ii§ 1S7S-18S4 and notes.

As to writings, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§ 1887-19^1 and notes.

§ 1828. SEVERAL DEGREES OF EVIDENCE SPECIFIED.

There are several degrees of evidence:

1. Primary and secondary.

2. Direct and indirect.

3. Prima facie, partial, satisfactory, indispensable, and con-
clusive.

History: Enacted March 11, 1872; amended March 24, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 379.

§ 1829. PRIMARY EVIDENCE DEFINED. Primary evi-
dence is that kind of evidence which, under every possible cir-
cumstance, affords the greatest certainty of the fact in ques-
tion. Thus, a written instrument is itself the best possible
evidence of its existence and contents.

History: Enacted March 11, 1872; amended March 24, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 379.

,'')4 C. .5.56, 557 (erroneously cited for §1329): 65 C. 625. 626,
4 P. 675 (erroneously cited as §1863); 1 C. A. 374, 370. 82 P.
223 (cited with other sections); 2 C. A. 24. 29, 82 P. 1122 (origi-
nal petition for widening highway and report of viewers are
admissible In evidence).

As to many miscellaneous matters of evidence, see note,
§ 1823, ante.

Primary evidence — l~)efinilion of. — See 6 W. & P. 5552.

§ 18SJ0. SECONDARY EVIDENCE DEFINED. Secondary
evidence is that which is inferior to primary. Thus, a copy of

1355



§§ 1831, 1832 CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. [Pt. IV.

an instrument or oral evidence of its contents is secondary
evidence of the instrument and contents.

History: Enacted March 11, 1872; amended March 24, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 379.

As to definition of secondary evidence, see 7 W. & P. 6378.

As to evidence of contents of a writing-, see Kerr's Cyc. C.
C. P. §§ 1855, 1856 and notes.

As to many miscellaneous matters of evidence, see §1823,
ante.



§ 1831. DIRECT EVIDENCE DEFINED. Direct evidence is
tliat wliich proves the fact in dispute, directl}% without an
inference or presumption, and which in itself, if true, conclu-
sively establishes that fact. For example: if the fact in dis-
pute be an agreement, the evidence of a witness who was
present and witnessed the making of it, is direct.
History: Enacted March 11, 3^872.

143 C. 394, 398, 77 P. 177 (cited): 4 C. A. 63, 70, 87 P. 38 1
("direct evidence" on trial for perjury, how not limited). 87 P.
389 (petition to transfer cause froin District Court of Appeal
to Supreme Court denied).

As to direct evidence — Compared with circumstantial evi-
dence. — See 1 Moore on Facts § 598.

Same — Definition of. — See 1 Moore on Facts 597: 3 W. & P.
2072.

As to many miscellaneous matters (jf e\'idence. see § 1823,
ante.

U832. INDIRECT EVIDENCE DEFINED. Indirect evi-
dence is that which tends to establish the fact in dispute by
proving another, and which, though true, does not of itself
conclusively establish that fact, but which affords an inference
or presumption of its existence. For example: a witness
proves an admission of the party to the fact in dispute. This
proves a fact, from which the fact in dispute is inferred.

History: Enacted March 11, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. for 3 pars, annotation.
106 C. 190, 193, 39 P. 526 (construed); 141 C. 56, 63, 74 P. 433
(cited with other sections); 143 C. 394, 398, 77 P. 177 (cited) ; 146

1356



DEFINITIONS. §§ 1833, 1834

C. 119, 121, 79 P. 846 (cited with §1963 post); 4 C. A. 41, 43,
87 P. 202 (fact tliat evidence is circumstantial does not make
it inadmissible).

As to indirect evidence, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§1957-]9H3
and notes.

Same — Definition of. — See 4 W. & P. 3558.



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