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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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must hear and determine such case and make such order
therein as will remove the party in the future.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by Code Commis-
sion, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 342, held
unconstitutional; see history, § 4 ante; amendment re-enacted
March 21, 1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 562.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 273 and note.

130



Tit.IV.] MASTER'S BREACH. §§ 272, 273

§ 272. POWER OF COURT TO DISCHARGE APPRENTICE
FROM APPRENTICESHIP. The superior court has power,
where circumstances require it, [1] to discharge an appren-
tice from his apprenticeship, and, in case any money or other
thing has been paid or contracted to be paid by either party
in relation to tlie apprenticeship, the court must [2] make
such order concerning the same as seems just and reason-
able. If the apprentice so discharged was originally bound
by the superior court, it must, if found necessary, again bind
such minor, if under age.

HLstory: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by Code Commis-
sion, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 343, held
unconstitutional; see history, § 4 ante; amendment re-enacted
March 21, 1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 562.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 273 and note.

§273. LIABILITY OF MASTER FOR BREACH OF HIS
COVENANT. Every master is liable to an action on the
indenture for a breach of any covenant thereof on his part.
All damages recovered in such action, after deducting neces-
sary charges in its prosecution, belong to the minor, and must
be applied and appropriated to his use by the person recov-
ering it in his behalf, and ninst be paid to the minor, if a
male, at the age of twenty-one years, and if a female, at the
age of eighteen years. If no action is brought during the
minority of the apprentice, it may be commenced by him
in his own name at any time within two years after his
coming of age.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended April 6, 1880, Code
Amdts. 1880 (C. G. pt.), p. 6; amended by Code Commission, Act
March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 343, held unconstitu-
tional; see history, § 4 ante; amendment re-enacted March 21,
1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 562.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 20 pars, annotation.

As to actions for breach of contract, see 3 Cyc. 558.

As to dissolution of the contract of apprenticeship, see 2
Encyc. L. 500.

As to effect of death on contract of apprenticeship, see 23
L. 707-713.

131



§ 274 CIVIL CODE. [Div.I.Pt.III.

As to termination of contract by reason of acts of parties,
see 3 Cyc. 561.

As to termination of the contract and grounds for relief, see
3 Cyc. 563.

§274. LIABILITY OF, AND PRO( EEDIIVGS AGAINST,
APPKENTICES GUILTY OF GROSS mSBEHAVIOR. An

apprentice who is guilty of [1] any gross misbehavior, or [2]
refusal to do his duty, or [3] wilful neglect thereof, is liable
to the complaint of his master in the superior court of the
county wherein the apprentice resides. Sneh coiuplniiit must
[4] set forth the circumstances of the case, and [5] have
attached thereto a citation, signed by the clerk of the court,
requiring him and all persons who have covenanted in his
behalf to appear and answer the complaint within ten days
after the service thereof. The conii>I<iiiit and citation must be
served in the manner required for serving civil process. When
the parties have answered, or when, though they have not
answered, the time therefor allowed after the service of the
complaint has expired, the court must proceed to hear and
determine the cause, and, if the evidence warrants it, may
render judgment that the master be discharged from the
contract of apprenticeship and for costs of suit. Such costs
may be recovered from the parent or guardian of the minor,
if there is any who signed the indenture, and execution there-
for may issue accordingly. If there is no parent or guardian
liable for such cost, execution may be issued therefor against
the minor, or the amount thereof may be recovered in an
action against him after he arrives at full age. He is also
liable to the master in an action on the indenture for the
breach of any covenant on the part of the -apprentice con-
tained therein, committed before the master was discharged
from the indenture.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by Code Commis-
sion, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 343, held
unconstitutional; see history, § 4 ante; amendment re-enacted
March 21, 1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, pp. 562-563.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 9 pars, annotation.
As to acts of apprentice sufficient to cause release of master,
see 3 Cyc. 563, 2 Encyc. L. 502.

132



^j^.jy-] RELEASE OF MASTER. §§ . §283

§ 275. ENTICING AWAY APPRENTICES AND LIABILITx
FOR. It is unlawful for any person [1] to entice, counsel, or
persuade to run away any apprentice, or [2] to harbor or
conceal him, knowing him to be a runaway. Any party so
ofteuding is guilty of a misdenieauor, and may be fined not
more than one hundred dollars, to be recovered by the master
in any court having jurisdiction.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by Code Commis-
sion Act March 16, 1901. Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 343, l^eld
unconttUuUonal; see history, § 4 ante; amendment re-enacted
March 21, 1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 563.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 7 pars, annotation.

As to enticing away and harboring apprentices, see 3 Cyc.
556, 2 Encyc. L. 507.

§276. RELEASE OF MASTER MOVING OUT OF STATE

OR QUITTING BUSINESS. Whenever any master wishes [IJ
to remove out of the state, or [2] to quit his trade or busi-
ness, he must appear with his apprentice before the superior
court of the county in which the latter resides, and if the
court is satisfied that the njaster has done justice to the
apprentice for the time he has had charge of him, the court
has power to discharge the master from the indenture and
to again bind the apprentice, if necessary.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by Code Commis-
sion Acf March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 344, held
unconttHuUonal; s^e history, § 4 ante; amendment re-enacted
March 21, 1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 563.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 269 and note.



133



§274



CIVIL CODE.



[Div.I,Pt.IV.






PART IV.

CORPORATIONS.

Till General Provisions Applicable to All Corporations,

§§ 283-403.
II. Insurance Corporations, §§ 414-453p.
III. Railroad Corporations, §§ 454-494.
IV. Street Railroad Corporations, §§ 497-511.
V. Wagon Road Corporations, §§ 512-524.
VI. Bridge, Ferry, Wharf, Chute, and Pier Corporations,

§§528-531.
VII. Telegraph and Telephone Corporations, §§ 536-540.
VIII. Water and Canal Corporations, §§ 548-552.
IX. Homestead Corporations, §§ 557-5§6.
X. Savings and Loan Corporations, §§ 571-583b.
XI. Mining Corporations, §§ 586-590.
XIa. Corporations for the Formation of Chambers of Com-
merce, Boards of Trade, Mechanics' Institutes, and
Other Kindred Associations, §§ 591-592e.
XII. Religious, Social, and Benevolent Corporations,
§§ 593-605.
Xlla. Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

and Animals, §§ 607-607g.
XIII. Cemetery Corporations, §§ 608-616.
XIV. Agricultural Fair Corporations, §§ 620-622.
XV. Corporations to Furnish Light for Public Use,
§§629-632.
XVI. Building and Loan Associations, §§ 633-648a.
XVII. Colleges and Seminaries of Learning, §§ 649-651.
XVIII. Consolidation of Colleges and Institutions of Higher
Education, §§652, 653.
XIX. Co-operative Business Corporations, § 653a.
XX. Co-operative Business Associations, §§ 653b-6531.
XXI. Non-profit Co-operative Agriculture, Viticulture and
Horticultural Associations, 653m-653s.
XXII. Non-profit Co-operative Corporations, §§ 653t-653zb.

134



Tit.I,ch.I,art.I.]



CORPORATIONS.



§283



TITLE I.

GENERAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL CORPORA-
TIONS.

Chapter I. Formation of Corporations, §§ 2S3-321b.
IL Corporate Stock, §§ 322-349.
TIL Corporate Powers, §§ 354-393.
IV. Extension and Dissolution of Corporations,

§§ 399-403.
V. General Provisions Affecting Corporations,
§§403[a], 404.
VI. Foreign Corporations, §§ 405-410.



CHAPTER I.

FORMATION OF CORPORATIONS.

Article I. Corporations Defined and How Organized, §§ 283-
300a.
II. By-Laws, Directors, Electors, and Meetings,
§§ 301-321b.



ARTICLE I.
CORPORATIONS DEFINED AND HOW ORGANIZED.

§ 283. Corporation defined.

§ 284. [Kinds of] — Wliat are public and what private corpora-
tions.

§ 285. Private, liow formed.

§ 286. [Same] — -For what purpose.

§ 287. Existence, how continued [under code].

§ 288. Existing corporations not affected.

§ 289. Name of instrument creating- corporation.

§ 290. Articles of incorporation. What they must set forth.
Number of directors may be increased or diminished.

§ 290a. Minimum capital required to be put in.

§ 2901/^. "Trust" and "trustee," when may be part of corporate
name.

135



§ 283 CIVIL CODE. [Div.I.PtlV.

§ 291. Certain corporations to state further facts in articles.

§ 292. How executed — [Subscription and acknowledgment].

§ 293. Prerequisite to filing articles — Amounts to be subscribed
to be affixed.

§ 294. Prerequisites to filing articles of incorporations for
profit.

§ 295. Oath of officer to subscription of stock and payment of
ten per cent.

§ 296. Articles of incorporation — Corporate name must not be
duplicated nor closely imitated.

§ 297. Copy of articles prima facie evidence.

§ 297a. Restoration of lost original articles of incorporation.

§ 298. Who are members and who stockholders of a corpora-
tion.

§ 299. When members die successors to be elected [repealed].

§ 299[a]. Copies of articles must be filed in every county wherein
the corporation acquired property, etc.

§ 300. Capital stock of banking corporations — dividends.

§ 300a. Copy of decree to be filed with secretary of state.

§ 283. CORPORATION DEFINED. A corporation is a crea-
ture of the law, having certain powers and duties of a natural
person. Being created by the law, it may continue for any
length of time which the law prescribes.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 27 pars, annotation.
51 C. 406, 410 (applied to levy districts); 117 C. 168, 177, 48
P. 1075 (quoted in opinion).

CORPOllATIONS — GENERALLY.

As to how formed in California, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 285
pars. 19, 20.

Acceptance by of legislative amendments to their charters,
what constitutes. — See 53 A. D. 460.

Acts ultra vires. — See 2 L. 420; 6 L.. 290.

Same — Estoppel to set up plea of. — See 1 L. 285; 11 L. 847;
12 L. 168; 20 L. 765.

Annual corporation tax is constitutional. — See Kaiser L. & F.
Co. V. Curry, decided by supreme court June 15, 1909.

As distinguished from stockholders. — See 2 W. P. 1612.

As individual or person. — See 4 W. & P. 3560; 6 W. & P. 5327.

Assessment of stock, right of to make. — See 76 A. S. 126.

Association of brokers. — See 2 W. & P. 1617.

Bank.— See 2 W. & P. 1617.

Books of, stockholder's right to inspect, and remedies for its
enforcement. — See 107 A. S. 674.

136



Tit.I,Cll.I,art.I.] CORPORATIONS, GENERALLY. § 283

Burdens imposed by state as conditions of grant. — See 1
Obiter Dig-. 451, 452.

By-laws of corporation — As to generally and effect of. — See
1 L. 482; 5 L. 96; 18 L. 582; 25 L. 48; 27 L. 271; 32 L. 575.

Same — Conflict between and certificate or bond of mutual
benefit society or insurance company. — See 47 L. 681.

Same — Limitations on power of to enact. — See 43 A. S. 152.

Same — What may adopt. — See 85 A. D. 617.

Capital, stock and stockholders — In g-eneral. — See 2 L. 798;
3 L. 265; 6 L. 677; 12 L. 781; 13 L. 605; 18 L. 255; 24 L. 687; 55
L. 796; 1 L. N. S. 258; 1 L. N. S. 571; 1 L. N. S. 605-615; 2 L. N. S.
121; 2 L. N. S. 493; 8 L. N. S. 788; 9 L. N. S. 885; 10 L. N. S. 725.

Same — Same — Bonus stock, false or fraudulent issue. — See 19
L. 331; 38 L. 490.

Same — Same — Holders of stock, who may be stockholders. —
See 18 L. 252; 19 L. 684; 24 L. 252; 46 L. 618; 61 L. 621-633.

Same — Same — Increase of capital stock. — See 9 L. 631; 16 L. '
461; 38 L. 616.

Same — Same — Forfeiture of corporate stock. — See 27 L. 305-
321.

Same — Same — Preferred, guaranteed and interest-bearing
stock. — See 27 L. 136-153.

Same — Subscription to — generally. — See 3 L. 37; 3 L. 796; 3 L.
798; 4 L. 508; 7 L. 661; 7 L. 706; 22 L. 81.

Same — Same — Rescission for fraud or misrepresentation. —
See 33 L. 721-729.

Same — Same — Withdrawal of subscription. — See 32 L. 593-597.

Same — Sale and transfer — Generally, see 3 L. 784; 7 L. 391;
12 L. 781; 19 L. 331; 50 L. 501; 53 L. 153.

Same — Same — Duty of corporation with respect to transfer
of stock held in trust. — See 15 L. 643-646.

Same — Same — Pledge of stock. — See 12 L. 781; 43 L. 739-742;
45 L. 394; 67 L. 656-683.

Same — Same — Restrictions on right to sell. — See 27 L. 271-
276.

Same — Rights of share-holders — Generally, see 4 L. 746; 64
L. 609.

Same — Same — Right of stockholders to inspect books. — See
45 L. 446-471.

Same — Same — Dividends, — See 2 L. 1S3; 12 L. 783; 16 L. 461;
45 L. 392-397.

Same — Liability of share-holders — Generally, 3 L. 797; 7 L.
705; 16 L. 285; 26 L. 781; 38 L. 108; 55 L. 47.

Same — Same — Calls and assessments. — See 4 L. 232; 39 L.
694; 58 L. 85; 66 L. 791.

Same — Same — Same — Assessments on paid up stock. — See 45
L. 648-653.

137



§ 283 CIVIL CODE. [Div.T,Pt.IV.

Same — Same — Effect of transfer of shares upon liability for
unpaid subscription. — See 47 L. 246-264.

Same — Same — Liability of pledgee of stock as a share-
holder. — See 36 L. 139.

Same — Same — Partnership liability of stockholders in case of
defective or illegal corporation. — See 17 L. 550-554.

Same — Same — Payment for stock by transfer of property as
protection against liability of creditors of corporation. — See 42
L. 593-620.

Same — Same — Who may enforce and the remedy. — See 2 L.
270; 6 L. 67-6; 23 L. 316; 48 L. 637; 50 L. 273; 54 L. 825; 58 L. 85.

Same — Same — Riglit to enforce outside of state of incorpora-
tion.— See 34 L. 737-763.

Same — Dividends, stock and rights. — See 3 L. N. S. 1034; 12
L. N. S. 768; 12 L. N. S. 810; 12 L. N. S. 969.

Same— Liability of stockholders. — See 1 L. N. S. 901; 1 L. N. S.
1171; 3 L. N. S. 954; 6 L. N. S. 1003; 8 L. N. S. 263; 8 L. N. S. 271;
10 L. N. S. 472; 10 L. N. S. 897; 11 L. N. S. 230; 11 L. N. S. 818.

Same — Transfer. — See 2 L. N. S. 804; 3 L. N. S. 551; 3 L. N. S.
1199; 8 L. N. S. 314.

Change in membership does not destroy identity. — See 1
Obiter Dig. 447.

Characteristics and kinds of. — See 2 W. & P. 1610.

Charters and franchises — As to, generally, 2 L. 199; 2 L. 257;
3 L. 175; 8 L. 498; 9 L. 34; 10 L. 406; 27 L. 737; 62 L. 76.

Same — Forfeiture, restraining exercise of corporate fran-
chise.— See 2 L. 256; 3 L. 510; 7 L. 319; 8 L. 498; 9 L. 35; 9 L. 37;
9 L, 273; 24 L. 462; 63 L. 761.

Same — What within power to fill lateral railroad. — See 12
L. N. S. 326.

Classification of corporations. — See 1 A. C. 368; 8 A. C. 558.

Common law and statutory corporations, distinction be-
tween. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 450.

Company — Distinguished from. — See 2 W. & P. 1611.

Same — Synonymous with. — See 2 W. & P. 1611.

Concentration of stock in hands of one person, as affecting
dissolution of corporation. — See 8 A. C. 1076.

Consolidation of corporations — As to, generally. — 79 A. D.
421; 2 L. 564; 2 L. 594; 3 L. 435; 4 L. 365; 6 L. 222; 13 L. 781;
15 L. 82.

Same — Effect of. — See 89 A. S. 604.

Same — Same — On pre-existing indebtedness, 59 A. S. 550.

Same — Right to consolidate. — See 5 L. 726; 45 L. 271; 52 L.
369-390.

Same — Rights and liabilities of consolidated corporation. —
See 2 L. 565; 3 L. 747; 5 L. 726; 23 L. 231-234.

Constitutionality — Of annual corporation tax. — See "Annual
Corporation Tax," this note.

138



Tit.I,ch.I,art.I.] corporations, generally. § 283

Same — Of special or local laws annexing and consolidating
corporations. — See 3 A. C. 499.

Construction of grants to corporations. — See 1 Obiter Dig.
452-454.

Contracts — By agents.- — See 12 L. 715.

Same — Not to engage in certain business — Effect of incorpo-
ration of business by covenantees. — See 17 L. N. S. 979.

Same — Of, forbidden by their charters or other statutes. — See
51 A. D. 341.

Same — Of promoters or members, when must carry out. — See
13 A. S. 28.

Control of corporation by legislature and courts. — See 7 A.
C. 400; 8 A. C. 614; 9 A. C. 819.

Conveyances by, how and by whom may be executed. — See 23
A. D. 743.

Corporate seal, adoption of and effect and necessity for its
use.— See 50 A. S. 150.

Creation of. — See 2 W. & P. 1611.

Same — And organization of. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 447, 448.

Damages, exemplary, liability of for. — See 59 A. S. 589.

De facto — Personal liability of members of. — See 29 A. S. 600.

Same — What constitutes. — See 118 A. S. 253.

Defective formation of and its consequences. — See 33 A. S.'
176.

Definition and nature of. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 445; 2 W. & P.
1608-1610.

Devises and bequests to, heirs of testator, whether may as-
sail. — See 60 A. S. 318.

Directors — Transactions between and corporations. — See 17
A. S. 298.

Same — Liability of. — See 53 A. D. 637.

Same — Same — For misrepresenting solvency of. — See 8 A. S.
604.

Same — Same — For negligence. — See 17 A. S. 95.

Dissolution and winding up — As to generally, see 1 L. 781; 2
L. 256; 2 L. 549; 2 L. 550; 8 L. 498; 8 L. 858; 9 L. 32; 9 L. 33;
9 L. 273; 9 L. 274; 9 L. 651; 20 L. 210; see also "Insolvency or
dissolution," this note.

Same — Same — Period of existence of private corporation. —
See 33 L. 576-579.

Same — Consolidation and merger. — See 2 L. N. S. 493; 5 L. N.
S. 326; 11 L. N. S. 863; 11 L. N. S. 1119.

Same— Effect of.— See 12 A. D. 239; 7 A. S. 717.
Same — Same — Upon debts and pending actions.— See 40 A. D.
737.

Same — Power of the courts to decree. — See 96 A. D. 756.
Distinction between public and private porporation, — See I
A. C. 371.

139



§ 283 CIVIL CODE. [Div.I.Pt.IV.

Dividends — And riglits and remedies of stockholders with
respect thereto. — See 99 A. D. 761.

Same— On stock, life tenant, when entitled to. — See 24 A. R.
169; 54 A. R. 264; 118 A. S. 162.

Same — Stock and cash, difference between. — See 118 A. S. 162.

"Doing business within prohibition of statute," a single or
isolated transaction by a foreign corporation is not. — See 10
L. N. S. 693.

Elections, voting by proxy. — See 27 A. D. 60.

Eminent domain, condemnation of property of in proceedings
in exercise of right of. — See 9 A. S. 137.

Extra territorial rights of. — See 2 W. & P. 1613.

Fiction of incorporation to evade law. — See 1 L. N. S. 176.

Foreign corporations — Generally, see 8 L. 236; 9 L. 601; 12
L. 366; 13 L. 584; 18 L. 524; 24 L. 289-297; 70 L. 691; 1 L. N. S.
558: 1 L. N. S. 1019; 1 L. N. S. 1041; 2 L. N. S. 127; 3 L. N. S.
551 : 4 L. N. S. 688; 8 L. N. S. 538; 9 L. N. S. 417; 9 L. N. S. 1214;
10 L. N. S. 693.

Same — Exclusion of as interference with interstate com-
merce.— See 24 L. 311-314.

Same — Effect of non-compliance with statutory conditions. —
See 24 L. 315-320; 25 L. 569.
• Same — Same — Right to own real estate. — See 24 L. 322-329.

Same — Included. — See 2 W. & P. 1614.

Same — Jurisdiction over. — See 85 A. S. 905.

Same — Power of the states to discriminate against. — See 95
A. D. 536.

Same — Removal of cause by. — See 1 L. 65; 3 L. 572; 11 L.
568; 24 L. 294.

Same — Right of nonresident to sue. — See 70 L. 513-550.

Same — Service of process upon and garnishment of. — See 23
L. 490, 499; 50 L. 589; 67 L. 214.

Same — Statute of limitations, application of to. — See 52 A. D.
256.

Same — Taxation of by the states. — See 96 A. D. 338.

Fourteenth amendment protects. — See 25 A. S. 873.

Garnishment of foreign corporations. — See 67 L. 214.

Governmental control and regulation of. — See 1 L. N. S. 176;
7 L. N. S. 1086; 8 L. N. S. 529; 10 L. N. S. 251; 11 L. N. S. 973.

Implied powers of. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 450, 451.

Incorporation distinguished. — See 2 W. & P. 1614.

Indebtedness, power to give evidence of and security there-
for. — See 111 A. S. 309.

Insolvency or dissolution. — See 15 L. 627; 51 L. 146; 69 L.
124-155; see also "Dissolution and Winding Up," this note.

Same — Disposition of property and preferences — Generally. —
See 5 L. 378; 5 L. 649; 5 L. 650; 7 L. 707; 9 L. 273; 18 L. 306; 22
L. 802-810; 30 L. 240; 38 L. 97.

140



Tit.I,ch.I,art.I.] CORPORATIONS, GENERALLY. § 283

Same — Power of courts to compel payment by subscriptions
and the levy and payment of assessnrients at the instance of
creditors. — See 100 A. D. 552.

Same — Preferences by, 42 A. S. 767; 45 A. S. 826. "

Is an entity distinguished from its stockholders. — See 1
Obiter Dig. 447.

Joint-stock company.— See 2 W. & P. 1617.

Joint tort feasors, promoters and conspirators are when. — See
97 P. 10, 16; 18 L. N. S. 1106.

Judgment against, effect of on stockholders. — See 97 A. S.
463.

Jurisdiction and control over — Generally. — See 1 L. 65; 1 L.
332; 2 L. 551; 9 L. 651; 12 L. 180;' 32 L. 575; 45 L. 457; 50 L. 58S.

Legislative power to repeal franchise of under a conditional
reservation. — See 43 A. D. 118.

Liability — For acts of agents — Generally. — See 1 Obiter Dig.
457.

Same — Contracts. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 458-460.

Same — Torts. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 460, 461.

Same — For debts of pre-existing corporation or partnership. —
See 59 A. S. 547.

Same — For torts. — See 5 A. D. 42; 13 A. D. 596.

Same — Holders of stock of as collateral, for corporate debts. —
See 1 A. S. 783.

Same — Officers dependent on the manner of signing contracts.
—39 A. R. 299.

Same — Subscribers to stock to creditors in suits to enforce. —
See 3 A. S. 808.

Libel and slander — Liability of for. — See 115 A. S. 721.

Same — Of corporation. — See 52 L. 525.

Same — Right to sue for. — See 2 L. N. S. 741.

Lien of on corporate stock. — See 11 A. D. 581.

Malicious prosecution, liability to actions for. — See 34 A. R.
495.

Mandamus to compel performance of duties by. — See 3 A. S.
807, 37 A. S. 317.

Matters affecting corporate existence. — See 1 A. C. 88; 4 A. C.
1057; 7 A. C. 400; 8 A. C. 1073.

Meetings — Agreements to control future voting of stock at. —
See 56 A. S. 138.

Same — ^Not properly called, validity of acts done at. — See 18
A. D. 102.

Same — Special, notice to attend, when maj' be omitted. — See
3 A. S. 69.

Members, right of to expel. — See 114 A. S. 24.

Municipal or quasi public corporations. — See 2 W. & P. 1618-
1620.

Must act by its agents or servants. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 454.

Name of. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 448.

141



§ 283 CIVIL CODE. [Div.I.Pt.IV.

Natural person distinguished from. — See 2 W. & P. 1615.

Nature, creation, jurisdiction and control of — As to f?ener-
ally, see 1 L. 757; 4 L. 36; 7 L. 591; 9 L. 33: 12 L. 366: 13 L. 370;
13 L. 770; 14 L. 184; 14 L. 410; 24 L. 293; 29 I.. 378.

Notice to officer — Or agent, effect of. — See 36 A. D. 188.

Same — Does not affect corporation when. — See 39 A. R. 322.

Officers and promoters of. — See 1 L. N. S. 258; 2 L. N. S. 993:
4 L. N. S. 58; 6 L. N. S. 324; 6 L. N. S. 872; 7 L. N. S. 373; S
L. N. S. 739; 9 L. N. S. 979.

Same — Personal liability of to tliird persons. — See 48 A. S.
913.

Same — Resignation of. — See 95 A. S. 578.

Personal liability of persons acting as witliout autliority. —
See 29 A. S. 600.

Pleading, corporate existence, necessity of averring. — Sec 35
A. S. 289.

Power of — Congress as to corporation. — See 1 Obiter Dig. 449.

Same-^Courts to fix or regulate rates of public service cor-
porations. — See 9 A. C. 823.

Same — State or court to regulate and control. — See 1 Obiter
Dig. 448, 449.

Same — To borrow money. — See 111 A. S. 309.



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