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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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the protest.

Illxtoryi Enacted March 21, 187:

As to many miscellaneous matters as to bills of exohan^e, so«
note { 3121, ante.

1579



§§ 3232-3234 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.IV.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to negotiable instru-
ments, see note § 3086, ante.

Form of notice of dishonor. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3143 and
note.

Service of notice. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 3144, 3145, 3146 and
notes.

Time of giving notice. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3158 and note.

Who may give notice. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3142 and note.

§3232. WAIVER OF PROTEST. If a foreign bill of ex-
change on its face waives protest, notice of dishonor may
be given to any party thereto, in like manner as of an
inland bill; except that if any indorser of such a bill
expressly requires protest to be made, by a direction written
on the bill at or before his indorsement, protest must be
made, and notice thereof given to him and to all subsequent
indorsers.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to bills of exchange, see
note § 3121, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to negotiable instru-
ments, see note § 3086, ante.

Notice of dishonor waived. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3155 and
note.

§ 3233. DECLARATION BEFORE PAYMENT FOR HONOR.

One who pays a foreign bill of exchange for honor must
declare, before payment, in the presence of a person author-
ized to make protest, for whose honor he pays the same,
in order to entitle him to reimbursement.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to bills of exchange, see
note § 3121, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to negotiable instru-
ments, see note § 3086, ante.

Acceptance or payment for honor. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3203
and note.

§3234. DAMAGES ALLOWED ON DISHONOR OF FOR-
EIGN BILL. Damages are allowed as hereinafter prescribed,
as a full compensation for interest accrued before notice

1580



Tit. XV.ch.IF.art. VIII.] DAMAGKS. 55 3235-3237

of dishonor, re-exchange, expenses, and all other damages,
in favor of holders for value only, upon bills of exchange
drawn or negotiated within this state, and protested for
non-acceptance or non-payment.

HiMforyi Enacted March 21. 1S72.

As to damagis In liou of Interest, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. S 3234.
note.

As to many miscellaneous inattt-rs as to Mils of exclianflre, boo
note § 3121, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to negotiable Instru-
ments, see note § 3086, ant(\

§323.1. I{.\TE ()F D.V.ir.VCiKS. Damages are allowed under
the last section ui»ou bills drawn upon any person:

1. If drawn upon a person in this state, two dollars upon
each one hundred dollars of the i)rincipal sum specified in the
bill;

2. If drawn upon a person out of this state, five dollars

upon each one hundred flullniv; ,,f the ni-iiiein.-il sum sii.M-i-

ficd in the bill;

;!. If drawn upon a persuii in any ttkne in a fiirri-n cuiin-
try. fifteen dollars upon each one hundred dollars of the
principal sum specified in the bill.

IIIntorTt Enacted Marrli 21. 1872; amended by Code C^mmln-
.«<i<Mi. Art March 16. 1901. SUts. and Amdta. 1900-1. p. 421. hold
unconstitutional, see history. | 4 ante; aniondinent re-enacted
March 21. lOO.'i. Stata. and Amdtn. 1906. p. 621.

S32:{(i. INTEREST O.N .VMOl.M 01 I'HOlhMlH HML.
From the time of notice of dishonor and demand of p&,v-
ment. lawful Interest nnist be allowed uiwm the aggregBte
amount of the principal sum Hi)ecllied In the bill, and the
(lainagos mentioned in the prpceding section.

III-.li>r>i KiKi. t. ,1 M:ii.!i ' ' ' " "



§ 3_»n7. I>A.MA(JF.S, HOW KSTIMATEH. If the amount of
a protested bill of exchange is expressed In money of the

1581



§§ 3238, 3244 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.IV.

United States, damages are estimated upon such amount
without regard to the rate of exchange.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§3238. SAME. [IN FOKEIGN MONEY.] If the amount
of a protested bill of exchange is expressed in foreign money,
damages are estimated upon the value of a similar bill at
the time of protest, in the place nearest to the place where
the bill was negotiated and where such bills are currently
sold.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.



CHAPTER III.

PROMISSORY NOTES.

§ 3244. Promissory note, what.

§ 3245. Certain instruments promissory notes.

§ 3246. Bill of exchange, when converted into a note.

§ 3247. Certain sections applicable to notes.

§ 3248. Effect of delay in presentment.

§3244. PROMISSORY NOTE, WHAT. A promissory note
is an instrument, negotiable in form, whereby the signer
promises to pay a specified sum of money.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 20 pars, annotation.
103 C. 319, 324, 42 A. S. 117, 37 P. 401 (applied).
As to many miscellaneous matters as to negotiable instru-
ments, see note § 3086, ante.

PROMISSORY NOTES.

As to form of. — See 1 A. C. 610; 7 A. C. 802; 9 A. C. 1193.

As to what constitutes indorsement of negotiable instrument,
see 'Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3108 and note.

Accommodation — As to rights of parties under, see 2 A. C.
256.

Same — Acquirer of after maturity, right of. — See 36 A. R. 335.

Same — Indorsement by bank. — See 23 L. 836.

Same — Liability of maker and endorser. — See 5 L. 698.

Same — Power of corporation to issue, — See 9 L. N. S. 1193.

1582



Tit.XV.Ch.III.l NOTES. ORNKHAM.Y. 5 3244



Same — RIplitH and llablHtioa of makers imd Indomom.'
31 A. S. 745.

Actions and defences, as to. f^encrally, sec 4 L. 19S; 22 Ij. 686:
61 L. 266.

Admissibility of parol evidence to show delivery of. upon con-
dition. — See 18 I.. N. S. 288.

ApTont. personal liability of on. — See 9 L. 830.

Agreement or memorandum not to enforce. — See 38 A. D. 346.

Alteration of — After execution. — See 7 A. R. 669.

Sann — By insertion of Interest clause. — See 2 !>. N. S. 217.

Amount of recovery on, as to, grenerally, see 36 L. 441; 44 !>.
243-250.

Assignee of legal title — As to. generally, see 1 A. C. 832.

Same — Right of action tliereon of nominal holder. — See 1 A. C
833.

Attorneys' fees — Stipulation In note for payment of. effect on
negotiability.— See 4 A. C. 263: 1 L. 547; 3 L. Bl.

Same — Validity of stipulation In note for. — See 55 A. S. 848:
7 L. 445.

Authority and capacity of parties — As to. generally, see 4 A. C
537; 6 A. C. 999.

Same — Executed or Indorsed by lunatic, validity and effect of.
— See 4 A. C. 539.

game — Ijlablllty of person signing as officer of corporatb'i.
See 6 A. C. 1000.

Same — Power of president and secretary of corpomtlon to
execute. — See 2 A. C. 520.

Hlank in. niling of after execution. — See 13 A. D. S6'.'

Bona flde holder, who Is.— Sep 3 A. D. 235; 9 A. P. 27 -' u \ i'
698.

Bona fide purchaser — As to, generally, see 1 A. C 21 Z . 2 A. C.
264: 2 A. C. 604; 4 A. C. 347; 5 A. C. 158; 6 A. C. 6SI.

Same — Of accommodation note after nuiturlty, right of — "^■•^
2 A. C. 256.

Same — ()f over-due negoilable paper from one to whom n
been Intrusted. — See 5 A. ('. 5M3.

Samt — Transfer of In payment of an antecedent debt, wh«th*r
Is a. — See 36 A. U. 688.

Same — Validity In bunds of, of negotiable contmct void by
statute between original parties. — See 4 A. C, 868.

Hy parent to chlUl. may It be th.> subject of n valid Ctft l>>
former to the latter. — See 7 I.. N. S. 156.

Contllct of laws — As to rights and llnbllltles of partle* t-
6 A. C. 158; 61 !>. 193.

Same — As to vallcllty of transfer of conun-r. I.U v ii.or» -S.^
2 A. C. 706.

Same — Concerning. — Seo 91 A. 8. 718, 733.

Consideration for — As to. generally, see : ■

260 1 L. 594; 10 I.,. 676: 12 1* 845; 18 I* 86S: 2« 1* Aw*; 4* U ',i*t.

1683



§ 3244 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.IV.

Same — Partial failure of as defense to action on. — See 2 A. C.
430.

Same^ — Statute requiring giving- for patent right to show, con-
stitutionality. — See 5 A. C. 426.

Construction together of note and contemporaneous written
instrument intended to control note. — See 5 A. C. 149.

Contemporaneous agreement and breach as to defense to an
action on. — See 43 L. 449-469.

Centjact of guaranty of, does it cover renewals. — See 16 L. N.
S. 775; also note § 2787, ante.

Corporations— Power to issue accommodation paper. — See 9
L. N. S. 193.

Delivery — Agreement for other signatures before. — See 45 L.
343.

Same — As an escrow.- — See 5 L. 697.

Same — Conditional. — See 43 L. 480.

Same — Necessity of.- — See 6 L. 470.

Same — Takes effect from. — See 6 L. 469; 13 L. 52.

Demand and notice of dishonor— Waiver of by taking security.
— See 39 A. D. 95.

Same — What excuses. — See 1 A. D. 99.

Demand required where payable in specific articles. — See 46
A. R. 307.

Demand where maker is out of the state. — See 13 A. D. 346.

Discharge and payment — As to, generally, see 5 A. C. 296; 7
A. C. 364; 7 A. C. 1000.

Same — Failure of bank to apply general deposit on depositor's
note as discharging surety or indorser. — See 7 A. C. 1007.

Same — Payment to bank where note is made payable as dis-
charging maker.- — See 5 A. C. 298.

Duty of one taking, to communicate the check of principal's
insolvency to one assuming the obligation of surety. — See 14
L. N. S. 376.

Effect of acceleration provision in note to start statute of
limitations running.— See 12 L. N. S. 1190.

Effect of setting up defects in articles purchased as a coun-
terclaim on one of a series of notes given for, or for an instal-
ment of, the purchase price, upon the right to set up like coun-
terclaim in subsequent actions. — See 10 L. N. S. 734.

Executed to fictitious payee, effect of. — See 55 A. R. 472.

Execution and delivery — As to, generally, see 3 A. C. 559; 4
A. C. 639.

Same — Parol evidence of conditional. — See 3 A. C. 560.

Extrinsic evidence to show who is liable as maker of, admis-
sibility of. — See 20 L. 705.

Fictitious names — As affecting validity of. — See 39 L. 425.

Same — Rights of bona fide holder of. — See 6 L. 625.

Figures in margin of, object and effect of. — See 1 A. C. 611;
44 A. R. 690.

1584



Tit.XV.Ch.III.] NOTES, GENERAI.r.V. §3244

Forged — Liability of seller of. — See 50 A. D. 60G.

Same — Liability on. — Soe 3G L. 539.

Same — Right of recovery of persons receiving i-.i.- u>',>l <>{. —
See 17 A. R. 313.

I<"'orged indorsement — As to generally, see 49 A. D. 315.

Same — Estoppel to contest. — See 37 A. R. 704.

Form of, figures in the margin of, effect of. — See 44 A. H. 690.

Forms of indorsement — As to, generally, see 1 L. 64S; 1 I^ 712;
6 L. 469; 12 L. 370.

Same — For collection. — See 2 L. 699; 7 L. 852: 8 L. 4 2.

Same — Irregular as to. — See 18 L. 33; 61 L. 200.

Fraud — In inception of does not prejudice a bona tide holder.
—See 11 A. S. 309.

Same — In procuring the delivery of, when available ns a
defense. — See 37 A. S. 458.

Guaranty of collection of — As to, see note § 2787, ante.

Same — Effect of and how enforced. — See 64 A. S. 393.

Guaranty by surety of other signatures. — See 49 L. 315.

How far wife bound by, given for family expenses. — See 3 L.
N. S. 145.

Implied warranty of genuineness. — See 12 L. 434; 36 L. 92-96;
49 L. 415.

Indorsement — Acknowledgment by payee, in Indorstinent, of
lial)ility as maker. — See 7 L. N. S. 400.

Same — By one not a payee. — See 3 A. D. 571.

Same — By one of two joint payees or indorsees. — See 18 I.. N.
S. 630,

Same — By stranger before delivery. — See 72 A. S. 676.

Same — By third person before delivery. — See 39 A. U. 5.'>7.

Same — Failure of bank to apply principal's deposit account
upon note, effect upon indorser or surety. — See 8 I* N. S. 944.

Same — In blank by person other than the payee or holder. —
See 29 A. S. 297.

Same — Liability of one who, after receiving relndorsement,
transfers the note for value without cancelling his Indorse-
ment. — See 10 L. N. S. 260.

Same — Parol evidence to vary effect of. — See 7 A. S. 366.

Same — Payment voidable under l»ankruptcy act as discharge
of surety, guarantor or Indorser. — See 9 L, N. S. 681.

Same — Right to show by parol evidence, unrestrlolcd reform,
was for purpose of collection only. — See 17 L. N. 8. 838.

Same — "Without recourse." — See 87 A. D. 389.

Indorsement and transfer — As to. generally, see 13 I* 62; 23
L. 836: 28 L. 577; 50 L. 75: 61 L. 220.

Indorser — Before delivery, liability of. — See 27 A. R. 680.

Same — Before due, competency of as a witness.- — See 22 A.
R. 93.

Infant's note for necessary supplies, liability on. — See 6 L.
177; 12 L. 859.

1585



§ 3244 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.Pt.IV.

Interpretation of negotiable instrument. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§§ 3099-3104 and notes.

Irregular indorsement, as to. — See 18 L. 34-36; 61 L. 200.

Levy on and seizure under attachment or execution. — See 14
L. N. S. 1234.

Lost or destroyed, right of action at law on. — See 16 L. 205.

Lunatic, validity and effect of negotiable paper signed or in-
dorsed by. — See 4 A. C. 539.

Marginal letters or figures on, otherwise blank as to amount,
effect of. — See 2 L. N. S. 879.

Maturity of — As to, generally, see 1 L. 319; 3 L. 759; 12 L.
120; 21 L. 440; 49 L. 207; 61 L. 195.

Same — Bank custom as to days of grace. — See 21 L. 442.

Same— Extension of time when next day follows on Sun-
day. — See 14 L. 120.

Same — Of demand note. — See 5 L. 533.

Memorandum on back of, at time of execution, as substan-
tive part thereof. — See 15 L. N. S. 612.

Memorandum upon, what deemed a part of, and effect of alter-
ation of.— See 14 A. D. 232.

Negotiability and transfer of — As to, generally, see 1 A. C.
384; 2 A. C. 504; 4 A. C. 261.

Same — Conflict of laws as to validity of transfer of commer-
cial paper. — See 2 A. C. 706.

Same — Of note containing a stipulation for attorney's fees
and costs of collection. — -See 4 A. C. 263.

Same- — Of note payable with exchange. — See 1 A. C. 385.

Negotiability of — As to, generally, see 1 L. 299; 3 L. 50; 7 L.
537; 8 L. 393; 11 L. 749; 12 L. 781; 20 L. 481; 26 L. 568; 35 L. 536;
61 L. 205.

Same — Attorney's fee, effect on of provision for payment of. —
See 21 A. R. 212.

Same — Provision permitting extension of time, as affecting. — •
See 16 L. N. S. 878.

Same — Reference to account or fund as affecting. — See 8 L.
N. S. 231.

Same — Uncertainty as to time of maturity, as affecting. — See
1 L. N. S. 1120.

Negotiable — Bona fide holders, right to recover on. — See 26
A. D. 156.

Same — Demand and notice of dishonor, waiver of by promise
to pay made after maturity. — See 8 A. D. 304.

Same — Indorsement of by one not a holder or payee. — See 56
A. D. 359.

Same — Indorsement, parol evidence to limit or vary effect
of.— See 9 A. D. 381.

Non-negotiable — Blank indorsement of. — See 13 A. D. 55.

Same — Liability of indorser under. — See 97 A. S. 985.

1586



t



Tit.XV.ch.IIL]



NOTES, GENERALLY.



§3244



Non-trading partners, commercial paper executed by. — See 11
L. 238.

Notice of dishonor, how waived. — See 38 A. D. 607.

Notice of non-acceptance, necessity of. — See 2 A. D. 619.

Object and effect of marginal figures at bills and notes. — See
1 A. C. 611.

Officer of corporation — Person signing as, liability of. — See 6
A. C. 1000.

Same — Personal liability of on note. — See 19 L. 676.

On which interest is passed to, whether to be regarded as dis-
honored and subject to defenses in the hands of bona fide
holders. — See 100 A. D. 196.

Partial failure of consideration as a defense. — See 2 A. C. 430.

Partner, power of one to bind firm by, under seal. — See 17 L.
N. S. 969.

Payable on demand. — See 80 A. D. 250.

Payee, designation of, what a sufficient. — See 64 A. D. 156.

Payment and discharge — As to authority of bank to pay where
made payable at the bank. — See 9 L. 560.

Same — By maker, which provision ineffectual as to satisfac-
tion, as affecting tlie liability of a surety thereon. — See 13 L. N.
S. 204.

Same — Effect of payment by volunteer. — See 2 L. 124.

Same — Where payable in foreign money. — See 20 L. 4S1.

Place of payment — Effect of failure to specify. — See K>rr's
Cyc. C. C. § 3100 and note.

Power of — Building association to issue. — See 43 L. 419.

Same — Partners to bind firm by, under seal. — See 17 I... N. S.
969.

Same — Transfer or indorser. — See 4 L. 857; 14 L. 35S; 23 L.
711; 27 L. 401-407; 53 L. 857.

Presentation and demand — As to, generally, see 7 A. C. 690;
21 L. 441; 61 L. 216.

Same — At place named in note payable on demand as con-
dition precedent to suit against maker. — See 7 A. C. 693.

Same— Effect of failure or delay.— See 22 L. 785; 68 L. 482-
491.

Same — Necessity of — As to. generally, see 12 L. 727: 61 L.

216, 217; 68 L. 487.

Same — Same — Actual, to affect its dishonor. — See 13 L. N. S.
303.

Same — Same — New consideration to support failure to protest
or give notice of non-payment. — See 3 L. N. S. 1079.

Same — Release of indorser l>y failure to enforci- liability of
maker. — See 18 L. N. S. 530.

Same — Sufficiency of — As to, generally, see 12 L. 731; 61 L.

217, 218.

Same — Same — Banking custom as to demand and notice. —
See 21 L. 441.

1587



§ 3244 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.Pt.IV.

Same — Same — In case of death of prior obligor. — See 23 L.
711.

Same — Same — Place of. — See 12 L. 727.

Same — Same — Service of notice by mail. — See 12 L. 731.

Same — Same — Time within which notice must be given. — See
12 L. 729.

Same — Same — To whom notice and protest to be given. — See
61 L. 900.

Same — Time allowed for. — See 4 L. N. S. 132.

Same — Waiver. — See 29 L. 301-315; 53 L. 365; 68 L. 491.

Presentment of — For payment, what a sufficient. — See 24 A. R.
160.

Same — Place of. — See 50 A. D. 643.

President and secretary of corporation are to execute. — See 2
A. C. 520.

President or vice-president of a corporation — Power of to
make. — See 14 L. 357.

Presumption — And burden of proof in action by purchaser. —
See 17 L. 326.

Same — Of place of indorsement of negotiable instrument. —
See 5 A. C. 160.

Procured by fraud, rights of bona fide purchasers of. — See
41 A. R. 607.

Proof of, as fixed liability under bankruptcy act. — See 54 L.
373.

Protest and notice — As to, generally, see 4 A. C. 639; 5 A. C.
476; 6 A. C. 280; 6 A. C. 408.

Same — As evidence. — See 96 A. D. 602.

Same — Necessity of new consideration to support waiver of
protest of. — See 5 A. C. 478.

Same — Necessity of notice of dishonor, to fix liability of
surety. — See 6 A. C. 280.

Same — Purpose, mode and sufficiency of. — See 43 A. D. 216.

Same — To whom to be given when indorser is insolvent or
bankrupt. — See 54 A. R. 818.

Same— Wrongful, liability for. — See 30 A. S. 158.

Provision for exchange, as affecting negotiability. — See 27 L.
222.

Public agents executing, personal liability of. — See 37 A. R.
142.

Public officer, liability on negotiable paper. — See 15 L. 512.

Purchaser of after default in tlie payment of interest. — See
30 A. R. 701.

Purchaser with notice — As to rights of, see 6 A. C. 202; 8
A. C. 623; 9 A. C. 339.

Same— Purchaser of one of series of notes having notice of
defense against other notes, as innocent purchaser. — See 9 A. C.
340.

1588



Tit.XV.ch.III.] NOTES. GENERAT.LY. §3244

Recovery back of payment — As to, generally, see I'l I>. N. S.
49-73.

Reformation of In eciuity. — See 65 A. S. 519.

Reissue of — After payment. — See 95 A. D. 587.

Same — Payment or acceptance to prevent. — See 92 A. D. 575.

Renewal of note by insane person, validity of. — See 34 L.
294.

Replevin or detinue for. — See 3 L. N. S. 138.

Rights and liabilities of parties to. — See 7 A. C. 394.

Right of action on, of nominal holder. — See 1 A. C. 833

Right of an Innocent payee to recover on a note slgn.-l iu
blank and intrusted to a third person who exceeds his author-
ity in filling up the blanks before delivery to the payee.— Sec
13 L. N. S. 490.

Rights of holder where transferred after maturity.— See 46
L. 753-812.

Right of transferee— As to, generally, see 49 L. 679; 54 I..
673; 1 L. N. S. 242, 18 L. N. S. 1221.

Same — Bona fide holders, notice of equities. — See 1 I- N. S.
188; 2 L. N. S. 525;' 5 L. N. S. 628; 17 L. N. S. 747.

Same— Extent of rights and protection of bona flde purchas-
ers—See 6 L. 502; 16 L. 45: 35 L. 161; 35 L. 464-470; 36 L. 434-
441; 54 L. 451: 61 L. 202; 3 L. N. S. 212; 4 L. N. S. 1042: 10 L. N.
S. 842; 13 L. N. S. 426.

Same— Transfer after maturity, ottoH of.— See 2 I.. N. S. 767;

11 L. N. S. 1034.

Same — Transfer without indorsement. — See 10 L. N. S. 510-
553; 17 L. N. S. 1105.

Same— Who protected as bona nde purchasers.— See 10 I>. 677;

12 L. 41; 61 L. 212.

Right to follow as a trust. — See 34 L. 536.

Right to maintain trover to recover pos.'ses.'^lon of paid.— S.-o
16 L. N. S. 1043.

Seal, effect of attaching to. — See 36 L. 605.

Signature of — As surety for surety. — See 21 I... 247.

Same — By mark. — See 22 L. 372.

Same — By proxy. — See 22 L. 297.

Same — Fictitious names, as affecting validity of.- S- •
425.

Same— Guaranty by surety of other signatures. — J^^ ' •'•

Same— Use of Initials In. or In Indorsing. — See 14 U r.y.1.

Signed through belief that there were other writings. Induced
by false represeiitatlon.«<. effect of In the hands of bona fldo
holders. — See 4 A. R. 240.

Signed through fraudulent representations ns to character of
Instrument signed. — See 11 A. R. 449.

Situs of, for purposes of administration. — See 24 L. 689.

1589



§ 3245 CIVIL, CODE. [Div.III,Pt.IV.

Statute of limitations, effect of acceleration provision in note
to start running-. — See 12 L. N. S. 1190.

Title acquired by payee of instrument fraudulently procured
from maker, or subject to other defenses, by purchase after
transfer to innocent third party. — See 8 A. C. 626.

Transfer — In violation of contract, effect of. — See 5 A. C. 148.

Same — Of negotiable note as security for antecedent debt. —
See 1 J^. C. 275.

Transferee of accommodated party, right of after maturity
as against accommodation party. — See 2 A. C. 256.

Unconditional promise to pay is essential to. — See 42 A. R.
366.

Validity of- — Given as a forfeit or as collateral to an invalid
oral agreement within statute of frauds. — See 18 L. 142.

Same — Given for money lost at play. — See 7 L. 705.

Same — Given for patent rights. — See 20 L. 605.

Same — Note renewed by insane person. — See 34 L. 274.

Same^ — -Of stipulation for attorney's fees. — See 7 L. 445.

Validity and effect of negotiable paper signed and indorsed
by lunatic. — See 4 A. C. 539.

Validity in hands of bona fide holder of negotiable contract
void by. statute between original parties. — See 4 A. C. 353.

Validity of oral guaranty by transfer of negotiable instru-
ment. — See 2 A. C. 506; also note §2787 ante.

Validity of statute requiring not given for patent rights to
show consideration. — See 5 A. C. 426.

Waiver of — Demand and notice by taking security. — See 4
A. D. 49.

Same — Right to demand and notice on part of indorser, proof
of by parol. — See 57 A. D. 665.

Where taxable. — See 2 L. 801.

Who may sue on, as to, generally, see 12 L. 683; 61 L. 222;
64 L. 599.



§3245. CERTAIIV INSTRUx¥ENTS PROMISSORY XOTES.

An instrument in the form of a bill of exchange, but drawn
upon and accepted by the drawer himself, is to be deemed
a promissory note.

History.: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by Code Com-
mission, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 421,
held unconstitutional, see history, § 4 ante.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to negotiable instru-
ments, see note § 3086, ante.

1590



Tit.XV,ch.III.l nilJ.S of EXCIIANr.i:. §§3246-3248

§3246. HILL (»F KX("HA>(;E, »HK\ ((nVKKTKI» INTO



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