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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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For libel and slander by wife. — See 30 L. 529.

For malicious prosecution. — See 4 L. 255.

For mental suffering disconnected from physical injury. — See
36 A. R. 306.

For miscarriage. — See 32 L. 142.

Same — Off-set against damages for suffering from, of suffer-
ings which would have resulted from natural parturition. — See
17 L. N. S. 398.

For misconduct of employee toward passenger. — See 3 L. 735.

For negligence as to collection of check, limitation to actual
amount lost. — See 1 L. N. S. 246.

For nuisance — By whom action for maintainable — As to, gen-
erally, see 1 A. C. 270; 6 A. C. 146.

Same — Same — By other than property owner. — See 1" A. C. 272.

Same — Same — 'Right of landlord to recover for, existing at
commencement of tenancy. — See 6 A. C. 150.

Same — Persons lialde for — As to. generally, see 1 A. C. 961;
10 A. C. 767.

Same — Samd — Municipality for failure to abate. — See 1 A. C.
964.

For personal injuries — As to. — See 10 L. 794; 11 L. 43; 11 L.
45-50; 12 L. 698; 14 L. 677; 16 L>. 268; 32 L. 142; 34 L. 831; 53 L.
631; 56 L. 312.

Same — Husband's right at common law to rocovt, r for loss of
time and funeral expenses occasioned by negligent killing of
wife. — See 9 L. N. S. 1193.

Same — Loss of services or diminished earning c;ii>a(it>-, right
of infant to recover for, during minority, in an action for per-
sonal injuries. — See 6 L. N. S. 552.

Same — Loss of time as affected by contingent character of
compensation. — See 8 L. N. S. 1228.

Same — Recovery by administrator of probable accumulations
of deceased as damages for his death. — See 15 L. N. S. 451.

1605



§ 3281 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.I.

/
Same — Recovery by collateral kindred for negligent killing. —

See 11 L. N. S. 623.

For pollution of w^-ter course.^ — ^See 9 A. C. 430-434; 7 L. 457.

For refusal of benefit society to levy assessment. — See 2 L.
786.

For refusing to carry passenger. — See 8 A. C. 218.

For torts and negligence — As to, generally, see 3 L. 733; 4 L.
255; 11 L,. 690; 30 L. 529; .34 L. 589; 55 L. 774; 56 L. 312.

For trespass on realty — As to, generally, see 4 A. C. 187; 4
A. C. 340; 6 A. C. 143.

Same — ^Personal wrong as aggravation of. — See 19 L. N. S.
1034.

For wrongful cancellation of policy issued on assessment
plan.— See 7 L. N. S. 1163.

For wrongful dishonor of check — As to, generally, see 7 A.
C. 818, 819; 10 A. C. 897.

Same — Admissibility, in action by depositor for damages for
wrongful dishonor of check, of evidence of depositor's financial
credit and standing.— See 10 A. C. 988.

For wrongful ejection from car. — See 1 L. 667; 3 L. 733.

For wrongful eviction of tenant. — See 6 A. C. 458, 460; 7 A. C.
591.

Fraud, statute of, right to recover for failure to perform con-
tract not valid under. — See 6 A. C. 495.

Fright as an element of. — See 12 A. C. 741; 77 A. S. 859.

General rules as to. — See 2 L. 766; 3 L. 587.

Health, reputation, or feelings injured. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 3301 and note par. 3.

Husband or wife, right at common law to recover for services
or consortium against person negligently causing death of
spouse. — See 19 L. N. S. 633.

In action for conversion — As to, generally, see 3 A. C. 889; 6
A. C. 834; 10 A. C. 1123.

Same— Right to show insolvency of maker of chose in action
in mitigation of damages. — See 6 A. C. 841.

In action on contracts — As to, generally, see 3 A. C. 407, 413.

Same — Exemplary damages in action on contract other than
to marry. — See 3 A. C. 413.

Same — Recovery of profits as damage for breach of contract
to sell on commission. — See 10 A. C. 654.

In action for criminal conversation.^ — See 10 A. C. 60.

In action for, on infringement of copyright. — See 5 A. C. 274,
279.

In action of unlawful detainer. — See 6 A. C. 458.

In condemnation of property under the law of eminent do-
main — ^As to, generally, see 1 A. C. 734; 8 A. C. 689; 8 A. C. 822;
9 A. C. 470; 10 A. C. 171; 10 A. C. 283; also "Eminent domain,"
etc., this note.

1606



Tit.II,ch.I,art.I.] DAMAGES, GENERALLY. | 328I

Same — For injury to personal property or expense of re-
moving it from condemned premises. — See 8 A. C. 696; also
"Eminent Domain," etc., this note.

In ejectment, damages for mesne profits. — See 5 A. C. 331.

In injunction cases — As to, generally, see 13 L. 312; 20 L.
752; 52 L. 58; 55 L. 389.

In injury to lateral and subjacent support. — See 3 A. C. 118;
5 A. C. 216; 10 A. C. 74; 5 L. N. S. 1066.

Instructions as to. — See 4 A. C. 532; 7 A. C. 114; 9 A. C. 553;
9 A. C. 1222.

Interest — As damages. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3287 and note.

Same — Governing law with respect to as damages. — See 56 L.
303; 62 L. 37.

Same — On amount of for negligent infliction of personal in-
juries. — See 14 L. 548; 18 L. 449.

Same — Right to on unliquidated damages. — See 4 L. 566.

Same — Upon sum allowed as. — See 18 L. 449.

Intoxicating liquor, for death from sale of. — See 3 L. 327.

Jurisdiction of court of equity to award compensatory. — See
14 L. N. S. 909.

Land owner, what may recover for maintaining and operating
railway and like public improvements. — See 5 A. S. 537.

Lateral support, removal of as constituting damage or injury
within meaning of constitutional provision against taking, etc.,
for public use without compensation. — See 5 L. N. S. 1086; also
3 A. C. 118; 5 A. C. 216; 10 A. C. 74.

Liquidated — As to, see 2 L. N. S. 210: 9 L. N. S. 1134; 10 L. N. S.
204.

Same — What agreements provide for. — See 30 A. R. 28.

Loss of customers as element of for obstruction of highway. —
See 13 L. N. S. 253.

Loss of profits — As an element of damages — As to, generally,
see 30 L. 57.

Same — Same — For trespass. — See 52 L. 42.

Same — Same — For wrongful destruction or compensation of
logs or timber. — See 18 L. N. S. 250.

Same — As damages. — Sec 69 A. D. 725-727; 42 A. R. 461-465;
60 A. R. 488-496: 30 A. S. 470, 471; 53 A. S. 143; 53 A. S. 9)6.

Same — For infringements of patents, copyrights or trade-
marks. — See 51 L. 801-823.

Same — From suspension of liuslnoss wliile moving, as an ele-
ment of damages in eminent domain. — See 17 L. N. S. 124.

Same — In case of conversion. — See 52 L. 51-57.

Same — In case' of tort. — See 52 L. 33-66.

Same — In eminent domain cases. — See "Eminent domain, etc.,"
tliis note.

Same — Same — As to, generally, see 51 L. 320-330.

Same — In use of plant as an element of damage for failure
to deliver materials to manufacturer. — See 3 L. N. S. 709.

1607



§ 3281 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.I.

Same — Of profits of sale or purchase. — See 52 L. 209-260.

Same — On breach of contract — Generally, see 53 L. 34-47.

Same — Same — For sale and purchase. — See 53 L. 83.

Same — Same — For services — By employee. — See 53 L. 48-57.

Same — Same — Same — By employer or owner. — See 53 L. 57-80.

Same — Same — For transmission of telegrams. — See 53 L. 91-
111; see "Telegrams," this note.

Same-— Same — Partnership contracts. — See 53 L. 81.

Same — On possible sales as measure of damages for breach
of contract where no contingent sales have been made. — See 8
L. N. S. 255.

Same — Upon refusal of vendee to take article manufactured
to order.^-See 4 L. N. S. 740; 18 L. N. S. 613.

Master or employer — Effect of servant or agent's malice,
wantonness or personal motive on amount of damages recov-
erable from, for injuries to third person due to negligence of
servant or agent having custody of dangerous agency. — See 10
L. N. S. 403.

Mental anguish — As to, generally, see 2 L. N. S. 898; 6 L. N. S.
883; 7 L. N. S. 518; 14 L. N. S. 1242; 15 L. N. S. 775; 16 L,. N. S.
674; 17 L. N. S. 594.

Same — As element of — As to, generally, see 7 A. S. 534, 30 A.
C. 711; 1 L. 677; 2 L. 767; 3 L. 327; 8 L. 765; 13 L. 859; 53 L. 632.

Same — Same — For causing death. — See 13 L. 860.

Same- — Same — In action for breach of contract relative to
corpse. — See 19 L. N. S. 564.

Same — Evidence admissible to show. — See 19 L. N. S. 409.

Same — In case of carriers. — See 3 L. N. S. 225; 12 L. N. S.
184; 13 L. N. S. 159.

Same — In case of death. — See 13 L. 860; also "For causing
death," this note.

Same — Same — Caused by sale of intoxicating liquor. — See 3 L.
327.

Same — In case of ejection from car. — See 1 L. 677.

Same — In case of personal injuries. — See 8 L. 765.

Same — In case of telegrams. — See 6 L. 669; 13 L. 859; 63 L. 532;
8 L. N. S. 249; 11 L. N. S. 497; 12 L. N. S. 886; 14 L. N. S. 499;
14 L. N. S. 927; 15 L. N. S. 277; see "Telegrams," this note.

Same — In case of trespass. — See 53 L. 632.

Same— On account of another's mental or physical suffering.
—See 19 L. N. S. 500.

Same — Right of person not mentioned in telegram and whose
interest is not communicated to the company to recover for. —
See 19 L: N. S. 475.

Same — Right to recover for consequence upon failure of tele-
graph company to transmit money to prepare corpse for
burial.— See 19 L. N. S. 575.

Mental suffering as an element of in personal injury case. —
See 12 L. 698; also "Mental anguish," this note.

1608



Tit.ir,ch.I,art.I.] damages, generat.t.y. §3281

Mitigation of — And reduction of, as to, generally, see 26 L.
432; 57 L. 202; 67 L. 87-95.

Same — By proof tiiat an injured person was suffering from
disease. — See 10 A. S. 64.

Same — Duty of person whose property has been controverted
or destroyed to purchase like property in. — See 6 A. S. 364.

Same — Evidence of provocation as in action for assault. —
See 11 L. N. S. 670.

Same — Failure of person injured to remove cause of injury
or damage as affecting right to recover. — See 3 L. N. S. 1092.

Same — Gratuity for third person. — See 1 A. C. 210, 213: 10
A.'C. 789, 794.

Same — Passenger's duty to minimize for carrier's default to-
ward him.— S§e 2 L. N. S. 1087.

Same — Provocation. — See 1 A. C. 896.

Same — Same — For assault. — See 1 A. C. 899.

Same — Right to set up Judgment in criminal action in. — See
11 L. N. S. 670.

Money expended by buyer in preparing goods for shipment. —
See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. | 330S and note.

Necessity and degree of relationsliip essential to recover for
mental anguish for failure to deliver telegram announcing
death or illness.— See 19 L. N. S. 374.

Necessity of actual malice to justify damages for tort. — See
16 L. N. S. 440.

Nominal, rule as to effect of failure to award. — See 5 A. C.
•J23, 225.

Nuisance — For generally, .see 13 L. 322.

Same — For pollution of stream. — See 9 A. C. 530-534; 7 J,. 457.

On breach of contract — As to employment. — See 5 L.. N. S.
439; 5 L. N. S. 529; 6 L. N. S. 82, 94.

Same — As to real property, as to, generally, see 2 L. N. S.
713; 16 L. N. S. 210; 16 L. N. S. 768; 17 L. N. S. 1130.

On breach of contract — By purchaser. — See 3 L. 589.

Same— By seller.— See 3 I.. 589.

Same — Of sale of per.sonal property, as to, generally, see 3
L. N. S. 1047; 5 L. N. S. 1151; 18 I.. N. S. 613.

Same — To convey. — See 4 L. 670.

On contract to deliver goods. — Sec 1 L. 656.

Pain and suffering as an (>lemont of In person.il Injuries. —
See 11 L. 45.

Personal injuries — Allowance for physical services without
.vldence of value thereof. — See 19 I.. N. S. 920.

Same — Consideration for 'release of claim for. — See 107 A. S.
615.

Same — Evidence of domestic relations of persons seeking to
recover for. — See 85 A. S. 835.

Same — Physical examination, power of court to enforce. — See
3 A. S. 554.

1609



§ 3281 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.T.

Personal wrong as aggravation of for trespass on realty. —
See 19 L. N. S. 1034.

Physical examination of person injured, power of court to
enforce. — See 3 A. S. 554.

Physician's services, allowance for in actions for personal
injuries without evidence of the value thereof. — See 19 L. N.
S. 920.

Pleading — Failure to deny inaterial allegations of complaint,
effect of.— See 8 A. C. 1071.

Same — ^Matters in mitigation of. — See 1 A. C. 210; 10 A. C.
218, 219.

Same — Necessity of alleging special damages. — See 1 A. C.
310; 7 A. C. 114.

Same — Sufficiency of complaint, as to, see 3 A. C. 407; 9 A. C.
1094.

Pledgee, conversion of property by invalid sale. — See 43 L.
768.

Previous disease, effect of in person injured. — See 16 L. 268.

Price agreed to be paid for services. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 3302 and note.

Profits — As an element of, for loss of vessel. — See 6 A. C. 129,
131; also "Loss of profits," this note.

Same — ^Business, as an element of for personal injuries. — See
11 A. C. 45.

Same — Loss of, when an element of. — See 60 A. R. 488.

Provision for forfeiture of sums paid or retained under ex-
ecutory contract, effect to prevent recovery of any other dam-
ages after breach. — See 4 L. N. S. 755.

Proximate and remote. — Consequences, what are. — See 36 A.
S. 807.

Same — Damages, what are. — See 52 A. R. 157.

Punitive. — See "Exemplary," this note.

Same — Expenses of litigation as element or as limit of.—
See 4 L. N. S. 907.

Same — Liability for, for maintaining nuisances. — See 3 L. N.
S. 1119.

Same — For wanton failure to transport baggage. — See 9 L.
N. S. 1218.

Same — Refusal of conductor to listen to passenger's explana-
tion as to his contract, as to justification for expulsion. — See 17
L. N. S. 344.

Real property, for injury to or detention of. — See 15 L. 615,
618; 17 L. 426; 19 L. 653-659; 24 L. 595; 43 L. 560; 52 L. 42; 67
L. 712; 68 L. 71.

Rebuttal of presumption — Instruction. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 3336 and note.

Recoupment of, when allowed.— See 40 A. D. 320.

1610



Tit.II,ch.I,art.I.] damages, generally. §3281

Recoverable for by building contractor on breach of con-
tract. — See 5 L. 275.

Remote and proximate damages. — See 69 A. D. 724, 725.

Remote and sentimental consideration. — See 12 L. 699.

Right of action on bond to recover interest when total sum
is to be made to exceed the penalty. — See 19 L. N. S. 84.

Right to recover for mental suffering on account of an-
other's mental or physical suffering. — See 19 L. N. S. 500.

Right to recover for services rendered beyond statutory pe-
riod of limitation upon breach of parol contract to make pro-
vision by will. — See 6 L. N. S. 703.

Right to recover from obligor under collateral contract, the
damages which the obligor was compelled to pay because of
breach of contract with third person, in consequence of the
failure or delay in performance of collateral contract. — See 18
L. N. S. 575.

Rule for stating amount of claim for damages in complaint. — ■•
See Korr'w Pocket Pol. C. § 3274.

Seduction as an element of on breach of promise of marriage.
—See 10 L. 585.

Servant's malice, wantonness, or personal motive, effect on
amount of damages recoverable from master for injuries to
third person due to negligence of servant having custody of
dangerous agency. — See 10 L. N. S. 403.

Servant wrongfully discharged — Measure of damages. — See 43
A. D. 209-214.

Special circumstances known to both parties. — See 3 L. 589.

Speculative. — See "Uncertain, contingent and speculative," this
note.

Stipulation for forfeiture in case of breach of contract as
penalty or liquidated damages. — See 1 A. C. 244; 10 A. C. 225.

Telegraph companies, recovery against for failure to trans-
mit or deliver message. — See 117 A. S. 286.

Telegram — Delivery or non-delivery of. — See 7 L. 593: 9 L.
669; 10 L. 515; 53 L. 738.

Same — Same — Injury to feeling caused l>y as element of. —
See 2 L. 767; 9 L. 669; 13 L. 859.

Same — Same — Loss of profit as an element of. — See .t3 L. 191.

Same — Failure of company to transmit money liy, to prepare
corpse for burial, right to recover for mental anguish, con-
sequence upon. — See 19 I>. N. S. 575.

Same — Failure to deliver announcing death or illness, neces-
sity and degree of relationship essential to r<'Covery for mental
anguish. — See 19 L. N. S. 374.

Same — Right of person not mentioned in and whose interest
is not communicated to the company to recover for mental an-
guish.— See 19 L. N. S. 475.

1611



§ 3282 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.I.

That damages are exclusive of exemplary damages and in-
terest, unless latter are expressly named, see post § 3357.

That damages must be reasonable, see post § 3359.

Trespass — Loss of profits as an element of damage for. — See 52
L. 42.

Same — Extent of liability for consequential injuries. — See 53
L. 626-634.

Uncertain, contingent, and specvilative — As to, generally, see
6 A. C.i-973; 10 A. C. 649.

Same — Prospective as element of recovery for total loss of
vessel by collision. — See 6 A. C. 131.

Same — Recovery of profits as damages for breach of contract
for sale on commission. — See 6 A. C. 976; 10 A. C. 654.

Same — Remote and sentimental consideration. — See 12 L. 699.

Unlavi^ful and negligent acts, discussion as to whether meas-
ure of liability differs in regard to such acts. — See 36 A. S. 819-
821.

Upon dissolution of attachment — As to, generally, see 3 A. C.
720; 4 A. C. 519; 7 A. C. 545, 547; 10 A. C. 951. '

Same — Right to recover counsel fees as. — See 10 A. C. 954.

Value of time lost as an element of in personal Injuries. — See

10 L. 794; 11 L. 45.

Verdict in action for — As to, generally, see 4 A. C. 125; 4 A.
C. 556; 8 A. C. 746; 8 A. C. 902.

Same — Excessive in suits for personal injuries. — See 14 L. 677.

Same — Inadequacy of damages awarded in personal action as
ground for setting aside. — See 8 A. C. 903.

Same — Set aside as excessive in personal injtiry cases. — See

11 L. 47.

Same— Set aside for inadequacy of in personal injury cases. —
See 11 L. 50.

Wealth of defendant, when may be shown to enhance, in
action for libel and slander. — See 3 A. R. 377.

What recoverable as. — See 69 A. D. 725.

When single recovery bars all subsequent action for. — See 59
A. R. 351.

Whether liquidated or a penalty. — See 1 A. D. 331.

Within discretion of jury in personal injury cases. — See 11
L. 46.



§3282. DETRIMENT, WHAT. Detriment is a loss or
harm suffered in person or property.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to damages generally,
see note § 3281, ante.

1612



Tit.II,ch.T,art.I.] INJURIES AFTER SUIT. § 3283

As to many miscellaneous matters as to the measure of dam-
ages, see note § 3300, post.

For Commissioners' comment on this section, see Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 3282, note.

§3283. INJURIES RESULTING OR PROBABLE AFTER
SUIT BROUGHT. Damages may be awarded, in a judicial
proceeding, for detriment resulting after the commencement
thereof, or certain to result in the future.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 8 pars, annotation.

75 C. 558, 563, 17 P. 687, 689 (cited); 117 C. 305, 312, 49 P. 189
(construed); 123 C. 428. 432, 56 P. 103 (referred to); 126 C. 1, 7,
58 P. 315 (cited); 130 C. 285, 287, 62 P. 515 (applied); 136 C.
129, 130, 68 P. 476 (cited); 150 C. 624, 626, 627, 89 P. 599 (when-
ever by one act a permanent injury is done, damages are as-
sessed once for all); 151 C. 113, 117, 91 P. 522 (cited); 151 C. 271,
276, 90 P. 706 (what constitutes damage).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to damages generally,
see note § 3281, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to the measure of dam-
ages, see note § 3300, post.



1613



§ 3287 -CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.I.

ARTICLE II.

INTEREST AS DAMAGES.

§ 3287. Person entitled to recover damages may recover inter-
est thereon.
§ 3288. In action other than contract.
§ 3289. Limit of rate by contract.
§ 3290. Acceptance of principal waives claim to interest.

§3287. PERSON ENTITLED TO RECOVER DAMAGES
MAY RECOVER INTEREST THEREON. Every person who
is entitled to recover damages certain, or capable of being
made certain by calculation, and the right to recover which
is vested in him upon a particular day, is entitled also to
recover interest thereon from that day, except during such
time as the debtor is prevented by law, or by the act of the
creditor, from paying the debt.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 25 pars, annotation.

57 C. 356, 357 (applied); 63 C. 371, 374 (applied); 72 C. 322,
330, 14 P. 12, 16 (cited); 72 C. 498, 509, 1 A. S. 75, 14 P. 190, 196
(cited); 89 C. 632, 635, 27 P. 67, 68 (referred to); 33 P. 1130, 1132
(applied); 103 C. 157, 162, 37 P. 199 (applied); 106 C. 224, 234, 39
P. 758 (applied); 106 C. 441, 447, 39 P. 853 (referred to); 106 C.
566, 572, 573, 39 P. 933 (applied); 110 C. 311, 316, 42 P. 811 (con-
strued); 114 C. 396, 400, 46 P. 290 (applied — right to interest
from time of filing complaint); 121 C. 233, 237, 240, 53 P. 689,
1092 (referred to); 126 C. 9, 15, 58 P. 312, 313 (applied); 130 C.
426, 430, 62 P. 616 (applied); 141 C. 692, 697, 75 P. 564 (applied);
146 C. 281, 285 (interest is not allowable when — mechanics'
liens), 79 P. 968, 969, 970 (cited); 3 C. A. 263, 266 (applied but
erroneously cited as §3278), 84 P. 159 (same error); 6 C. A.
479, 482, 92 P. 519, 520 (right to interest — goods sold).

As to interest in actions for conversion, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 3336 and note.

As to legal rate of interest, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1917 and
note.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to damages generally,
see note § 3281, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to the measure of dam-
ages, see note § 3300, post.

1614



Tit.II.ch.I.art.II.] limiting rate. §§3288-3290

§32H8. I> ACTION OTHER THAN CONTRACT. In an

action for the breach of an obligation not arising from
the contract, and in every case of oppression, fraud, or
malice, interest may be given, in the discretion of the jury.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 17 pars, annotation.

72 C. 498, 509, 1 A. S. 75, 14 P. 190 (construed); 106 C. 441,
448, 39 P. 853 (construed with other sections); 109 C. 96, 99,
41 P. 786, 29 L. 755 (referred to).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to damages generally,
see note § 3281, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to the measure of dam-
ages, see note § 3300, post.

§ 3289. LIMIT OF RATE BY CONTRACT. Any legal rate
of interest stipulated by a contract remains chargeable after
a breach thereof, as before, until the contract is superseded
by a verdict or other new obligation.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cj'C. C. C. for 4 pars, annotation.

136 C. 368, 371, 68 P. 1032 (referred to).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to damages generally,
see note § 3281, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to tlie measure of dam-
ages, see note § 3300, post.

s:j2JM). acceptance of principal waives claim

TO interest. Accepting payment of the whole principal,
as such, waives all claim to interest.

Ili.story: Enacted March 21. 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 3 pars, annotation.

100 C. 18, 22, 34 P. 510 (applied); 133 C. 191, 194, 65 P. 381
(applied).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to damages generally,
see note § 3281, ante.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to the measure of dam-
ages, see note § 3300, post.



1615



§ 3294 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.I.

ARTICLE III.

EXEMPLARY DAMAGES.

§ 3294. Exemplary damages, in what cases allowed.

§3294. EXEMPLARY DAMAGES, IN WHAT CASES AL-
LOWED. In an action for the breach of an obligation not
arising from contract, where the defendant has been guilty
of oppression, fraud, or malice, express or implied, the
plaintiff, in addition to the actual damages, may recover dam-
ages for the sake of example and by way of punishing the
defendant.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by Code Com-
mission, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 421,
held unconstitutional, see history, § 4 ante; amendment re-
enacted March 21, 1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905,' p. 621.

See Kerr's Cyc, C. C. for 60 pars, annotation.

64 C. 272, 28 P. 253 (applied); 68 C. 32, 8 P. 527 (referred to);
74 C. 148, 150, 15 P. 452, 453 (applied); 75 C. 563, 566, 17 P. 685,
686 (cited); 76 C. 532, 534, 18 P. 668, 669 (cited); 77 C. 208, 212,



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