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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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Same — For matters arising subsequent to rendition. — See 30
L,. 560, 571.

Same — For want of jurisdiction. — See 31 L. 200-212.

Same — Garnishment proceedings. — See 30 L. 360.

Same — ^Negligence as a cause for and as a sale to. — See 31 L.
33-40.

Same — Obtaining by fraud. — See 30 L. 787-793.

Same — On account of accident. — See 30 L. 794-796.

Same — On account of mistake. — See 30 L. 799.

Same — On account of surprise or duress. — See 30 L. 800.

Same — On ground of loss of defense by reason of negligence
or unskillfulness of the attorney. — See 9 L. N. S. 524.

Against laying pipes in streets. — See 8 L.. 488.

Against legal proceedings. — See 8 L. N. S. 574; 11 L. N. S. 581;
12 L. N. S. 881; 15 L. N. S. 1008.

Against levy on partnership property for debt of partner. —
See 46 L. 491.

Against maintaining telephone or telegraph line in street or
highway, delay in applying for, effect of. — See 8 L. N. S. 1091.

Against maintenance of house of prostitution by owner or
occupant of neighboring property. — See 11 L. N. S. 1060.

16t)6



Tit.III,ch.III.] INJUNCTIONS. § 3420

Against mining' operation by lessee pending dispute as to
forfeiture of lease. — See 1 L. N. S. 333.

Against negotiation of note. — See 28 L. 577.

Against pleading the statute of limitations. — See 51 A. D. 700;
75 A. D. 84.

Against private nuisance authorized by legislature. — See 1 L.
N. S. 134.

Against prosecution of a criminal or quasi criminal nature. —
See 2 L. N. S. 631.

Against reduction of capital stock of corporation. — See 1 L.
N. S. 571.

Against removal of subjacent support by mining. — See 16 L.
N. S. 851.

Against repeated garnishment of exempt wages. — See 10 h-
N. S. 983.

Against repeated trespass. — See 13 L. N. S. 173.

Against sale of corporate franchise or property necessary to-
its enjoinment. — See 20 L. 737.

Against sale of personal property under execution. — See 111
A. S. 97.

Against sale of property for illegal taxes. — See 69 A. D. 198;
23 A. R. 622; 49 A. R. 287; 53 A. R. 110.

Against saloon, proof of character of locality. — See 4 L. N. S.
810.

Against speech or publication. — See 32 L. 831.

Against strikes. — See 28 L. 464.

Against suit in another state to evade local exemption laws. —
See 15 L. N. S. 1008.

At suit of state against public nuisance which is also a crime.
— See 15 L. N. S. 747.

Against surviving partner witli reference to real estate. — See
28 L. 137.

Against the collection of purchase money where the title to
land is defective. — See 7 L. N. S. 445-465.

Against the enforcement of illegal contracts. — See 48 L. 842-
850.

Against the prosecution of an action in another state. — See
56 A. R. 663; 59 A. S. 880.

Against the publication of letters. — See 49 A. D. ISO.

Against threatened wrong. — See 6 L. 90.

Against trespass on real estate. — See 11 A. D. 498; 53 A. R.
346; 99 A. S. 731.

Against trespass to cut timber. — See 22 L. 233.

Against unfair competition in business. — See 3 L. 760.

Against unlawful sale of church by trustees. — See 2 L. N. S.
828.

Attorney's fees on the dissolution of. — See 77 A. D. 158.

Bond— Actions on.— See 6 A. C. 401; 6 A. C. 902, 904; 8 A. C.
709.

1667



§ 3420 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.I.

Same — For of judgment on. — See 62 L. 446.

Same — Loss of profits as elements of damage in action on. —
See 32 L. 58.

Same — Necessity for. — See 6 A. C. 589.

Same — Penalty as limit of liability on.— See 55 L. 389.

Same— Recovery of counsel fees as damages upon dissolution
of injunction. — See 8 A. C. 712.

Same — ^Requirement of. — See 13 L. 311.

Same — Right to recover on for damages. — See 18 L. 275.

Same — Supersedeas bond. — See 4 A. C. 229, 231.

By federal court against state railroad commissioners. — See
3 L. 238.

By private person to restrain violation of municipal ordinance.
—See 5 L. N. S. 493.

Caution as to granting. — See 13 L. 311.

Damages in lieu of. — See 20 L. 652.

Discretion of court in granting. — See 2 A. C. 782; 7 A. C. 1069;

11 L. 577.

Dissolution of, as to. — See 11 L. 577.

Distinguished from mandamus. — See 3 L. 55.

Federal courts, power of state court to enjoin proceedings in.
— See 11 A. C. 744.

For violation of legal right. — See 6 L. 855.

Inadequacy of legal remedy necessary. — See 6 A. C. 1012; 7
A. C. 50.

In aid of attachment. — See 20 L. 446.

In case of contractual rights.- — See 3 A. C. 975; 6 A. C. 902;
7 A. C. 50.

In cases of water rights and sewers. — See 3 L. 609; 4 L. 572;

12 L. 468; 41 L. 497; 48 L. 707; 59 L. 81, 91; 60 L. 243.
In matters preceding election. — See 3 L. N. S. 382.
In support of strict legal right. — See 3 L. 613.
Irreparable injury, what is within the meaning of the law of.

—See 1 A. S. 374, 379.

Legal remedy must be inadequate. — See 1 L. 745.

Liquidated damages, effect of stipulation for in contract not
to engage in business, upon equitable jurisdiction to enjoin
breach thereof. — See 10 L. N. S. 204.

Mandatory. — See 20 A. D. 389.

Necessity of special circumstances. — See 1 L. 745.

Nuisance — Against private authorized by legislature. — See 1
L. N. S. 134.

Same — Right of lessee to maintain. — See 3 L. N. S. 448.

Parties entitled to.— See 3 A. C. 1011, 1013.

Power to grant mandatory. — See 20 L. 161-169.

Purpose or object of.- — See 1 L. 744.

Remedy by for unlaAvful discrimination by railroad against
hack-driver. — See 8 L. N. S. 1027.

1668



Tit.III.ch.IIL] INJUNCTIONS. § 342O

Restraining collection of illegal taxes. — See 22 L. 699.
* Right of individual to enjoin act of public officials. — See 3 A. C.
1013.

Right to enjoin acts under unconstitutional statute, as affected
by other remedies in case such acts are done. — See 8 L. N. S.
124.

State as proper party to maintain bill to abate or enjoin a
public nuisance in a city street. — See 19 L. N. S. 1173.

State, right of to enjoin act committed in another state. — See
11 A. C. 490.

To enjoin acts with respect to real property in another state.
—See 7 L. N. S. 114.

To enjoin passage of municipal ordinance. — See 2 L. N. S. 152.

To enjoin publication — Of book by author who has parted with
property rights in work. — See 3 L. N. S. 629.

Same — Of collusive suit in court of co-ordinate jurisdiction. —
See 11 L. N. S. 581.

To enjoin sale or transfer of property. — Sec 2 L. N. S. 560; 6
L. N. S. 510; 18 L. N. S. 218; 18 L. N. S. 1156.

To prevent a wrong which will result in injury to genei'al
business reputation. — See 3 A. C. 975.

To prevent breach — Of contract. — See 90 A. S. 634.

Same — Of stipulation to handle or use the product of one
producer only. — See 10 L. N. S. 475.

To prevent clouds on title — As to generally, see 8 L. 727; 10
L. 293.

Same — By execution sales. — See 62 A. D. 523.

To prevent collection of tax on excessive assessment. — See 16
L. N. S. 807.

To prevent enticement of servant. — See 5 L. N. S. 1096.

To prevent improper use of trade-mark. — See 1 L. 46; 8 L. 643.

To prevent passage of municipal ordinance. — See 13 L. 844.

To prevent removal of lateral support. — See 68 L. 697.

To prevent the erection, maintenance, or removal of fences or
gates. — See 7 L. N. S. 49-86.

To prevent threatened sale of property. — See 7 A. C. 185.

Same — On ground that action on debt secured Ijy instruments
under which sale is sought is barred by statute of limitations.
—•See 7 A. C. 189.

To prevent use of street for railroad purposes, riglit of
abutting lot owners to. — See 5 L. 373.

To protect easement. — See 3 L. 861; 6 I... 262.

To protect personal rights. — See 37 L. 733: 1 L. N. S. 1147.

To protect trade secret. — See 4 L. N. S. 102.

To restrain action in another state. — See 100 A. C. 20, 26.

To restrain acts of continuing trespass of land located in
another state. — See 8 A. C. 511, 519.

To restrain assessment on paid-up stock. — See 45 L. 653.

1669



§ 3420 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.T.

To restrain breach of contract — As to generally, see 5 L. 242;
6 L. 856; 26 L. 711.

Same — Not capable of being specifically enforced. — See 3 A.
C. 976.

To restrain breach of covenant — As to generally, see 5 L. 46;
5 L. 422.

Same — Restricting use of real property. — See 5 L. 423.

To restrain consolidation of corporation. — See 2 L. 594.

To restrain enforcement of judgment. — See 10 A. C. 444.

To restrain garnishment proceedings. — See 12 A. C. 332, 335.

To restrain illegal appropriation. — See 7 L. 180.

To restrain in relation to taxes. — See 10 L. 294; 22 L. 699-709.

To restrain interference with view of premises from street. —
See 5 L. N. S. 486.

To restrain nuisance — As to generallj', see 7 L. 299; 9 L. 711,
716; 12 L. 753; 13 L. 321; also note §3479, post.

Same — By municipal corporation. — See 40 L. 465; 41 L. 321; 42
L. 814; 44 L. 565; 51 L. 657.

Same — Liquor nuisance. — See 7 L. 299.

Same — Maintained by municipal corporation. — See 23 L. 301.

To restrain other actions — At equity. — See 3 A. C. 965, 966.

Same— At law. — See 5 A. C. 724; 8 A. C. 569.

Same — Same — In case of fraud, accident or mistake. — See 5
A. C. 727.

Same — Criminal prosecution. — See
A. C. 574; 10 A. C. 757; 35 A. R. 670;
3 L. N. S. 622.

Same — Same — Injunction against
ordinance. — See 6 A. C. 1013; 10 A. C.

Same — Same — Power of equity to enjoin criminal prosecutions.
—See 1 A. C. 121.

To restrain police surveillance. — See 5 A. C. 480, 483.

To restrain prosecution of suits in other states or countries. —
See 56 A. R. 663; 59 A. S. 880.

To restrain the collection of taxes and assessments. — See 69
A. D. 198.

To restrain threatened trespass. — See 11 L. 207.

To restrain trespass upon, or interference with oyster beds. —
See 3 L. N. S. 205.

To restrain unfair competition, fraudulent intent requisite to
justify. — See 4 L. N. S. 960.

To restrain use of intimidation and threats to prevent one
entering another's employment. — See 12 L. 195.

To restrain use of trade secrets. — See 13 L. 652.

To stay waste. — See 11 L. 207.

Violation of, contempt.^ — See 3 A. C. 28; 3 A. C. 966.

Waiver of right to by laches in failure to object to improve-
ments. — See 50 A. R. 117.

1670



1 A. C. 119;


6 A. C. 1012; 7


21 L. 84-88;


2 L. N. S. Ill;


prosecution


under invalid


760.





I



TiUII.ch.III.] ALLOWANCE OF. §§ 3421-3423

When becomes binding on the enjoined parties. — See 55 A. D.
722.

With regard to land in another state, jurisdiction to issue. —
See 69 L. 689.

§3421. PROVISIONAL INJUNCTIONS. Provisional in-
junctions are regulated by the code of civil procedure.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

As to injunctions generally, see note § 3420, ante.
As to provisional injunction, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. §§ 525-533
and notes.

§3422. INJUNCTION, WHEN ALLOWED. Except where
otherwise provided by this title, a final injunction may be'
granted to prevent the breach of an obligation existing in
favor of the applicant:

1. Where pecuniary compensation would not afford ade-
quate relief;

2. Where it would be extremely difficult to ascertain the
amount of compensation which would afford adequate relief;

3. Where the restraint is necessary to prevent a multi-
plicitj^ of judicial proceedings; or,

4. Where the obligation arises from a trust.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 6 pars, annotation.

64 C. 472, 473, 2 P. 244 (construed and applied); 113 C. 272,
276, 54 A. S. 348, 45 P. 329, 33 L. 459 (applied); 117 C. 377, 380,
381, 49 P. 353 (construed and applied); 148 C. 610, 619, 84 P. 166
(construed and applied with § 3423 — injunction to prevent breach
of obligation existing in favor of plaintiff is properly granted
when).

As to injunctions generally, see note § 3420, ante.

§3423. INJUNCTION, WHEN NOT ALLOWED. An in-
junction cannot be granted:

1. To stay a judicial proceeding pending at the commence-
ment of the action in which the injunction is demanded,
unless such restraint is necessary to prevent a multiplicity
of such proceedings.

2. To stay proceedings in a court of the United States.

1671



§3423



CIVIL CODE.



[Div.IV.Pt.I.



3. To stay proceedings in another state upon a judgment
of a court of that state.

4. To prevent the execution of a public statute, by oflBcers
of the law, for the public benefit.

5. To prevent the breach of a contract, the performance
of which would not be specifically enforced.

6. To prevent the exercise of a public or private office, in
a lawful manner, by the person in possession.

7. To prevent a legislative act by a municipal corporation.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 267.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 10 pars, annotation.

75 C. 179, 181, 16 P. 776, 778 (construed and applied); 79 C.
540, 548, 21 P. 952, 954 (construed and applied); 117 C. 377, 378,
379, 49 P. 353 (construed with §3274); 139 C. 469, 474, 475, 476,
478, 73 P. 145 (construed and applied); 147 C. 24, 28, 81 P. 225,
228 (construed and applied); 148 C. 610, 615, 619, 84 P. 166 (con-
strued and applied with § 3422 — injunction to prevent breach of
obligation existing in favor of plaintiff is properly granted
when); 152 C. 224, 227, 92 P. 353 (subds. 4 and 6 are inapplicable
to suit for injunction against execution of void statute).

As to injunctions generally, see note § 3420, ante.



1672



Pt.II.Titl.] DEBTOR, CREDITOR. §§3429,3430



PART II.

SPECIAL RELATIONS OF DEBTOR AND CREDITOR.

Title I. General Principles, §§ 3429-3433.

II. Fraudulent Instrument and Transfers, §§ 3439-3442.
III. Assignments for the Benefit of Creditors, §§ 3449-
3473.

TITLE I.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

§ 3429. Who is a debtor.

§ 3430. Who is a creditor,

§ 3431. Contracts of debtor are valid.

§ 3432. Payments in preference.

§ 3433: Relative rights of different creditors.

§3429. ^VHO IS A DEBTOR. A debtor, within the mean-
ing of this title, is one who, by reason of an existing obliga-
tion, is or may become liable to pay money to another,
whether such liability is certain or contingent.

IiiN<<»ry: Enacted Marcli 21, 1S72.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.

68 C. 12, 8 P. 525 (applied); 112 C. 476, 490, 44 P. SIO (applied) :
121 C. 16, 25, 53 P. 416 (construed); 132 C. 459, 465, 84 A. S. 62,
64 P. 709 (applied); 2 C. A. 233, 235, 83 P. 280 (cited).

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3430 and note.

As to who is a debtor, see 23 L. 322; 2 L. ed. 666; 2 W. & P.
1891.

§.3430. WHO IS A CKEDITOI?. A creditor, within the
meaning of this title, is one in whose favor an obligation
exists, by reason of which he is, or may become, entitled to
the payment of money.

Hi.s(ory: Enacted Marcli 21, 1S72.
1673



§§ 3431, 3432 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.II.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 8 pars, annotation.

112 C. 476, 490, 44 P. 810 (applied); 121 C. 16, 25, 53 P. 416
(referred to); 132 C. 459, 465, 84 A. S. 62, 64 P. 709 (applied); 2
C. A. 233, 235, 83 P. 280 (cited).



§3431. CONTRACTS OF DEBTOR ARE VALID. In the

absence of fraud, every contract of a debtor is valid against
all his creditors, existing or subsequent, who have not ac-
quired a lien on the property affected by such contract.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 3 pars, annotation.

127 C. 290, 312, 53 P. 911, 59 P. 827, 46 L. 371 (applied in dis.
op.); 135 C. 156, 158, 67 P. 46 (construed); 152 C. 488, 496, 92 P.
1017 (construed with § 2965 — § 3431 affords no protection to
chattel mortgagee as against claims of creditors when).

§ 3432. PAYMENTS IN PREFERENCE. A debtor may pay
one creditor in preference to another, or may give to one
creditor security for the payment of his demand in prefer-
ence to another.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.

82 C. 132, 135, 23 P. 36 (applied); 83 C. 303, 309, 23 P. 350, 352
(applied); 100 C. 626, 631, 35 P. 323 (applied); 104 C. 264, 266, 37
P. 927 (applied); 108 C. 81, 85, 41 P. 29 (construed with §3457);
127 C. 72, 84, 59 P. 319 (applied); 127 C. 134, 137, 59 P. 393 (con-
strued); 128 C. 658, 660, 61 P. 282 (applied); 135 C. 156, 158, 67
P. 46 (applied); 139 C. 362, 366, 73 P. 182 (referred to); 140 C.
397, 399, 73 P. 1059 (cited).

As to preferences by corporation, see 42 A. S. 767; 22 L. 802;
brief 29 L. 830.

As to preference by debtor, see 3 L. 139; 11 L. 466; brief 14 L.
198.

As to preference by insolvent corporations by legal proceed-
ings, see 22 L. 808.

As to preferences by insolvent corporations in favor of direc-
tors and officers, see 22 L. 806; note 44 L. 756; brief 56 L. 121,
122.

As to preference by national bank, see 25 L. 546.

As to validity of conveyance to creditor as to subsequent
creditors, see 9 L. 415.

As to validity of mortgage to secure creditor, see 9 L. 648.

1674



Tit.I.] RIGHTS OF CREDITORS. § 3433

§3438. BELATIVE RIGHTS OF DIFFERENT CRED-
ITORS. Where a creditor is entitled to resort to each of
several funds for the satisfaction of his claim, and another
person has an interest in, or is entitled as a creditor to resort
to some, but not all of them, the latter may require the
former to seek satisfaction from those funds to which the
latter has no such claim, so far as it can be done without
impairing the right of the former to complete satisfaction,
and without doing injustice to third persons.

History: Enacted March 21, 1S72.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 7 pars, annotation.

113 C. 463, 466, 45 P. 840 (applied); 114 C. 537, 541, 46 P. 462
(applied); 119 C. 283, 296, 63 A. S. 108, 51 P. 2, 542 (applied); 127 ■
C. 72, 84, 59 P. 319 (applied); 139 C. 350, 352, 361, 63 P. 335, 73 P.
159 (applied); 141 C. 11, 12, 74 P. 356 (applied).



1675



§ 3439 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.II.

TITLE II.

FRAUDULENT INSTRUMENTS AND TRANSFERS.

§ 3439. Transfers, etc., with intent to defraud creditors.

§ 3440. Certain transfers presumed fraudulent.

§3441. Creditor's right must be judicially ascertained.

§ 3442. Question of fraud, how determined.

§ 3439. TRANSFERS, ETC., WITH INTENT TO DEFRAUD
CREDITORS. Every transfer of property or charge thereon
made, every obligation incurred, and every judicial proceed-
ing taken, with intent to delay or defraud any creditor or
other person of his demands, is void against all creditors of
the debtor, and their successors in interest, and against any
person upon whom the estate of the debtor devolves in
trust for the benefit of others than the debtor.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 65 pars, annotation.

69 C. 247, 250, 10 P. 400 (applied); 75 C. 185, 187, 16 P. 778
(applied); 83 C. 234, 237, 238, 23 P. 298, 299 (applied), 84 C. 244,

249, 24 P. 118, 119 (applied); 84 C. 505, 508, 24 P. 286, 287 (ap-
plied); (C. Dec. 30, 1890), 25 P. 404 (construed); 88 C. 396, 397,
22 A. S. 310, 26 P. 213 (applied); 89 C. 286, 288, 26 P. 873, 874, 13
L. 576 (applied); 94 C. 180. 188 (cited in dis. op.), 29 P. 495, 498
(construed and applied); 41 P. 860, 861 (referred to); 114 C. 451,
454, 456, 457, 458, 46 P. 270 (construed and applied); 114 C. 526.
535, 536, 43 P. 613, 46 P. 460 (referred to); 115 C. 266, 273, 53
A. S. 97, 47 P. 37, 37 L. 626 (construed); 117 C. 140, 146, 148, 48
P. 1025 (referred to); 128 C. 103. 108, 60 P. 675 (construed); 131
C. 625, 627, 63 P. 1008 (construed); 135 C. 121, 125, 67 P. 20
(construed); 135 C. 156, 160, 67 P. 46 (construed); 138 C. 248,

250, 71 P. 179 (applied); 2 C. A. 509, 512, 83 P. 257 (right of main-
tenance, how far within protection of this section); 3 C. A. 358,
362, 85 P. 169 (transfer is void at instance of assignee in insol-
vency when); 5 C. A. 690, 694, 695, 91 P. 173 (applied — transfer
from husband to wife on day judgment was rendered against
him); 57 F. 133, 135 (applied — assignment of life insurance
policy).

As to claims against whicli voluntary fraudulent conveyances
may be avoided, see 52 A. D. 113.

As to extent of validity of conveyances fraudulent as to
creditors, see note 37 A. D. 145.

1676



Tit II ] TRANSFER, INTENT, ETC. § 3439

As to failure of creditor to record conveyance as badge of
fraud, see 31 L. 638.

As to fraudulent conveyance made in contemplation of future
indebtedness, see 90 A. D. 735.

As to fraudulent conveyances, see 67 A. D. 402; 83 A. D. 534;
31 A. R. 179; 34 A. S. 395.

As to fraudulent conveyances, badges of fraud, see 9 L. 645.
As to fraudulent intent in voluntary conveyance, see 9 L. 417.
As to insurance of life of debtor as fraud on creditor, see 29
A. S. 360.

As to knowledge of grantee of fraudulent conveyance, see 20
A. S. 632; 66 A. S. 649.

As to knowledge or notice sufficient to put purchaser on
inquiry as to fraudulent intent, see 32 L. 44.

As to nature of conveyance which intent to defraud creditors
renders void, see 72 A. D. 392.

As to necessity of intent to defraud creditors, see 72 A. D. 384. '
As to necessity of knowledge or intent on part of grantee in
fraudulent conveyance, see 55 A. S. 216; 57 A. S. 45.

As to necessity of person impeaching fraudulent conveyance
to show that he was creditor, see 23 A. D. 299.

As to participation by creditor in fraud of debtor making
conveyance to him fraudulent, see 31 L. 609.

As to participation by purchaser in fraud of vendor which
will avoid conveyance, see 32 L. 33.

As to persons entitled to impeach fraudulent conveyances, see
39 A. D. 599; 62 A. S. 600; 69 A. S. 73.

As to reconveyance after fraudulent conveyance, see 66 A. S.
891.

As to recovery by executor or administrator of assets fraudu-
lently transferred by decedent, see 38 A. D. 583; 50 A. D. 469.

As to right of administrator to avoid fraudulent transfer, see
14 A. D. 157.

As to right of administrator to maintain action to set aside
conveyance as fraudulent against creditors of the estate, see
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1589 and note.

As to right of assignee in bankruptcy or insolvency to avoid
fraudulent sale of assignor, see 95 A. D. 166.

As to right of assignee to impeach fraudulent conveyances of
his assignor, see 36 A. R. 569.

As to right of divorced wife to attack conveyances by husband
as fraudulent, see 71 A. D. 711.

As to right of grantee in fraudulent conveyance to reimburse-
ment, see 4 A. D. 320; 66 A. S. 649.

As to right of receiver to maintain action to set aside fraudu-
lent conveyances, see 59 A. D. 525.

As to right of subsequent creditor to attack conveyance as
fraudulent, see 68 A. D. 133.

1677



§ 3440 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.II.

As to right of trustees for benefit of creditors to attack trans-
fer as fraudulent, see 21 A. D. 732.

As to validating fraudulent conveyances, see 71 A. S. 546.

As to validity of assignment of life insurance policy when in
fraud of creditors, see 87 A. S. 484.

As to validity of conveyance of homestead, see Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 3442 notes 15-18.

As to validity of conveyances intended to defeat dower, see 39
A. D. 218.

As to validity of fraudulent conveyance in hands of bona flde
purchaser, see 28 A. D. 206; 37 A. D. 145; 50 A. D. 469; 79 A. D.
420.

As to validity of judgments made for the purpose of de-
frauding creditors, see 83 A. D. 534.

As to validity of voluntary conveyance between parties, see
note 50 A. D. 469; and 9 K 415.

As to voluntary conveyances fraudulent as to subsequent cred-
itors, see 72 A. D. 384; 73 A. D. 178; 80 A. D. 234; 84 A. D. 464;
55 A. S. 216; 1 L. 520; 9 L. 415.

As to what constitutes fraudulent conveyance, see brief 45
L. 645.

As to what constitutes notice to purchaser of fraud against
creditors, see 45 A. R. 185.

§3440. CERTAIN TRANSFERS PRESUMED FRAUDU-
LENT. Every transfer of personal property, other than a
thing in action, or a ship or cargo at sea or in a foreign
port, and every lien thereon, other than a mortgage, when
allowed by law, and a contract of bottomry or respondentia,
is conclusively presumed, if made by a person having at the
time the possession or control of the property, and not accom-
panied by an immediate delivery, and followed by an actual
and continued change of possession of the things transferred,
to be fraudulent, and therefore void, against those who are
his creditors while he remains in possession, and the suc-
cessors in interest of such creditors, and against any persons



Online LibraryCaliforniaThe codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) → online text (page 137 of 156)