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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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execution, and insurance upon the life of the assignor, do
not pass to the assignee by a general assignment for the
benefit of creditors, unless the instrument specially mentions
them, and declares an intention that they should pass therebj'.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

98 C. 409, 412, 33 P. 325, 326 (referred to with other sections);
108 C. 81, 86, 87, 41 P. 29 (applied with other sections); 139 C.
362, 367. 73 P. 182 (referred to with other sections): 198 U. S.'
202, 209, 49 L. ed. 1018, 1020 (cited — exemption of life insur-
ance policies from execution).

As to property exempt from execution, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
P. § 690 and note.

§3471. COMPEXS.VTION. The elected assignee or assign-
ees for the benefit of creditors shall be entitled to the same
commissions on assignments heretofore and hereafter made
as are allowed by law to the assignees in insolvency, and
the assignment cannot grant more. Such assignee or as-
signees shall also be entitled to all necessary expenses in
the management of their trust.

HiNtory: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 7, 1889,
Stats, and Amdts. 1889, p. 84. .

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.

56 C. 628 (construed and applied with §2274); 98 C. 409. 412.
33 P. 325. 326 (referred to witli other sections): 108 C. 81. 86. 87.
41 P. 29 (applied with other sections); 139 C. 362, 367. 73 P. 182
(referred to with other sections).

§3472. ASSIGNEES PROTECTED FOI! A( TS D()>E I\
GOOD FAITH. An assignee for the benefit of creditors is
not to be held liable for his acts, done in good faith, in the
execution of the trust, merely for the reason that the assign-
ment is afterward adjudged void.

HUtur}-! Enacted March 21. 1872.
1701



§ 3473 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.II.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.

98 C. 409, 412, 33 P. 325, 326 (referred to with other sections);
108 C. 81, 86, 87, 41 P. 29 (applied with other sections); 139 C.
362, 367, 73 P. 182 (referred to with other sections).

As to duty of trustee to render accounts, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 3469 and note.

As to obligations of trustees in general, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§§ 2258 et seq. and notes.

As -to trustees' right to repayment out of trust property of
expenses, etc., see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 2273 and note.

§3473. ASSENT OF CREDITOR NECESSARY TO MODI-
FICATION OF ASSIGNMENT. An assignment for the benefit
of creditors which has been executed and recorded so as to
transfer the property to the sheriff, or a transfer by the
sheriff to the elected assignee or assignees which has been
executed and recorded, cannot afterwards be modified or can-
celed by the parties without the consent of the assignor and
of every creditor affected thereby.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 7, 1889,
Stats, and Amdts. 1889, p. 84.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 3 pars, annotation.

78 C. 263, 265, 20 P. 561 (referred to with other sections); 98
C. 409, 411, 412, 33 P. 325, 326 (referred to with other sections);
108 C. 81, 86, 87, 41 P. 29 (applied with other sections); 139 C.
362, 367, 73 P. 182 (referred to with other sections).

As to acceptance of trust by one of two or more assignees
being sufficient, see 13 C. 242, 288.



1702



Pt.III,Tit.I.] NUISANCE, GENERALLY. §3479



PART III.

NUISANCE.

Title I. General Principles, §§ 3479-3484.
II. Public Nuisances, §§ 3490-3495.
III. Private Nuisances, §§ 3501-3503.

TITLE I.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

§ 3479. Nuisance, what.

§ 3480. Public nuisance.

§ 3481. Private nuisance.

§ 3482. Wliat is not deemed a nuisance.

§ 3483. Successive owners.

§ 3484. Abatement does not preclude action.

§3479. NUISAX'E, WHAT. Anything which is injurious
to health, or is indecent or offensive to the senses, or an
obstruction to the free use of property, so as to interfere
with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property, or unlaw-
fully obstructs the free i)assaiE:e or use, in the customary
manner, of any navitrable lake, or river, bay, stream, canal,
or basin, or any public park, square, street, or highway, is a
nuisance.

HIMory: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1S73-4, p. 268; amended by Code Comml.««9inn, Act
March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1. p. 420. hold unconstitu-
tional, see history, § 4 ante.

See Kerr's Cyc. ('. C. for 20 par.s. annotation.

65 C. 447, inr,. 4 V. 426, 432 (applied); 66 C. 13S. 147, l.'.l. .')« A.
R. 80, 4 P. 1152 (applied); 66 C. 171. 174 (applied to operation
of stationary engine to run cable cars, but erroneously cited as
§731), 4 P. 1162. 1164 (same error); 67 C. 543, 546, 8 P. 82 (cited);
76 C. 166, 160. 18 P. 141. 143 (cited): 79 C. 347, 348. 21 P. 763
(construed); 87 C. 91, 93, 25 P. 258 (referred to with Pen. C.
§« 370, 372); 111 C. 25. 30. 43 P. 396 (cited); 116 C. 397. 399. 48

1703



§ 3479 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.III.

P. 374, 39 L. 581 (cited); 126 C. 670, 673, 77 A. S. 217, 59 P. 202
(cited); 131 C. 501, 502, 63 P. 1083 (cited); 136 C. 14, 16, 68 P.
108 (applied); 144 C. 134, 136, 77 P. 823 (cited in opinion of trial
court quoted); 150 C. 171, 173, 88 P. 713 (cited); 150 C. 195, 196,
88 P. 899 (applied — obstruction of highway); 1 C. A. 229, 231,
81 P. 1118 (applied — street railway tracks not laid in center
of street); 1 C. A. 441, 445, 82 P. 640 (applied — depriving land
owner of access to his premises); 2 C. A. 346, 348, 83 P. 1082
(structures on street constitute private as well as public nuisance
— rights of abutting owner); 18 F. 753, 770, 776 (cited).

NUISANCE.

As to definition for purposes of criminal prosecution, see
Kerr's Cyc. Pen. C. § 370 and note.

As to putting animals, etc., in streets, rivers, etc., see Kerr's
Cyc. Pen. C. § 374 and note.

Abatement — And injunction. — See 1 A. C. 35; 1 A. C. 345; 2
A. C. 249, 250; 5 A. C. 132, 136; 6 A. C. 146.

Same — My destruction, when sustainable. — See 26 A. D. 443;
44 A. R. 111.

Same — Of private, when justifiable. — See 43 A. R. 24.

Action by other than property owner for damages by. — See
1 A. C. 272.

Attractive.— See 3 L. N. S. 149; 19 L. N. S. 1094.

Authority of the legislature to declare what are. — See 47 A. S.
544.

Barking of dog, as a. — See 10 A. C. 67; 7 L. N. S. 349.

Bawdy-house as a — As to, see 1 A. C. 35.

Same — Enjoined at suit of private citizen. — See 1 A. C. 38.

Bees as a. — See 62 L. 133, 134.

Blasting as a. — See 2 A. C. 198, 201.

Boundaries — Rights of adjoining owners. — See Kerr's Cyc. C.
C. §1 829-834 and notes.

Same — Trees near as a.^ — See 21 L. 730.

Brick kiln as a. — See 10 A. R. 674-676; 2 L. N. S. 92.

Bridge over navigable water as a. — See 2 L. 541.

Burning of soft coal as a. — See 12 A. C. 846; 13 L. N. S. 465.

Businesses and machinery which may be enjoined as. — See 51
A. R. 467.

By use of neighboring property. — See 9 L. 711.

Casting water on land. — See 10 L. 254.

Church bells as. — See 43 A. R. 522-526.

Cognate section — Nuisance defined and actions for. — See
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 731 and note; also ""Definition of," this note.

Conducting business so as to create. — See 9 L. 712.

Contributory wrong of plaintiff as precluding recovery of
damages for. — See 11 A. C. 134.

Damages in streams, when constitute. — See 30 A. S. 551.

1704



Tit.L] NUISANCE, GENERALLY. § 3479

Dancing as a. — See 18 L. N. S. 699.

Definition of. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3479 and note; Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. P. §731 and note; 30 A. D. 564; 66 A. D. 790;
67 A. D. 607; 67 A. D. 665; 78 A. D. 687; 5 A. R. 292; 21 A. R.
436; 44 A. R. 205; 49 A. R. 721; 6 A. S. 739; 60 A. S. 848; 91 A. S.
63; 9 L. 711; 38 L. 716; 40 L. 851; 58 L. 266; 34 L. ed. 784; 5 W. &
P. 4855.

Deposit of debris in stream. — See 30 A. S. 551, 554.

Disturbing public church gathering by singing. — See 13 A.
S. 896.

Driving foul air against neighbor's windows as a. — See 9
L. N. S. 695.

Effect of legislative autliority upon liability for private. — See
70 L. 579-597; 1 L. N. S. 49-129.

Enjoined at suit of private citizen. — See 1 A. C. 38.

Equitable relief against cemetery as a. — See 5 A. C. 136.

Fireworks in city streets as a. — See 16 L. 395; 16 L. N. S.
621.

Fish — Interference with. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3480 and
note pars. 13-15.

Future damages. — See 36 Alb. L. J. 84, reproduced in part as
note 59 A. R. 351, 369.

Highways — Obstruction of. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3480 and
note par. 4; §3493 and note pars. 6-10.

Hospital as a. — See 1 A. C. 341; 6 A. C. 817, 823.

Houses — Dangerous to lives, health, etc., of neiglibors as
nuisances. — See 44 A. R. Ill, 112.

Same — Of ill-fame as nuisances. — See 48 A. R. 274-278.

In highway or alley. — See 8 L. 830.

Injunction to restrain threatened or apprehended. — See 2 A.
C. 250; 73 A. D. 113.

Joinder of parties plaintiff in suits to abate. — See 71 A. D.
311.

Landlord and tenant, respective liabilities of for to eacli other
and to third persons. — See 50 A. D. 776.

Lateral and subjacent support. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 832
and note.

Liability — For though due to the act or negligence of an In-
dependent contractor. — See 76 A. S. 399.

Same — Of erector and continuer of. — See 14 A. D. 336.

Same — Of municipality for failure to abate. — See 1 A. C. 964.

Same — Of owner of vacant property for using It, or per-
mitting it to be used, in sucli a way as to collect crowds to the
injury of the neighborhood. — See 11 L. N. S. 463.

Same — Of property owner for a nuisance wlilch he did not
create. — See 86 A. S. 508.

Liquor nuisances. — See 14 A. S. 454.

Livery-stables, whether and wlien constitute. — See 32 A. R.
141.

1705



§ 3479 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV.Pt.III.

Mining operations regarded as nuisances. — See 63 A. D. 98-
100.

Mooring logs and rafts as a. — See 3 L. 407.

Municipal power over — As to, generally, see 9 L. 714; 39 L.
551; 40 L. 465; 51 L. 657.

Same — Affecting highways and waters — As to, generally, see
39 L. 650-681; 40 L. 465.

Same — Affecting pubfic morals, decency, peace and good
order.-^See 39 L. 520-528; 41 L. 321.

Same — Affecting safety, health and personal comfort. — See 38
L. 305-335; 41 L>. 322.

Same — Buildings and other structures as. — See 38 L. 161-170.

Same — Relating to trade or business. — See 38 L. 641-657.

Same — Smoke as a public. — See 18 L. N. S. 156.

Same — To define, prevent and abate. — See 36 L. 593-613.

Same — Upon public streets and highways, created by street
railroads and other electrical companies. — See 39 L. 609-621; 44
L. 565.

Municipal corporations — Liability of for maintaining. — See 15
A. S. 845; 30 A. S. 395.

Same — Power of to determine what is and to remove. — See 27
A. D. 98; 120 A. S. 372; also "Municipal power over," this note.

Same — Right to create. — See 84 A. S. 916.

Municipality's power to regulate hitching of horses in streets.
—See 11 L. N. S. 1080.

Navigable waters, remedies for obstruction of. — See 57 A. S.
693-701.

Noise as a — Generally, see 12 L. 53.

Same — Arising from lawful business. — See 4 A. C. 378.

Same — ^With or without vibration incident to lawful industrial
business as a. — See 17 L. N. S. 287.

Obstruction — Of highway preventing or interfering with ac-
cess to property, right of private individual to abate as a.— See

11 A. C. 287.

Same — Of navigable water as a. — See 4 L. 209; 59 L. 90.

Same— Of street or highway. — See 38 A. R. 127; 16 A. S. 209.

Offensive trades and manufactures as. — See 42 A. R. 540.

Other nuisances producing similar results, existence of as
defense to proceedings for maintaining a nuisance. — See 12 A.
C. 909.

Percolating of filthy water. — See 39 A. R. 16.

Place for sale of intoxicating liquors as a — Generally, see 6
L. 721.

Same — In violation of law. — See 7 L. 298.

Pollution of stream or water as a. — See 48 A. R. 194, 196;

12 L. 577.

Pool-selling as a. — See 10 L. N. S. 992.
Powder magazines as. — See 38 L. 306.

1706



Tit.I.] PUBLIC NUISANCE. § 348O

Power-house of electric lig'ht or power company as a. — See
8 A. C. 567.

Prescriptive right to maintain public. — See 30 A. S. 556; 53
L. 891-903.

Private — Person's right to abate without suit. — See 26 A. D.
443; 44 A. R. 111.

Same — Wliat will be enjoined as interfering with the com-
fortable enjoyment of real property. — See 10 A. R. 674.

Public — Injunction against, who may obtain. — See 67 A. D.
203.

Same — Private action for. — See 31 A. D. 132; 25 A. R. 533.

Same — Private citizens, when may obtain injunctions against.
—See 52 A. R. 574.

Same — What are. — See 107 A. S. 195.

Public health and safety — Crimes against. — See Kerr's Cyc.
Pen. C. §§ 368-402% and notes.

Purprestures, what are, and remedies for tlieir abatement. —
See 69 A. S. 271, 281.

Railroad in street as a. — See 5 L. 371.

Right of landlord to recover damages to premises caused by,
existing at commencement of tenancy. — See 6 A. C. 150.

Right to compensation for property destroyed in abating pub-
lic—See 19 L. 196.

Running of statute of limitations against action for dam-
ages for. — See 10 A. C. 184.

Sewer In neighborhood of plaintiff's land. — See Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. §3493 and note par. 18.

Slaughter-house as a. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3493 and note;
also 13 L. 321, 322.

Smoke, soot, cinders and coal-dust as a. — See 9 L. 712.

Stables as nuisances. — See 32 A. R. 141-143; 17 L. N. S. 1025.

Storage of explosives as a. — See 1 A. C. 206, 209; 5 A. C.
498, 503; 38 L. 308; 16 L. N. S. 691.

Summary destruction of private property in abating. — See 1
A. C. 345.

Surface water as a — Generally, see 4 L. 594; 10 L. 254.

Same — Liability of city for. — See 65 L. 2S0.

Trees near boundary as a. — See 21 L. 730.

Two or more persons creating or maintaining, suits and ac-
tions against. — See 118 A. S. 868.

Validity of statute authorizing forfeiture or destruction of
property used in violation of gaming laws. — See 8 A. C. 910.

Vendee of property, when not liable for. — See 59 A. R. 351.

What constitutes — As to, generally, see 4 A. C. 373; 5 A. C.
132; 8 A. C. 558; 10 A. C. 66.

§3480. PrBLIC >UISA>TE. A public nuisance is one
which affects at the same time an entire community or nelgh-

1707



§ 3480 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.III.

borhood, or any considerable number of persons, although
the extent of the annoyance or damage inflicted upon indi-
viduals may be unequal.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 268.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 15 pars, annotation.

66 C*!"138, 147, 56 A. R. 80, 4 P. 1152 (cited); 109 C. 340, 343, 42
P. 437 (referred to in opinion of trial court quoted); 111 C.
25, 30, 43 P. 396 (cited); 116 C. 397. 399, 48 P. 374, 39 L. 581
(cited); 126 C. 670, 673, 77 A. S. 217, 59 P. 202 (cited); 150 C.
171, 174, 88 P. 713 (cited); 150 C. 195, 196, 88 P. 899 (applied —
obstruction of public highway); 1 C. A. 229, 231, 81 P. 1118
(applied — street railway tracks not laid in center of street) ; 6
C. A. 276, 280, 92 P. 196 (private person, in suit to abate pub-
lic nuisance, must show what); 18 F. 753, 770 (cited).

As to constitutionality of statute, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3479
and note par. 4.

As to interference with water-rights as nuisance, see Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. § 3479 and note.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.

Abatement of public nuisance. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 3494,
3495 and notes.

Cognate section — Nuisance defined and actions for. — See Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. P. § 731 and note.

Highway obstructed.-^See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3493 and note
pars. 6-10.

Injunctions against purprestures and nuisances. — See 35 A.
S. 673, 674.

Lapse of time does not legalize public nuisance. — See Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. § 3490 and note.

License from city. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3479 and note
par. 8.

Municipal control over public nuisance upon public streets
and highways created by street railroads and other electrical
companies. — See 39 L. 609-621.

Municipal power as to nuisances affecting public morals, de-
cency, peace, and good order. — See 39 L. 520-528.

Municipal power over nuisance affecting highways and waters.
—See 39 L. 649-685.

Municipal power over nuisance affecting safety, health, and
personal comfort. — See 38 L. 305-336.

Private person may maintain action, when. — See Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 3493 and note.

Public health and safety — Crimes against. — See Kerr's Cyc.
Pen. C. §§ 368-402% and notes.

1708



Tit.L] SUCCESSIVE OWNERS. §§ 3481-3483

Purprestures with reference to park. — See ante § 3479 and
note par. 9.

Question of fact. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3479 and note par. 10.

Slaug-hter-liouse. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3493 and note.

Smoke — Municipal control over, as public nuisance. — See 39
L. 551-554.



§3481. PRIVATE iVUISANCE. Every nuisance not in-
cluded in the definition of the last section is private.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§3482. WHAT IS NOT DEEMED A NUISANCE. Nothing
which is done or maintained under the express authority of
a statute can be deemed a nuisance.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 8 pars, annotation.

91 C. 238, 255, 27 P. 604, 608 (applied); 18 F. 753, 771, 779
(cited).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, sec note
§ 3479, ante.

License from city.— See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3479 and note
par. 8.

Nuisance caused by deposit of debris not authorized by legis-
lation.— See 30 A. S. 555, 556.

War department's permission. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3479
and note par. 20.

§.S483. SUCCESSIVE OWNERS. Every successive owner
of property who neglects to abate a continuing nuisance
upon, or in the use of, such property, created by a former
owner, is liable therefor in the same manner as the one who
first created it.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.

72 C. 180, 182, 1 A. S. 45, 13 P. 478 (cited); 36 P. 859, 861 (con-
strued); 1 C. A. 441, 446, 82 P. 640 (action, without previous
demand, for abatement of nuisance).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.

Grantee's liability for nuisance. — See 34 A. S. 267.

1709



§§3484,3490 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.III.

Liability of creator of nuisance as affected by alienation. —
See 14 A. D. 336-341.

Liability of landlord and lessee respectively for nuisance on
premises. — See 34 A. S. 267.

Notice to successive owner. — See 14 A. D. 338-341.



§3484. ABATEMENT DOES NOT PRECLUDE ACTION.

The abatement of a nuisance does not prejudice the right of
any person to recover damages for its past existence.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.
As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.



TITLE II.

PUBLIC NUISANCES.

§ 3490. Lapse of time does not legalize.

§ 3491. Remedies against public nviisance.

§ 3492. How regulated.

§ 3493. Remedies for public nuisance.

§ 3494. Action.

§ 3495. How abated.



§3490. LAPSE OF TIME DOES NOT LEGALIZE. No

lapse of time can legalize a public nuisance, amounting to
an actual obstruction of public right.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 5 pars, annotation.

66 C. 138, 152, 56 A. R. 80, 4 P. 1152 (cited); 103 C. 236, 238,
37 P. 149 (cited); 128 C. 230, 235, 60 P. 851 (applied); 2 C. A.
346, 350, S3 P. 1082 (cited); 18 F. 753, 787 (cited).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.

Custom cannot give right to deposit debris in stream. — See
30 A. S. 556.

Definition of public nuisance. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3480 and
note.

Laches in objecting to nuisance. — See 50 A. R. 117-119.

1710



Tit.II.] PUBLIC— REMEDIES. §§ 3491-3493

§3491. KEaiEDIES AGAIXST PUBLIC MnSA>CE. The

remedies against a public nuisance are:

1. Indictment or information;

2. A civil action; or,

3. Abatement.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 2, 1880,
Code Amdts. 1880 (C. C. pt.), p. 1.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.
18 F. 753, 781 (cited).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.

§3492. HOW REGULATED. The remedy by indictment
or information is regulated by the penal code.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 2, 1880,
Code Amdts. 1880 (C. C. pt.), p. 1.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.

Cognate sections to wliich reference is here made are Pen.
C. §§ 370-374.

§3493. REMEDIES FOR PUBLIC >UISA>CE. A private
person may maintain an action for a public nuisance, if it is
specially injurious to himself, but not otherwise.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 20 pars, annotation.

54 C. 532, 533 (cited); 87 C. 166, 176, 25 P. 240, 243 (referred
to); 89 C. 26, 29, 26 P. 618 (cited); 103 C. 236, 238, 37 P. 149 (ap-
plied); 107 C. 199, 205, 40 P. 437 (applied): 109 C. 340, 343, 42 P.
437 (applied); 121 C. 511, 513, 53 P. 1118 (applied); 136 C. 14,
15, 68 P. 108 (cited); 141 C. 360, 363, 74 P. 1049 (applied): 144
C. 134, 139, 77 P. 823 (cited); 150 C. 171, 174, 88 P. 713 (applied —
obstruction to highway); 150 C. 277, 279, 88 P. 977 (applied —
railroad constructed on public street without authority); 152
C. 118, 120, 92 P. 70 (suit to recover damages caused by nuisance
without seeking its abatement); 1 C. A. 140, 141, 81 P. 1022
(applied — obstruction of public alley); 1 C. A. 229, 231, 81 P.
1118 (applied — street railway tracks not laid in center of
street); 2 C. A. 346, 349, 83 P. 1082 (private person, not owning
land abutting on street cannot maintain action for obstruc-
tion in street unless he is damaged in person); 6 C. A. 276, 280,

1711



§§ 3494, 3495 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IV,Pt.TII.

92 P. 196 (private person, in suit to abate public nuisance, must
show what); 18 F. 753, 781 (cited).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.

Action by private person for obstruction of highway. — See
16 A. S. 209.

Inconvenience no ground for refusing to enjoin nuisance. —
See 30 A. S. 557.

Injunctions against purprestures and nuisances. — See 35 A. S.
673, 674.

Injunctions against threatened nuisances. — See 73 A. D. 113-
116.

Joinder of parties plaintiff and defendant in action to abate
nuisance. — See 71 A. D. 311-316.

Nuisance by obstructing street — Action for, cannot be main-
tained by adjoining owner unless specially damaged. — See 28
A. D. 306.

Prescriptive right to maintain public nuisance no defense,
when. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3490 and note par. 5.

Private action for public nuisance. — See 31 A. D. 132-135.

Private person may sue to restrain public nuisance, when. —
See 30 A. S. 554, 555.

Right of action in case of nuisance. — See 4 L. 211, 212.

Statute of limitations in actions for nuisances. — See 20 A. S.
176-179.

§ 3494. ACTION. A public nuisance may be abated by
any public body or officer authorized thereto by law.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

4 C. A. 695, 697, 88 P. 1099 (applied to carpet-beating works).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante. •

Abatement of public nuisance. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 3493
and note.

Action by private person for public nuisance. — See Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 3493 and note.

Right of private person to abate nuisance without suit. —
See 26 A. D. 443, 445; 43 A. R, 24-26.

§3495. HOW ABATED. Any person may abate a public
nuisance which is specially injurious to him by removing,
or, if necessary, destroying the thing which constitutes the
same, without committing a breach of the peace, or doing
unnecessary injury.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.
1712



Tit III ] PRIVATE— REMEDIES. §§ 3501-3503



TITLE III.

PRIVATE NUISANCES.

§ 3501. Remedies for private nuisance.
§ 3502. Abatement, when allowed.
§ 3503. Wlien notice is required.

§ 3501. REMEDIES FOE PRIVATE NUISANCE. The rem-
edies against a pi'ivate nuisance are:

1. A civil action; or,

2. Abatement.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to nuisance, see note
§ 3479, ante.

Cognate section — Nuisance defined and actions for. — See Kerr's



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