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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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P. 347, 348.

§ 172 erroneously cited for § 171, 70 C. 282, 285, same error, 11
P. 719, 720, 721.

§ 188 erroneously cited for § 188 Pen. C, 1" C. A. 246, 248, cor-
rect citation, 81 P. 1087. (There is no § 188 C. C.)

§ 191 erroneously cited for § 291, 53 C. 123, 128.

§ 257 erroneously cited as § 257 C. C. P., 121 C. 468, 475, cor-
rect citation, 53 P. 936, 939.

§ 291 erroneously cited as § 191, 53 C. 123, 128.

§ 292 erroneously cited for § 2927, 80 C. 348, 353, correct cita-
tion, 22 P. 200, 201.

§ 305 erroneously cited as § 305 C. C. P., 127 C. 600, 637, cor-
rect citation, 60 P. 424, 426. (There is no § 305 C.
C. P.)

§ 308 erroneously cited as § 308 C. C. P., 127 C. 630, 631, 637,
correct citation, 60 P. 424, 426.

§ 312 erroneously cited as C. C. P., 54 C. 149, 150.

§ 322 erroneously cited as C. C. P., 5 F. 403, 410, 412.

§ 327 erroneously cited for § 3275, 84 C. 420, 422, correct cita-
tion, 24 P. 316, 317.

§ 331 erroneously cited as § 537, 82 C. 600, 602, correct cita-
tion, 23 P. 134, 135.

§ 338 erroneously cited as § 388, 3 C. A. 109, 110, correct cita-
tion, 84 P. 432, 433.

§ 349 erroneously cited as C. C. P., 5 F. 403, 408, 409, 410, 429.

§ 353 erroneously cited for § 355, 59 C. 22, 24.

§ 353 erroneously cited for § 853, 15 P. 439, 442.

§ 355 erroneously cited as § 353, 59 C. 22, 24.

§ 377 erroneously cited for C. C. P., 63 C. 483, 484.

xxii



TABLE OF ERRORS.

§ 388 erroneously cited for § 338, 3 C. A. 109, 110, correct cita-
tion, 84 P. 432, 433.

§ 478 erroneously referred to as § 478 C. C. P., 101 C. 333, 334,
correct citation, 35 P. 993.

§ 514 erroneously cited as § 2799, 80 C. 338, 341, correct cita-
tion, 22 P. 254, 255.

§ 537 erroneously cited for § 331, 82 C. 600, 602, correct cita-
tion, 23 P. 134, 135.

§ 593 erroneously cited as § 595, 119 C. 477, 483, same error,
51 P. 841, 843.

§ 595 erroneously cited as § 593, 119 C. 477, 483, same error,
51 P. 841, 843.

§ 648 erroneously cited for § 648 C. C. P., 127: C. 37, 39, cor-
rect citation, 59 P. 206.

§ 648 erroneously cited in dis. op. for § 864, 64 P. 1000, 1007.

§ 656 erroneously cited for § 656 C. C. P., 108 C. 240, 244, cor;
rect citation, 41 P. 299.

§ 700 erroneously cited for § 700 C. C. P., 70 C. 282, 286, same
error, 11 P. 719, 721.

§ 731 erroneously cited for § 3479, 66 C. 171, 174, same error,
4 P. 1162, 1164.

§ 779 erroneously cited for § 779 C. C. P., 70 C. 553, 559, erro-
neously cited in 12 P. 45"1, 454 for § 709 C. C. P.

§ 801 erroneously cited as § 811, 4 C. A. 18, 24, same error, 87
P. 213.

§ 811 erroneously cited as § 811 Pol. C, 81 C. 122, 125, correct
citation, 22 P. 393, 394.

§ 811 erroneously cited for § 801, 4 C. A. 18, 24, same error,
87 P. 213.

§ 830 erroneously cited as § 880, 108 C. 179, 185, same error,
49 A. S. 76, 79, correct citation, 41 P. 289, 290.

§ 846 erroneously cited in dis. op. for § 864, 132 C. 523, 558.
(There is no § 846 C. C.)

§ 852 erroneously cited as § 853, 80 C. 514, 518, correct cita-
tion, 22 P. 294, 295.

§ 852 erroneously cited as § 82, 88 C. 560, 565, correct citation,
26 P. 367, 368.

§ 853 erroneously cited as § 353, 15 P. 439, 442.

xxiii



TABLE OF ERRORS.

§ 853 erroneously cited for § 852, 80 C. 514, 518, correct cita-
tion, 22 P. 294, 295.

§ 863 erroneously cited as § 863 C. C. P., 95 C. 63, 74, correct
citation, 30 P. 301, 303.

§ 863 erroneously cited as § 863 C. C. P., 144 C. 314, 321, cor-
rect citation, 77 P. 942, 944.

§ 864 erroneously cited in dis. op. as § 846, 132 C. 523, 558, and
in 64 P. 1000, 1007, as § 648. (There is no § 846 C. C.)

§ 870 erroneously cited as § 871, 133 C. 51, 52, same error, 65
I', 130

§ 871 erroneously cited for § 870, 133 C. 51, 52, same error,
65 P. 130.

§ 880 erroneously cited for § 830, 108 C. 179, 185, same error,
49 A. S. 76, 79, correct citation, 41 P. 289, 290.

§ 952 erroneously cited for § 952 Pen. C, 138 C. 145, 147, same
error, 70 P. 1089, 1090. (There is no § 952 C. C.)

§ 1033 erroneously cited for § 1053, 106 C. 203, 205, same error,
39 P. 531, 532.

§ 1040 erroneously cited as § 1040 C. C. P., 95 C. 63, 74, correct
citation, 30 P. 301, 303. (There is no § 1040 C. C. P.)

§ 1052 erroneously cited for § 1053, 128 C. 627, 633, same error,
61 P. 371, 372.

§ 1053 erroneously cited as ^ 1033, 106 C. 203, 205, same error,
39 P. 531, 532.

§ 1053 erroneously cited at § 1052, 128 C. 627, 633, same error,
61 P. 371, 372.

§ 1105 erroneously cited as § 1105 C. C. P., 88 C. 263, 267,
same error, 26 P. 106, 108.

§ 1114 erroneously cited for § 1141, 106 C. 441, 446, correct
citation, 39 P. 853, 855.

§ 1141 erroneously cited as § 1114, 106 C. 441, 446, correct cita-
tion, 39 P. 853, 855.

§ 1167 erroneously cited for § 1667, 81 C. 507, 509, correct
citation, 22 P. 883.

§ 1185 erroneously cited as § 1189, 131 C. 504, 507, feame error,
82 A. S. 374, 377, same error, 63 P. 840, 841.

§ 1186 erroneously cited as § 1186 C. C. P., 80 C. 65, 67, cor-
rect citation, 22 P. 69, 70.
xxiv



TABLE OF ERRORS.

§ 1187 erroneously cited as § 1189, 98 C. 465, 468, same error,
35 A. S. 192, 195, correct citation, 20 L. 702, 33 P.
480, 481.

§ 1189 erroneously cited for § 1185, 131 C. 504, 507, same error,
82 A. S. 374, 377, same error, 63 P. 840, 841.

§ 1189 erroneously cited for § 1187, 98 C. 465, 468, same error,
35 A. S. 192, 195, correct citation, 20 L. 702, 33 P.
480, 481.

§ 1191 erroneously cited as § 1191 C. C. P., 80 C. 65, 67, cor-
rect citation, 22 P. 69, 70.

§ 1196 erroneously cited for § 1996, 89 C. 547, 550, correct cita-
tion, 26 P. 1095, 1096.

§ 1197 erroneously cited for § 1997, 89 C. 547, 550, correct
citation, 26 P. 1095, 1096.

§ 1223 erroneously cited for § 1629, 101 C. 528, same error, 40
A. S. 73, correct citation, 36 P. 18.

§ 1223 erroneously cited for § 1629, 32 P. 885, 887.

§ 1253 erroneously cited for § 1263, 52 C. 629, 630.

§ 1263 erroneously cited as § 1253, 52 C. 629, 630.

§ 1265 erroneously cited as § 1365, 1 P. 479, 480.

§ 1265 erroneously cited as 1265 C. C. P., 80 C. 208, 209, same
error, 13 A. S. 116, 117, correct citation, 22 P. 141,
142; also erroneously cited as §1265 C. C. in 111 C.
484, 487, indefinitely cited, 44 P. 167. (There is no
§ 1265 C. C. P.)

§ 1273 erroneously cited for § 1277, 70 C. 140, 142, same error,
11 P. 587, 588.

§ 1277 erroneously cited as § 1273, 70 C. 140, 142, same error,
11 P. 587, 588.

§ 1307 erroneously cited for § 1307 C. C. P., 148 C. 233, 236,
same error, 82 P. 962, same error, 113 A. S. 231, 233.

§ 1312 erroneously cited for § 1312 C. C. P., 148 C. 233, 236,
same error, 82 P. 962, same error, 113 A. S. 231, 233.

§ 1313 erroneously cited for § 1313 C. C. P., 148 C. 233, 236,
same error, 82 P. 962, same error, 113 A. S. 231, 233.

§1314 erroneously cited for § 1314 C. C. P., 148 C. 233, 236,
same error, 82 P. 962, same error, 113 A. S. 231, 233.

§ 1359 erroneously cited as § 1360, 142 C. 453, 456, correct cita-
tion, 76 P. 41, 42.

XXV



TABLE OP ERRORS.

§ 1360 erroneously cited for § 1359, 142 C. 453, 456, correct
citation, 76 P. 41, 42.

§ 1365 erroneously cited for § 1265, 1 P. 479, 480.

§ 1369 erroneously cited as § 1569, 107 C. 303, 308, correct cita-
tion, 40 P. 558, 560.

§ 1386 omitted from opinion, 132 C. 523, 563, printed in 60
P. 442, 443.

§ 1386 erroneously cited as § 1386 C. C. P., 152 C. 201, 207,
correct citation, 92 P. 184, 186.

§ 1405 erroneously cited as § 1445, 18 P. 409.

§ 1421 erroneously cited as § 1721, 149 C. 496, 499, correct cita-
tion, 86 P. 1081, 1082.

§ 1445 erroneously cited for § 1405, 18 P. 409.

§ 1473 erroneously cited as § 1473 C. C. P., 86 C. 184, 187, same
error, 24 P. 1005.

§ 1487 erroneously referred to in dis. op., 63 C. 129, 139.

§ 1542 erroneously cited for § 2617, 86 C. 248, 253, same error,
21 A. S. 33, 35, 36, same error, 24 P. 1018, 1019.

§ 1569 erroneously cited for § 1369, 107 C. 303, 308, correct
citation, 40 P. 558, 560.

§ 1543 erroneously cited for § 2618, 86 C. 248, 253, same error,
21 A. S. 33, 35, 36, same error, 24 P. 1018, 1019.

§ 1544 erroneously cited for § 2619, 86 C. 248, 253, same error,
21 A. S. 33, 35, 36, same error, 24 P. 1018, 1019.

§ 1572 erroneously cited as § 1752, 152 C. 148, 157, correct cita-
tion, 92 P. 78, 82.

§ 1623 erroneously cited for § 1624, subd. 5, 88 C. 434, 436,
correct citation, 26 P. 360, 361.

§ 1624 erroneously cited as § 1624 C. C. P., 80 C. 90, 97, same
error, 13 A. S. 101, 107, correct citation, 22 P. 57, 59.

§ 1624 erroneously cited as § 1623, 88 C. 434, 436, correct cita-
tion, 26 P. 360, 361.

§ 1624 erroneously cited as § 1624 C. C. P., 119 C. 239, 241,
same error, 51 P. 333, 334.

§ 1624 erroneously cited as § 1624 C. C. P., 4 C. A. 109, 112,
correct citation, 87 P. 255.

§ 1629 erroneously cited as § 1223, 32 P. 885, 887.

§ 1629 erroneously cited as § 1223, 101 C. 522, 528, same error,
40 A. S. 73, correct citation, 36 P. 18.
xxvi



TABLE OF TOllP.OKS.

§ 1667 erroneously cited as § 1167, 81 C. 507, 509, correct cita-
tion, 22 P. 883.

§ 1697 erroneously cited as § 1697 C. C. P., 129 C. 301, 305,
correct citation, 61 P. 937.

§ 1721 erroneously cited for § 1421, 149 C. 496, 499, correct
citation, 86 P. 1081, 1082.

§ 1752 erroneously cited for § 1572, 152 C. 148, 157, correct
citation, 92 P. 78, 82.

§ 1828 erroneously cited as "Civ. Code p. 779," 1 C. A. 488,
491, same error, 82 P. 686.

S 1858 erroneously cited as "Civ. Code p. 779," 1 C. A. 488, 491,
same error, 82 P. 686.

§ 1913 erroneously cited for § 1913 C. C. P., 114 C. 258, 261,
same error, 55 A. S. 66, correct citation, 46 P. 82, 83,
35 L. 492.

§ 1942 erroneously cited as § 1942 C. C. P., 13 P. 866, 868.

§ 1957 erroneously cited for § 2957, 106 C. 673, 680, correct
citation, 39 P. 1071. 1073.

§ 1996 erroneously cited as § 1196, 89 C. 547, 550, correct cita-
tion, 26 P. 1095, 1096.

§ 1997 erroneously cited as § 1197, 89 C. 547, 550, correct cita-
tion, 26 P. 1095, 1096.

§ 2101 erroneously cited for § 2201, 118 C. 648, 653, correct
citation, 50 P. 775, 40 L. 78, 79.

§ 2117 erroneously cited for § 3117, 125 C. 684, 685, correct
citation, 58 P. 297, 296.

§ 2201 erroneously cited as § 2101, 118 C. 648, 653, correct cita-
tion, 50 P. 775, 40 L. 78, 79.

§ 2216 erroneously cited as § 2216 C. C. P., 95 C. 63, 74, cor-
rect citation, 30 P. 301, 303. (There is no § 2216 C.
C. P.)

§ 2290 erroneously cited for § 2219, 125 C. 227, 230. correct
citation, 57 P. 894.

S 2219 erroneously cited as § 2290, 125 C. 227, 230. correct cita-
tion, 57 P. 894.

§ 2220 erroneously cited as § 2320. 70 C. 449. 453, correct cita-
tion, 11 P. 659. 661.

§ 2229 erroneously cited as § 2239. 142 C. 638, 641, same error.
76 P. 486, 487.

XXV ii



TABLE OF ERRORS.

§ 2235 erroneously cited for § 2395, 54 C. 439, 440.

§ 2237 erroneously cited as § 2237 C. C. P., 5 C. A. 228, 235,
correct citation, 90 P. 39, 42. (There is no § 2237
C. C. P.)

§ 2239 erroneously cited for § 2229, 142 C. 638, 641, same error,
76 P. 486, 487.

§ 2306 erroneously cited as § 2306 C. C. P., 87 C. 256, 262,
same error, 22 A. S. 243, 246, correct citation, 25 P.
407. 408.

§ 2320 erroneously cited for § 2220, 70 C. 449, 453, correct
citation, 11 P. 659, 661.

§ 2358 erroneously cited for § 2368, 61 C. 405, 429.

§ 2368 erroneously cited as § 2358, 61 C. 405, 429.

§ 2395 erroneously cited as § 2235, 54 C. 439, 440.

§ 2617 erroneously cited as § 1542, 86 C. 248, 253, same error,
21 A. S. 33, 35, 36, same error, 24 P. 1018, 1019.

§ 2618 erroneously cited as § 1543, 86 C. 248, 253, same error,
21 A. S. 33, 35, 36, same error, 24 P. 1018, 1019.

§ 2619 erroneously cited as § 1544, 86 C. 248, 253, same error,
21 A. S. 33, 35, 36, same error, 24 P. 1018, 1019.

§ 2711 erroneously cited for § 2911, 92 C. 382, 387, correct cita-
tion, 28 P. 573, 575.

§ 2799 erroneously cited for § 514, 80 C. 338, 341, correct cita-
tion, 22 P. 254, 255.

§ 2809 erroneously cited for § 2899, 61 C. 396, 399.

§ 2887 erroneously cited for § 2997, 125 C. 596, 599, correct
citation, 58 P. 186, 187. (There is no § 2887 C. C.)

§ 2899 erroneously cited as § 2809, 61 C. 396, 399.

§ 2903 erroneously cited for § 2993, 61 C. 405, 429.

§ 2910 erroneously cited as § 29, 87 C. 15, 21, correct citation,
25 P. 161, 162.

§ 2911 erroneously cited as § 2711, 92 C. 382, 387, correct cita-
tion, 28 P. 573, 575.

§ 2922 erroneously referred to, 58 C. 147, 152.

§ 2927 erroneously cited as § 292, 80 C. 348, 353, correct cita-
tion, 22 P. 200, 201.

§ 2941 erroneously cited as § 2951, 64 C. 273, 274, same error,
30 P. 818.

xxviii



TABLE OF ERRORS.

§ 2951 erroneously cited for § 2941, 64 C. 273, 274, same error,
30 P. 818.

§ 2957 erroneously cited as § 1957, 106 C. 673, 679, 680, correct
citation, 39 P. 1071, 1073.

§ 2986 erroneously cited as § 2986 C. C. P., 123 C. 643, 648,
correct citation, 56 P. 468, 470. (There is no § 2986
C. C. P.)

§ 2987 erroneously cited as § 2987 C. C. P., 123 C. 643, 648,
correct citation, 56 P. 468, 470. (There is no § 2987
C. C. P.)

§ 2988 erroneously cited as § 3988, 101 C. 445, 453, correct cita-
tion, 35 P. 1035, 1038.

§ 2993 erroneously cited as § 2903, 61 C. 405, 429.

§ 2997 erroneously cited as § 2887, 125 C. 596, 599, correct
citation, 58 P. 186, 187.

§ 3117 erroneously cited as § 2117, 125 C. 684, 685, correct
citation, 58 P. 297, 298.

§ 3124 erroneously cited as § 3134, 68 C. 545, 548, correct cita-
tion, 9 P. 942, 944.

§ 3134 erroneously cited for § 3124, 68 C. 545, 548, correct cita-
tion, 9 P. 942, 944.

§ 3275 erroneously cited as § 327, 84 C. 420, 422, correct cita-
tion, 24 P. 316, 317.

§ 3278 erroneously cited for § 3287, 3 C. A. 263, 266, same
error, 84 P. 159. (There is no § 3278 C. C.)

§ 3287 erroneously cited as § 3278, 3 C. A. 263, 266, same error,
84 P. 159.

§ 3300 erroneously cited as § 3330, 130 C. 309, 314, citation of
§ 3300 omitted, 62 P. 562, 563.

§ 3330 erroneously cited for § 3300, 130 C. 309, 314, citation
of § 3300 omitted, 62 P. 562, 563.

§ 3340 erroneously cited for § 3440, 93 C. 393, 394, same error,
29 P. 70.

§ 3440 erroneously cited as § 3340, 93 C. 393, 394, same error.
29 P. 70.

§3479 erroneously cited as §731, 66 C. 171, 174, same error.
4 P. 1162, 1164.

§ 3502 erroneously cited for § 3532, 126 C. 413, 417, correct
citation, 58 P. 914, 915.
xxix



TABLE OF ERRORS.

§ 3532 erroneously cited as § 3502, 126 C. 413, 417, correct cita-
tion, 58 P. 914, 915.

§ 3543 erroneously cited as § 3543 C. C. P., 54 C. 140, 143.
(There is no § 3543 C. C. P.)

§ 3988 erroneously cited for § 2988, 101 C. 445, 453, correct
citation, 35 P. 1035, 1038. (There is no § 3988 C. C.)

"Civ. Code p. 779" erroneously cited for § 1858, 1 C. A. 488,
491, same error, 82 P. 686.



ABBREVIATIONS IN POCKET CODE.

(Other than the usual.)

A. C. — American and English Annotated Cases.

A. D. — Americai. Decisions.

A. R. — American Reports.

A. S. — American State Reports.

C. — California Reports.

C. A. — California Appellate Reports.

C. A. D. — California Appellate Decisions.

C. D. — California Decisions.

Cent. Dig. — Century Digest.

Cyc. — Cyclopedia of Law and Procedure.

Decn. Dig'. — Decennial Digest.

Encyc. L. — American and English Encyclopedia of Law (2nd ed.).

Encyc. P. — Encyclopedia of Pleading and Practice.

F. S. A.- — Federal Statutes Annotated.

L. — Lawyers' Reports Annotated.

L. ed. — Lawyers' edition of United States Reports.

L. N. S. — Lawyers' Reports Annotated, New Series.

Obiter Dig. — Obiter Digest of the U. S. Supreme Court Reports.

P. — Pacific Reporter.

W. & P. — Words and Phrases Judicially Defined.



CIVIL CODE.

AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A CIVIL CODE.
[Approved March 21, 1872.]

The people of the state of California, represented in the sen-
ate and assembly, do enact as follows:

TITLE OF THE ACT.

§ 1. This act shall be known as the Civil Code of the State
of California, and is in four divisions, as follows:

I. The first relating to persons.

II. The second to property.

III. The third to obligations.

IV. The fourth contains general provisions relating to the
three preceding divisions.

HlMtory: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 7 pars, annotation.

Cited, referred to, and amended how. — See post, § 21.



Krrr's C. C.



PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS.

§ 2. When this code takes effect.

§ 3. Not retroactive.

§ 4. Rules of construction.

§ 5. Provisions similar to existing- laws, how construed.

§ 6. Actions, etc., not affected.

§ 7. Holidays.

§ 8. Same [repealed].

§ 9. Business days.

§ 10. Computation of time.

§ 11. Certain acts not to be done on holidays.

§ 12. Joint autliority construed.

§ 13. Words and phrases, how construed.

§ 14. Certain terms defined.

§ 15. Good faith, what constitutes [repealed].

§ 16. Degrees of care and negligence [repealed].

§ 17. Degrees of negligence [repealed].

§ 18. Notice, actual and constructive.

§ 19. Constructive notice [wlien deemed].

§ 20. Effect of repeal.

§ 21. Tliis act, how cited.

§ 2. >VHE\ THIS (ODE TAKES EFFECT. This code takes
effect at twelve o'cloclc noon on the first day of January,
eighteen hundred and seventy-three.

HiNtory: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 7 pars, annotation.

Effect of codes generally, and their proper construction — As
to, see Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. §§ 4478 et seq. and notes.

Effect of Civil Code — As to, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§3-19 and
notes.

See Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. § 4478 and note pars. 2-4, and § 1-179.
and note par. 2.

Same — Codes considered passed on first day of session of
legislature at the term at which adopted. — See Kerr's Cyc. Pol.
C. § 4478 and note pars. 2-4, and § 3891 and note.

Similar provisions in the otlier codes — As to, see § 2 of the
respective codes.

Publication of the codes — As to, see Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. $ 4 494
and note pars. 1, 2.

3



§1 3, 4 CIVIL CODE.

§3. NOT RETROACTIYE. No part of it is retroactive,
unless expressly so declared.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 18 pars, annotation.

59 C. 288, 289 (applied); 63 C. 261, 263 (applied); 95 C. 184,
201, 30 P. 213, 27 P. 30, 16 L. 646 (construed in dis. op.); 106
C. 673, 680, 39 P. 1071 (construed); 133 C. 524, 527, 65 P. 1034
(applied).

Discussion of constitutional question. — See 16 L. 646.

Impairing- vf^ted rights — As to, see Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. § 8
and note.

Law enlarging- period of limitation upon existing contracts,
as to efEect of, see 16 L. 646; also Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 312 note
pars. 126-130.

When code is silent the common law governs. — See Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. § 4 note pars. 19, 20.

§ 4. EULES OF CONSTRUCTION. The rule of the common
law, that statutes in derogation thereof are to be strictly
construed, has no application to this code. The code estab-
lishes the law of this state respecting the subjects to which it
relates, and its provisions are to be liberally construed with
a view to effect its objects and to promote justice.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended by the Code Com-
mission, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 332;
amendment declared unconstitutional, 134 Cal. 291, 86 A. S. 257,
66 P. 478, 55 L. 833. See Code Civ. Proc, Pt. I, introductory
note. ,

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 27 pars, annotation.

51 C. 255, 257, 258 (applied); 54 C. 616, 619 (applied); 66 C.
432, 434, 6 P. 7, 9 (cited as controlling); 67 C. 385, 386, 7 .P.
766 (referred to); 69 C. 255, 370, 10 P. 674 (applied); 74 C.
586, 590, 16 P. 493 (applied); 75 C. 1, 56, 16 P. 345, 370 (cited
in dis. op. as controlling); 96 C. 532, 576, 31 P. 915, 922, 19 L.
40 (applied); 98 C. 531, 551, 33 P. 460, 21 L. 380 (construed);

104 C. 298, 299, 302, 37 P. 1049, 1050 (applied as controlling);

105 C. 526, 558, 38 P. 94, 722, 28 L. 773 (applied); 107 C. 1, 4,
40 P. 15, 28 L. 414 (cited); 123 C. 198, 201, 55 P. 902 (cited);
124 C. 389, 397, 57 P. 227, 45 L. 793 (cited); 125 C. 65, 68, 57
P. 677 (cited with other sections); 127 C. 122, 126, 59 P. 394,
396 (applied); 136 C. 138, 142, 89 A. S. 120, 68 P. 587 (cited with
other sections); 145 C. 713, 715, 79 P. 425, 426 (applied); 146
C. 245. 247, 79 P. 891, 106 A. S. 23 (applied); 146 C. 455, 465,

4



EXISTING LAWS— ACTIONS. §§ 5, 6

80 P. 700, 106 A. S. 53, 2 A. C. 726 (applied); 54 F. 320, 331
(applied as to survival of action for injuries to estate of dece-
dent).

§5. PKOVISIONS SIMILAR TO EXISTING LAWS, IIOW
CONSTRUED. The provisions of this code, so far as they
are substantially the same as existing statutes or the com-
mon law, must be construed as continuatious thereof, and not
as new enactments.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 16, 1901,
Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 332; unconstitutipnal, see history,
§ 4 ante.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for G pars, annotation.

75 C. 1, 69, 16 P. 345 (erroneously cited for §4); 87 C. 643,
647, 25 P. 922, 923 (applied); 96 C. 490, 492, 493, 31 P. 560 (con-
strued); 98 C. 30, 33, 32 P. 807 (applied); 104 C. 570, 584, 38
P. 414, 32 L. 595 (referred to by the court as in harmony with
construction given); 120 C. 488, 491, 493, 494, 52 P. 843, 40 L.
476 (construed, contention of counsel not sustained); 121 C.
244. 246, 53 P. 656 (cited); 130 C. 380, 382, 62 P. 613 (construed);
136 C. 138, 142, 89 A. S. 120, 68 P. 587 (cited in connection with
other sections); 57 F. 845, 848 (construed).

Repeal does not revive pre-existing law. — See Kerr's Cyc.
Pol. C. §18 and note; 44 Cent. Dig. col. 2794, §§246, 247; 26
Encyc. of L. 744-758.

Same — Effect of repeal after judgment. — 1 A. C. 220; 26 Encyc.
of L, 748.

§6. ACTIONS, ETC., NOT AFFECTED. No action or pro-
ceeding commenced before this code takes effect, and no right
accrued, is affected by its provisions.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 13 pars, annotation.

95 C. 184, 202, 30 P. 213, 216, 16 L. 646 (referred to).

Similar provisions in other codes — As to, see Kerr's Cyc. Pol.
C. § 8 and note; Kerr's Cyc. C. C P. § 8 and note.

Accrued rights — Effect of codes on. — See Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C.
§ 8 and note.

Claim barred by statute of limitation, legislature cannot
revive. — See Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. § 8 and note; also Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. P. § 8 and note par. IS.

Code rules applicable, when, as to, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 6
and note par. 12.

5



§ 7 CIVIL CODE.

Effect of codes on pending actions and accrued rights. — See
Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. § 8 and note; Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 8 note
pars. 7-9.

Legislature — Revival of claim barred by statute of limita-
tions is not permissible. — See Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. § 8 and note;
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 8 and note.

Limitation of actions — Power of legislature over, — as to, see
Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. § 9 and note; Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 8 and
note pars. 13-22.

Remedial rights, as to change or modification of by legisla-
ture. — See note to Kerr's Cyc. C. C. P. § 8 pars. 12 et seq.

When vested, etc. — As to, see Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. § 8 and
note; Kerr's Cyc, C. C. P. § 8 note pars. 7-11.

§ 7. HOLIDAYS. Holidays, within the meaning of this
code, are every Sunday, the first day of January, the twenty-
second day of February, the thirtieth day of May, the fourth
day of July, the ninth day of September, the first Monday
in September, the twelfth day of October to be known as
"Discovery Day," the twenty-fifth day of December, every
day on which an election is held throughout the state, and
every day appointed by the president of the United States
or by the governor of this state for a public fast, thanksgiv-
ing or holiday. If the first day of January, the twenty-second
day of February, the thirtieth day of May, the fourth day
of July, the ninth day of September, the twelfth day of Octo-
ber or the twenty-fifth day of December fall upon a Sunday,
the Monday following Is a holiday.

Every Saturday from twelve o'clock noon until twelve
o'clock midnight is a holiday as regards the transaction of
business in the public offices of this state, and also in politi-
cal divisions thereof where laws, ordinances or charters pro-
vide that public offices may be closed on holidays; provided,



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