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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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History: Enacted March 21, 1S72; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 183.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 31 pars, annotation.

85 C. 177, 190, 29 A. S. 128, 24 P. 729, 733 (construed and ap-
plied); 110 C. 292, 296, 52 A. S. 84, 42 P. 804 (construed and
applied); 134 C. 567, 568, 66 P. 729 (construed and applied); 139
C. 507, 511, 73 P. 247 (construed and applied); 149 C. 667, 673,
674, 87 P. 276, 279 (construed and applied with §39); 150 C.
272, 273, 275, 88 P. 909, 910 (cited); 1 C. A. 690, 693, 82 P. 1052,
1053 (explained with § 39).

Drunkenness — Complete drunkenness as a defense to action
on contract. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 39 note pars. 18-23; 11 Cent.
Dig. col. 370, §§ 412, 414.

§39. BY PERSONS OF UNSOUND MIND. A conveyance
or other contract of person of unsound mind but not entirely
without understanding, made before his incapacity has been
judicially determined, is subject to rescission, as provided in
the chapter on rescission of this code.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 184.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 60 pars, annotation.

85 C. 177, 190, 29 A. S. 128, 24 P. 729, 733 (applied); 110 C. 292,
296, 52 A. S. 84, 42 P. 80.4 (explained and applied); 140 C. 141,
152, 73 P. 820 (applied); 149 C. 667, 673, 87 P. 276, 279 (construed
and applied); 150 C. 272, 274, 275, 276, 88 P. 909 (construed and
applied with §38); 1 C. A. 690. 693, 694, 695, 82 P. 1052 (cited
and explained).

As to recission of contracts entered into by persons of un-
sound mind, see 18 PI. & Pr. 765; 11 Cent. Dig-, col. 369, §411;
5 Decen. Dig. p. 103, §92; 4 L. 637; 13 L. 797.

As to validity and effect of negotiable note signed or indorsed
by an insane person, see 4 A. C. 539.

Same — In hands of bona fide holder. — See 13 L. 797.

As to validity of deed by insane person, see 19 L. 490; 57 L.
340.

As to validity of judgment against an insane person, see 39
L. 775.

21



§ 39 CIVIL CODE. [Div. I.

As to validity of will by believer in spiritualism and witch-
craft, see 16 L. 677.

Contracts of insane persons. — See 71 A. S. 425; 16 L. 610;
4 L. 637; 13 L. 707; 34 L. 274; 35 L. 161; 35 L. 258; 49 L. 371;
3 L. N. S. 174.

Same — When and how may be avoided.- — See 15 A. D. 361.

Same — When void. — 21 A. R. 29.

As to who deemed to be insane, see 29 A. D. 38; 27 Cent. Dig-,
col. 2455, § 1.

Civi? liability of insane person for torts and negligence. —
See 42 A. S. 753; 26 L. 153; 27 Cent. Dig-, col. 2622, §§ 142, 143.

Deed of insane person — As to generally, see 27 Cent. Dig.
col. 2573, §§ 94-99.

Same — Belief in spiritualism, witchcraft, etc., as affecting
capacity to make. — See 16 L. 677.

Same — In partition. — See 57 L. 340.

Same — Validity of.— See 19 L. 489.

Disabilities of, in general.— See 27 Cent. Dig. col. 2455, §§ 1-14.

Divorce of insane person. — See 34 L. 161; 39 L. 264.

Due process of law, as applied to insane persons, what is. —
See 43 A. S. 351.

Effect of insanity on failure to pay insurance premiuna when
due.— See 12 L. N. S. 319.

Effect of judgment of insanity and imprisonment on aban-
donment of homestead. — See 3 L. N. S. 515.

Expert evidence to establish or disprove. — See note § 40, post;
6 A. D. 59; 66 A. D. 238.

Same — Conclusiveness of.- — See 42 L. 767.

Hereditary insanity, evidence of. — See 6 A. C. 29; 97 A. D. 174.

Hypnotism, law in reference to. — See 40 L. 269.

Insane delusions — What are, and their effect on competency.
—See 63 A. S. 80; 37 L. 261.

Insanity as act of God.— See 4 L. N. S. 898.

Insanity of husband as affecting wife's disability of covert-
ure.— See 34 L. 223.

Insanity of servant executing release on benefit of relief
funds.— See 11 L. N. S. 201.

Inquisition of insanity — Effect of as evidence. — See note § 40,
post.

Lucid intervals. — See 15 A. D. 116.

Marriage of insane persons. — See 79 A. S. 376; 40 L. 737.

Morphine habit and other addictions affecting responsibility
and capacity. — 39 L. 262.

Presumption — As to continuance of insanity. — See Kerr's
Pocket C. C. P. § 1823, note; 4 A. C. 491; 35 L. 117.

Right of insane person to remove from state. — See 58 L. 931.

Statute of limitations does not operate against when. — See 36
A. D. 71.

22



^



Pt. I.] LUNACY PROCEEDINGS. § 40

Validity of judgment against insane person. — See 39 L.. 775.
Validity and effect of negotiable paper signed or endorsed
by insane person. — See 4 A. C. 539.

§ 40. POIVEBS OF PERSONS WHOSE IJfCAPACITY HAS

BEEN ADJUDGrED. After his incapacity has been judicially
determined, a person of insane mind can make no conveyance
or other contract, nor delegate any power or waive any right,
until his restoration to capacity. But a certificate from the
medical superintendent or resident physician of the insane
asylum to which such person may have been committed,
showing that such person had been discharged therefrom,
cured and restored to reason, shall establish the presumption
of legal capacity in such person from the time of such dis-
charge.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1878,
Code Amdts. 1877-8, p. 75; amended by Code Commission, Act
March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, pp. 333-334, held uncon-
stitutional; see history, § 4 ante.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 6 pars, annotation.

57 C. 529, 531 (section as amended 1878 not applicable); 87
C. 192, 198, 25 P. 677, 679, 12 L. 104 (construed and applied);
33 P. 920, 923 (cited); 110 C. 292, 296, 52 A. S. 84, 86, 42 P.
804 (applied).

LUNACY PROCEEDINGS.

As to generally, see 27 Cent. Dig. col. 2475, §§ 15-42.

Claims and liabilities after lunacy found, as- to generally,
see 27 Cent. Dig. col. 2583, §§ 106-109.

Collateral attack on, for want of notice. — See 23 L. 737; 12
L. N. S. 895.

Conveyance by after lunacy adjudged — In general. — See 27
Cent. Dig. col. 2571, §§ 93-99.

Same — "Affirmance and disaffirmance. — See 27 Cent. Dig. col.
2580, §§ 100-105.

Custody and support after lunacy adjudged. — See 27 Cent.
Dig. col. 2551, §§ 73-90.

Effect of as evidence. — See 18 A. D. 241.

Effect of finding and imprisonment as abandonment of
homestead. — .See 3 L. N. S. 315.

Equity jurisdiction over estates of lunatics. — 1 L. 610.

Evidence of insanity — Admissibility of evidence of insanity
of ancestor or kindred. — See 6 A. C. 29; 97 A. D. 124.

Same — Burden of proof and presumptions. — See Kerr's Pocket

23



§§ 41, 42 CIVIL CODE. [Div. I.

C. C. P. §1823, note; 10 L. 576; 17 L. 494; 36 L. 64, 721; 37 L.
426; 38 L. 721; 39 L. 226, 305, 715; 40 L. 742; 42 L. 766.

Same — Expert evidence to establish or disprove, conclusive-
ness of. — See note § 39, ante.

Examination and confinement. — See 9 L. 193.

Guardianship — As to generally, see 1 Church's New Probate
Law and Practice 230-260; 27 Cent. Dig. col. 2517, §§ 43-72.

Incapacity justifying appointment of guardian. — See 13 L. 757.

Notice of proceedings necessary. — See 23 L. 737-744.

Same — .Collateral attack for want of. — See 23 L. 737; 12 L.
N. S. 895.

§ 41. MINORS LIABLE FOR WRONGS, BUT NOT LIABLE
FOR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES. A minor, or person of

unsound mind, of whatever degree, is ciTilly liable for a
wrong- done by him, but is not liable in exemplary damages

unless at the time of the act he was capable of knowing that
it was wrongful.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

Liability of infants for torts, etc. — See 33 A. D. 197; 37 A. R.
413; 42 A. S. 753; 57 L. 673-688; 27 Cent. Dig. col. 1200, §183.

§ 42. MINORS MAY ENFORCE THEIR RIGHTS. A minor
may enforce his rights by civil action, or other legal pro-
ceedings, in the same manner as a person of full age, except
that a guardian must conduct the same.

'History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 10 pars, annotation.

74 C. 52, 55, 15 P. 364, 366 (construed).

Action by infants — As to generally, see 27 Cent. Dig. col.
1196, §§ 178-185.

Same — Jurisdiction and powers of court. — See 27 Cent. Dig.
col. 1202, §§ 186, 187.

Same — Parties. — See 27 Cent. Dig. col. 1204, §§ 188-191.

Same — Representation by guardian or next friend. — See 27
Cent. Dig. col. 1211, §§192-252.

Admissions of infant. — See 10 Encyc. P. 590.

Appointment of attorney for in probate proceedings. — See 2
Cliureli's New Pi-obate Law and Practice 1802; 10 Encyc. P. 597.

Arbitration of infant's cause of action.— See 70 L. 171-176.

Avoidance of contract by infant. — See "contract," this note.

Conduct of suits by infants. — See 10 Encyc. P. 594.

24



Pt. I.] ACTIONS BY MINORS. § 42

Contracts of infants — As to generally, see 18 A. S. 573.

Same — Avoidance of. — See 13 A. D. 131.

Same — DisafHrmance of, when must be accompanied by
restoration of consideration. — See 62 A. D. 734; 46 A. R. 317.

Disabilities of infants. — See 10 Encyc. P. 594.

Election of infants. — See 10 Encyc. P. 590.

Employment of attorney to conduct cause. — See 10 Encyc.
P. 598.

Estoppel — In pais, doctrine does not apply to infants. — See
4 A. C. 532; 44 A. D. 285.

Same — ^By misrepresentation as to age. — See 4 A. C. 535; 9
L,. N. S. 1117; 16 Encyc. L. 291, 292.

Same — By misrepresentation or concealment of facts. — See 11
Encyc. L. 440.

Infants en ventre sa mere — Actions by. — See 4 Encyc. L. 719;
11 Encyc. L. 20; 16 Encyc. L. 258.

Judgment in favor of infant, satisfaction of by attorney. —
See 3 L. N. S. 72.

Laches not imputable to infant. — See 10 Encyc. P. 590.

Negligence of infant, as bar to recovery for personal in-
juries. — See 14 A. S. 590; compare 1 A. C. 889; 4 A. C. 248.

Same — Imputing another's negligence to. — 8 L. N. S. 664, 669.

Statute of limitations does not operate against. — See 36 A.
D. 68.

Submission by infant of agreed controversy under statute. —
See 10 Encyc. P. 591.

Wlien infant real party in interest, by whom action must
be brought. — See 64 L. 610.



25



§ 43 CIVIL CODE. [Div. I.



PART II.
PERSONAL RIGHTS.

§ 43. CJeneral personal rights.

§ 44. Defamation, what.

§ 45. Libel, what.

§ 46. Slander, what.

§ 47. Privileged publication, what is.

§ 48. Malice not inferred.

§ 49. Protection of personal relations.

§ 50. Right to use force.

§ 51. Rights of citizens in places of public accommodation or

amusement.

§ 52. Damages recoverable for violation of preceding section.

§ 53. Wrongful refusal to admit person to places of public

amusement.

§ 54. Damages recoverable for such refusal.

§43. GENERAL PERSOIVAL RIGHTS. Besides the per-
sonal rights mentioned or recognized in the Political Code,
every person has, subject to the qualifications and restric-
tions provided by law, the right of protection [1] from bodily
restraint or harm, [2] from personal insult, [3] from defama-
tion, and [4] from injury to his personal relations.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 209 pars, annotation.

Ill C. 39, 45, 52 A. S. 146, 43 P. 398, 31 L. 220 (cited in dis-
cussion); 119 C. 599, 601, 51 P. 962 (applied to contract in
restraint of personal liberty of daughter); 122 C. 253, 256, 54
P. 847 (construed; provisions distinguished from those in §49
post); 124 C. 193, 199 (cited by error for §46; 56 P. 878, 880
correct citation).

As to implied warranty by manufacturer, see Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 1769 and note.

As to implied warranty by maker or manufacturer, and
extent of that warranty, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1769 and note.

As to right of surviving partner to recover damages for the
malicious prosecution of a civil action against the firm, see
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 2461 and note.

Unwholesome food for stock, as to liability for furnishing,
see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1708 and note.

26



pt II ] DEFAMATION — ^LIBEL. §§44,45

§44. DEFAMATION, "WHAT. Defamation is effected by:

1. Libel;

2. Slander.

Flistory: Enacted March 21, 1872.

70 C. 135, 136, 11 P. 564 (applied).

As to defamation, generally, see 2 W. & P. 1927.

As to slander of title, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 44, note.

§45. LIBEL, WHAT. Libel is a false and unprivileged
publication by writing, printing, picture, efflgy, or other fixed
representation to the eye, which exposes any person to
hatred, contempt, ridicule, or obloquy, or which causes him to
be shunned or avoided, or which has a tendency to injure him
in his occupation.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 210 pars, annotation.

69 C. 527, 528, 529, 11 P. 179, 180 (construed and applied):
70 C. 270, 274, 275, 11 P. 713, 716 (construed and applied); 70
C. 135, 136, 11 P. 564 (applied); 114 C. 266, 271, 272, 46 P. 103
(construed and applied); 132 C. 224, 227. 228, 229, 230, 64 P.
290 (construed and applied); 146 C. 616, 620, 80 P. 1084 (applied).

As to falsifying admission of crime charged in alleged libel,
see Code Civ. Proc. § 1962 and note.

As to impressions of witnesses being admissible in evidence,
see cases pro and con in note* to 4 A. D. 352-354; see also
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 45 note par. 113.

As to pleading generally in actions of libel and slander, see
Code Civ. Proc. § 461 and note.

Allegation of language charging libel, — as to, see Code
Civ. Proc. § 460 and note.

iAUVA..

As criminal offense, see 5 A. C. 109; 5 W. & P. 4121.

As personal injury, see 6 W. & P. 5343.

Affecting a class of individuals. — See 70 A. S. 754.

Attorney — Utterances of in conducting prosecution, how far
privileged. — See "privileged communication," this note.

Blacklisting dealer as. — See 8 L. N. S. 783.

Business — Words affecting. — See "trade, business or profes-
sion," this note.

Candidate for office, of. — See 86 A. D. 88.

Character of plaintiff — Evidence of admissible, when. — See 13
A. D. 499.

27



§ 45 CIVIL CODE. [Div. I.

Charging immorality or crime. — See 2 L. N. S. 691; 4 L. N.
S. 560.

Charging official with graft in public contract. — See 5 L. N.
S. 498.

Charging public official witli accepting bribe. — See 3 L. N.
S. 1139.

Color. — See "race and color," this note.

Comment and criticism — On book. — See "literary criticism,"
this note.

Same — On public officer. — See 1 A. C. 326, 330; 3 A. C. 647;

6 A. C. 135.

Complaint should set out exact language. — See 9 A. C 495.

Concerning property.- — See 16 L. 243; 16 L. 625; also "slander
of title," this note.

Construction of language. — See 5 W. & P. 4121.

Corporation, right to maintain action for slander of prop-
erty.— See 52 L. 526; 2 L. N. S. 741; also 5 A. C. 550.

Credit, words affecting. — See 8 A. C. 213; 8 A. C. 841; 8 A.
C. 844.

Damages as an element of. — See 1 A. C. 196; 2 A. C. 561; 3
A. C. 482; 3 A. C. 526; 3 A. C. 546; 3 A. C. 921; 6 A. C. 765; 8 A.
C. 212; 8 A. C. 809; 8 A. C. 841; 10 A. C. 270; 72 A. D. 421.

Defamation of real property. — See 9 A. C. 818; also "slander
of title," this note.

Defense defendant did not originate but merely repeated the
defamation charged.- — See 55 A. S. 611.

Definition — General. — See 5 W. & P. 4116-4119.

Same— Statutory.— See 5 W. & P. 4119.

Disparagement of property or manufactured article. — See 8
A. C. 810.

Evidence — As to generally, see 5 A. C. 854; 6 A. C. 135; 7 A.
C. 1156.

Same— Admissibility.— See 3 A. C. 526; 3 A. C. 546; 5 A. C.
854; 6 A. C. 765; 7 A. C. 610.

Same — Burden of proof. — See 7 A. C. 840, 844; 10 A. C. 1148.

Same — Of pecuniary circumstances of defendant. — See 33 A.
R. 377.

Same — Of plaintiff's character, when. — See 13 A. D. 499.

Same — Of plaintiff's domestic relations, social standing, and
pecuniary condition. — See 6 A. C. 768.

Same — Of provocation, in mitigation of damages, — See 4 A.
C. 923.

Same — Special plea as. — See 11 A. D. 129.

Same — Quantum of, to establish plea of justification. — See 7
A. C. 1158.

Functions of court and jury in. — See 3 A. C. 647; 5 A. C. 855;

7 A. C. 840; 10 A. C. 152; 10 A. C. 1148; 13 A. S. 652.
General abuse — Terms of. — See 5 W. & P. 4120.

28



pt. II.] LIBET.,— INTENT AND MALICE. § 45

Imputation — Applicable to a class of individuals. — 1 "U'. <Sr 1*.
4128.

Same — Of being diseased. — See 5 W. & P. 4122.

Same — Of crime. — See 5 A. C. 855; 5 W. & P. 4122.

Same — Of former corruption in office* — See 5 W. & P. 4122.

Same — Of fraud.— Sec 5 W. & P. 4122.

Same — Of incompetent, to physician or professional man. —
See 2G L. 325.

Same — Of indcibtedness.— See 8 A. C. 844; 5 W. & P. 4122.

Same— Of insolvency.— See 8 A. C. 213; 5 W. & P. 4123.

Same — Of lasciviousness. — See 5 W. & P. 4123; also "moral-
ity," tills note.

Same — ^Of untruthfulness. — See 5 W. & P. 4123.

In foreign language, pleading and proof. — See 6 A. C. 731.

Injunction against. — See 35 A. S. 675.

Injury to business or trade. — See 5 W. & P. 4120.

Injury to feelings. — See 5 W. & P. 4122.

In.sanity as a defense. — See 4 A. C. 569, 573.

Instructions to Jury — As to generally, see 3 A. C. 546; 4 A. C.
569; 4 A. C. 921; 10 A. C. 1148.

Same — Effect of, -where jury are judges of law. — Soe 3 A.
C. 552.

Intent.— See 5 W. & P. 4124.

Joint act and joint liability. — See 1 A. C. 875; 3 A. C. 312;
5 W. & P. 4124.

.Tudge, utterances of privileged. — See 4 A. C. 433; also "privi-
leged communication," this note.

.Tu.stiflcation In actions of — As to generally, see 91 A. S. 285.

Same^ — Quantum of evidence to establish plea of. — See 7 A. C.
1 \r,s.

Same — Must be of the precise cliarge. — See 3 A. (\ 7>'2s.

Liability— Joint, for, 1 A. C. 875; 3 A. C. 312.

Same — Of corporation for. — See 9 A. C. 443.

Same — Of editor for. — See 7 A. C. 457.

Same — Of manager. — See 7 A. C. 457.

Same — Of telegraph company for r<(iiviiig and sending libil-
Dus message. — See 9 A. C. 697.

Literary criticism, in.— See 1 A. C. 826, 330; 6 A. C. 135; 28
L. 667.

Malice. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 48. note; 3 A. C. 546. 547;
9 A. C. 693; 5 W. & P. 4126.

Morality — Words affecting as libel. — See 1 A. C. 1"' ' ^ ''
S55; 7 A. C. 110; 9 A. C. SG4; 10 A. C. 1148.

Newspaper libel.— See 15 A. S. 333; 101 A. S. 7.-)3.

Officers, when not privileged. — 57 A. R. 223.

Pleading as libelous, charge of commission of act in fini ign
jurisdiction. — See 1 A. C. 199.

I'resumptions as to. — See 3 A. C. 482; 7 A. C. 840.

29



§ 45 CIVIL CODE. [Div. I.

Privileged communication — Generally. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§47, note; 3 A. C. 647; 7 A. C. 192; 7 A. C. 840, 841; 10 A. C.
270; 10 A. C. 1148; 2 A. D. 431; 104 A. S. 110; 2 L. 131; 3 L.
417; 6 L. 33.

Same — Same — By or between stockholders of corporations. —
See 10 A. C. 272.

Same — Same — Criticism of public person. — See 6 L. 680; 8
L. 193; 13 L. 97.

Same — Same — Falsity of charge against public officer as
affecting privilege. — See 3 A. C. 649.

Same — Same — Statement to mercantile agency. — See 2 L. 405.

Same — Same — Publication in discharge of private duty. — See
4 L. 280.

Same — Same — Question of law or fact.— See 10 A. C. 152.

Same — In respect to judicial proceedings — Generally. — See 1
A. C. 697; 3 A. C. 124; 4 A. C. 431; 7 A. C. 110; 7 A. C. 528;

7 A. C. 601.

Same — Same — Communication to peace or prosecuting offi-
cer concerning commission of crime. — See 7 A. C. 113.

Same — Same — Pertinent and material matter. — See 3 L. 417.

Same — Same — Privilege of attorney — As to words spoken on
trial. — See 17 A. D. 194.

Same — Same — Same — ^Utterances of in conducting trial for
libel.— See 7 A. C. 603.

Same — Same — Privilege of utterances of judge. — See 4 A.
C. 433.

Same — Same — Privilege of witness — As to detaining testi-
mony. — See 2 A. C. 825; 22 L. 386.

Same — Same — Same — As to utterances made before or after
testifying.— See 3 A. C. 127.

Same — In respect to legislative proceedings. — See 6 A. C. 802.

Profession— Words affecting one in his. — See "trade, business
or profession," this note.

Property — Words affecting. — See 9 A. C. 916; also "slander
of« title," this note.

Province of court and jury. — See "functions of court and
jury," this note.

Provocation — Evidence of in naitigation of damages. — See 4
A. C. 923.

Publication — ^By addressing letter to person defamed. — See 1
A. C. 190.

Same — By dictation to stenographer. — See 1 A. C. 103.

Publication of person's photograph as that of another. — See
9 A. C. 866.

Race and color — Words affecting. — See 4 A. C. 685.

Right of corporation to sue for. — See 5 A. C. 550.

Right of one of a class of persons affected to sue for. — See

8 A. C. 135.

30



pt. II.] LIBELr— SLANDER, WHAT. § 46

Robbery — Charge of as libel. — See 5 A. C. 855.

Slander, distinguished. — 5 W. & P. 4124.

Slander of title, as a. — See 13 L. 707,

Same — Action for by corporation. — See 52 L. 526.

Same — Defamation of real property. — See 9 A. C. 818.

Speaking of a white person as a negro. — 4 A. C. 689.

Statement non-trader owes debts and refuses to pay. — See
8 A. C. 844.

Trade, business or profession — Words affecting. — See 5 A. C.
549; 8 A. C. 213; 8 A. C. 809; 8 A. C. 841; 8 A. C. 844; 5 L. 643;
8 L. 193; 9 L. 621; 49 L. 612; 52 L. 526; 3 L. N. S. 339; 4 L. N.
S. 973, 977; 5 L. N. S. 480; 8 L. N. S. 783.

Variance in action for. — See 12 A. D. 246.

Venue in actions for. — See 15 A. D. 224.

Veracity — ^Words affecting. — See 2 A. C. 561; 3 A. C. 646, 647;
8 A. C. 481.

What words are per so. — See 1 A. C. 196; 9 A. C. 864; 1 A. D.
448: 12 A. D. 39; 41 A. R. 590; 116 A. S. 802.

Witness — Statements made in giving testimony. — See 6 A. S.
825.

Same — Utterances before and after testifying. — See 3 A. C.
127; 6 A. C. 807.

§46. SLANDEH, AVIIAT. Slander is a false and unprivi-
leged publication other than libel, which:

1. Charges any person with crime, or with having been
indicted, convicted, or ])unished for crime;

2. Imputes in him the present existence of an infectious,
contagious, or loathsome disease;

3. Tends directly to injure him in respect to his office, pro-
fession, trade, or business, either by imputing to him general
disqualification in those respects which the office or other
occupation peculiarly requires, or by imputing something with
reference to his office, profession, trade, or business that has
a natural tendency to lessen its profit;

4. Imputes to him impotence or a want of chastity: or,

5. Which, by natural consequence, causes actual damage.

HiNtory: Enacted March 21, IS"'.'.

See Kerr's Cyc. C C. for 19 pars, annotation.

67 C. 79. 80, 7 P. 136, 137 (applied); 68 C. 192, 193. 8 P. 857
(applied): 70 C. 135, 136, 11 P. 564 (applied); 70 C. 216, 218.
219, 11 P. 641. 642 (applied): 82 C. 523, 526, 23 P. 48. 49 (applied);
84 C. 177. 180. 24 P. 114 (applied): 91 C. 107. 110, 111. 112. 27
P. 533. 534 (applied); 105 C. 314, 320 38 P. 899 (cited): 122 C.

31



§ 47 CIVIL CODE. [Div. I.

58. CI. 54 P. 3S9 (applied); 123 C. 157, 159, 55 P. 786 (construed
and applied); 124 C. 193, 199 (erroneously cited as §43), 56
P. 878, 880 (correct citation); 137 C. 339, 343, 70 P. 216 (con-
strued and applied); 1 C. A. 556, 557, 82 P. 571 (applied); 51
F. 424, 425 (cited, what necessary to constitute words action-
able per se).

As to malice generally, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 48 and note.

As to slander generally, see full annotation of subject, Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. § 45 and note; also ante § 45, note.

§47. PKIVILEGED PUBLICATIOIV, IS WHAT. A privi-
leged publication is one made —

1. In the proper discharge of an official duty.

2. In any legislative or judicial proceeding, or in any other
official proceeding authorized by law.

3. In a communication, without malice, to a person inter-
ested therein, [1] by one who is also interested, or [2] by
one who stands in such relation to the person interested as to
afford a reasonable ground for supposing the motive for the
communication innocent, or [3] who is requested by the per-
son interested to give the information.

4. By a fair and true report, without malice, in a public
journal, of a judicial, legislative, or other public official pro-



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