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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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— See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 980 and note.

Trade-marks as property, and how far may be appropriated. —
See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 991 and note; Kerr's Pocket Pol. C. § 3196.

Wild animals — As subjects of property, and as to when private
proprietary rights attach.- — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 656 and note;
2 Cent. Dig. col. 425, §§ 3, 4.



§ 656. WILD ANIMALS. Animals wild by nature are the
subjects of ownership, while living, only when on the land
of the person claiming them, or when tamed, or taken and
held in possession, or disabled and immediately pursued.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 30 pars, annotation.

108 C. 240, 244 (erroneously cited for § 656 C. C. P.), 41 P. 299
(correct citation); 114 C. 378, 388, 55 A. S. 74, 46 P. 166 (con-
strued and applied); 119 C. 315, 321, 322, 51 P. 684 (construed
and applied); 136 C. 527, 531, 89 A. S. 177, 69 P. 261 (construed).

As to fish and the right to fish. — See 60 L. 481-521.

As to right to hunt, and ownership of game killed or taken
on such land.— See 13 A. S. 416-420; 23 A. S. 641.

As to wild animals and bees, see 2 Cent. Dig. col. 425. §§ 3, 4.

Game laws — As to. — See 42 A. S. 138, 144.

Same — As affecting interstate commerce. — See 13 L. 804.

Piscatory rights, as to. — See 60 L. 481-525.

479



§ 657 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.PtJ.

§657. REAL AND PERSONAL. Property is either:

1. Real or immovable; or,

2. Personal or movable.

HiMtory: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 5 pars, annotation.

113 C. 345, 353, 45 P. 680 (construed); 142 C. 529, 539, 76 P. 243
(distinction between freehold estates and estates for years).

Crops as real or personal property. — See 15 Cent. Dig. col.
1120, §§ 2-4.

Distinction between^ real and personal property — As to gener-
ally, see 40 Cent. Dig. col. 2920, § 4.

Same — Buildings and other structures. — See 40 Cent. Dig. col.

2922, § 5.

Same — Conversion or change of form. — See 40 Cent. Dig. col.

2923, § 7.

Same — Effect of severance of trees. — See 40 Cent. Dig. col.
2923, § 8.

Same — Pews. — See 40 Cent. Dig. col. 2922, § 6.

Estate for years as personal property. — See 32 Cent. Dig. col.
232, § 215.

Incorporeal chattel. — See 4 W. & P. 3514.

Nature of property — As bringing contract within statute of
frauds.— See 23 Cent. Dig. col. 2086, §§116-118; col. 2135, §§143-
146.

Same — In corporate stocks. — See 12 Cent. Dig. col. 268, § 166.

Same — In minerals. — See 34 Cent. Dig. col. 3068, § 134.

Personal property — As to what constitutes, and rights, see
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 633, 953-990 and notes; 75 A. D. 592; 4 A. R.
81; 59 A. R. 400; 57 A. S. 347; 62 A. S. 436; 75 A. S. 168; 2 L. 350;
7 L. 448; 16 L. 729; 37 L. 384; 42 L. 826; 60 L. 476; 6 W. & P.
5346-5358.

Same — Choses in action. — See 6 W. & P. 5352.

Same — Claim ex contractu or ex delicto. — See 6 W. & P. 5352.

Same — Claim for land taken under eminent domain. — See 6
W. & P. 5352.

Same — Contents of safe. — See 6 W. & P. 5352.

Same — Corporation stocks. — See 23 A. R. 460; 75 A. S. 168; 6
W. & P. 5352.

Same — Credits. — See 6 W. & P. 5353.

Same— Crops. — See 75 A. D. 592; 49 A. R. 821; 6 W. & P. 5353.

Same — Deposit in bank. — See 6 W. & P. 5354.

Same — Domestic animals, dog and hen. — See 6 W. & P. 5354.

Same — Insurance policy. — See 6 W. & P. 5355.

Same — Land certificate. — See 6 W. & P. 5355.

Same — Land is when. — See 6 W. & P. 5355.

480



II



\i Tit.I.] REAL PROPERTY, WHAT IS. § 658

Same^Leasehold estate for term of years. — See 6 W. & P.
5355.

Same — Liquor tax certificate. — See 6 W. & P. 5356.

Same — Membersliip in newspaper association. — See 6 W. & P.
5356.

Same — Money. — See 29 A. R. 707; 37 L. 442; 6 W. & P. 5356.

Same — Promissory note. — See 6 W. & P. 5356.

Same — Property attached to realty. — See 6 W. & P. 5357.

Same — Railroad track and superstructures. — See 6 W. & P.
5357.

Same — Right to work. — See 6 W. & P. 5357.

Same — Seat in stock exchang-e.— See 6 W. & P. 5357.

Same— Ship. — See 96 A. S. 1000; 6 W. & P. 5357.

Same — ^Timber is when. — See 6 W. & P. 5358.

Same— Water mains and telegraph wires.— See 16 L. 506; 6
W. & P. 5358.

Rule of descent dependent on whether property is personal or
real. — See 16 Cent. Dig. col. 1376, § 79.

What constitutes personal property available for payment of
debts of decedent's estate. — See 2 Church's New Probate Law
and Practice, §§1262, et seq.; 22 Cent. Dig. col. 1497, §1056.



§658. KEAL PKOPERTY. Real or immovable property
consists of:

1. Land;

2. That which is affixed to land;

3. That which is incidental or appurtenant to land;

4. That which is immovable by law.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 13 pars, annotation.

60 C. 408, 410 (applied); 62 C. 182, 184 (applied); 77 C. 399, 402,
19 P. 689, 690 (applied); 80 C. 245, 250, 22 P. 184, 185 (applied):
86 C. 335, 338, 24 P. 993, 994 (applied); 109 C. 29, 36, 41 P. 1024
(continuous flow of water on land is real property); 118 C. 635,
636, 50 P. 683 (applied); 126 C. 600, 605, 59 P. 130 (applied); 138
C. 583, 586, 72 P. 171 (applied); 140 C. 183, 187, 73 P. 826. 827
(applied); 142 C. 529, 539, 76 P. 243 (distinction between freehold
estates and estates for years); 144 C. 450, 454, 77 P. 1032 (water
as real property); 147 C. 1, 7, 109 A. S. 107, 81 P. 121 (timber as
part of realty); 147 C. 351, 354, 81 P. 1012, 1 L. N. S. 1192, 3 A. C.
330 (fixtures attached by lessee to leasehold property as part of
realty).

Appurtenances as to. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 662 and note;
also note § 662 post.

Kerr's C. C— 16 481



§ 658 Civil. CODE. [Div.II.Pt.I.

Fixtures, as to what are. — See note § 660 post.

Incorporeal hereditaments. — See 4 W. & P. 3514.

Incorporeal real property. — See 4 W. & P. 3515.

Land, as to what is. — See note § 659 post.

Real property — Any interest in land. — See 7 W. & P. 5947.

Same — Buildings as. — See 7 W. & P. 5944.

Same — Chattels real. — See 7 W. & P. 5945.

Same — Coal before mining. — See 7 W. & P. 5945.

Same — Dams and waterways. — See 7 W. & P. 5945.

Same— Definition of. — See 7 W. & P. 5939.

Same — Electric light wires and poles. — See 7 W. & P. 5945.

Same — Equitable interest. — See 7 W. & P. 5945.

Same — Equity of redemption. — See 7 W. & P. 5946.

Same — Estate for years. — See 7 W. & P. 5945.

Same — Fee simple title. — See 7 W. & P. 5946.

Same — Fixtures. — See note § 660, post.

Same — Franchise of corporation not. — See 7 W. & P. 5947.

Same — Ground rents. — See 7 W. & P. 5947.

Same — ^Growing trees. — See 7 W. & P. 5947.

Same — Improvements. — See 7 W. & P. 5947.

Same — Incorporeal hereditaments. — See 7 W. & P. 5947.

Same — Interest of purchaser at execution sale. — See 7 W. &
P. 5946.

Same — Lands synonymous with. — See 7 W. & P. 5948.

Same — Manure. — See 7 W. & P. 5948.

Same — ^Mining claims. — See 7 W. & P. 5948.

Same — Pier. — See 7 W. & P. 5948.

Same — Pipe line. — See 7 W. & P. 5948.

Same — Railwaj' property, houses, lands, etc. — See 7 W. & P.
5948.

Same — Railway road bed. — See 7 W. & P. 5948.

Same — Remainder. — See 7 W. & P. 5948.

Same — Right of navigation not. — See 7 W. & P. 5950.

Same— Room as. — See 31 A. D. 232; 7 W. & P. 5950.

Same — Several tracks. — See 7 W. & P. 5950.

Same — Street railway track. — See 7 W. & P. 5950.

Same — Toll bridge.— See 7 W. & P. 5950.

Same — Unlocated land certificates are not. — See 7 W. & P.
5950.

Same — Vendor's lien. — See 7 W. & P. 5950.

Same— Water and ice.— See 45 A. S. 240; 21 L. 333; 7 W. & P.
5951.

Same — Water pipes and hydrant. — See 35 A. S. 371; 21 L. 525;
7 W. & P. 5951.

Same — Water power. — See 7 W. & P. 5951.

Same — Water works plant. — See 15 L. 205; 7 W. & P. 5951.

482



Tit.L] LAND— FIXTURES. §§ 659, 660

§ 659. LAJfD. Land is the solid material of the earth,
whatever may be the ingredients of which it is composed,
whether soil, rock, or other substance.

History: Enacted March 21, 1S72.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 3 pars, annotation.

118 C. 635, 636, 50 P. 683 (referred to Avith other sections in
other discussion); 140 C. 183, 187, 73 P. 826, 827 (referred to);
142 C. 529, 539, 76 P. 243 (distinction between freehold estates
and estates for years).

Land — Bridge as. — See 6 W. & P. 3979.

Same — Building- as. — See 6 W. & P. 3979.

Same — Definition of. — See 22 A. D. 236; 16 A. R. 388; 5 W. & P.
3975.

Same — Easements and incorporeal hereditaments as. — See 5
W. & P. 3981.

Same — Franchise of corporation as. — See 5 W. & P. 3981.

Same — Water and water power included in term.- — See 5 W. &
P. 3984.



§ 660. FIXTURES. A thing is deemed to be affixed to land
when it is attached to it by roots, as in the case of trees,
vines, or shrubs; or embedded in it, as in the casfe of walls;
or permanently resting upon it, as in the case of buildings;
or permanently attached to what is thus permanent, as by
means of cement, plaster, nails, bolts, or screws.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 148 pars, annotation.

51 C. 594 (applied); 52 C. 385, 394, 395, 396, 28 A. R. 634
(applied); 70 C. 3, 6, 11 P. 320, 321 (applied); 77 C. 190, 191, 19
P. 277, 278 (applied); 80 C. 245, 250, 251, 13 A. S. 147, 22 P. 184,
185 (applied); 86 C. 335, 338, 24 P. 993, 994 (applied); 25 P. 688,
689; 91 C. 377, 379, 27 P. 750, 751, 13 L. 680 (construed); 118 C.
635, 636, 50 P. 683 (cited); 126 C. 600, 605, 59 P. 130 (applied);
138 C. 583, 586, 72 P. 171 (referred to in discussion); 139 C. 165,
167, 72 P. 905 (applied — wharf structures become vested in
city when); 140 C. 183, 187, 73 P. 826, 827 (referred to with other
sections); 142 C. 529, 539, 76 P. 243 (distinction between freehold
estates and estates for years); 147 C. 1, 7, 109 A. S. 107, 81 P.
121 (timber as part of realty); 147 C. 351, 354, 81 P. 1012, 1
L. N. S. 1192, 3 A. C. 330 (fixtures attached by lessee to lease-
hold property as part of realty).

483



§ 660 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.Pt.I.

FIXTURES — GENERALLY.

As to buildings being real estate. — See 16 L. 306.
* As to character of estate in mining claim. — See Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 654, note pars. 5-11.

As to intention governing. — See 51 A. S. 633; 10 L. 722.

As to mortgage on building on leased premises. — See 21 L,.
347.

As to right of removal, as to generally. — See 21 A. R. 80; 13
L. 680;.- 38 L. 628.

Same — By mortgagor. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 660, note pars.
46, 47.

Same — By tenant. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 660, pars. 35-38.

Same — By vendee. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 660, note pars.
57-59.

As to what are, see 14 A. D. 303; 17 A. D. 686; 24 A. D. 726,
5 K 150; 5 L. 594; 6 L. 249; 10 L. 722.

Agreement to prevent fixtures from becoming part of realty. —
See 19 L. 441.

Annexation. — See 11 L. 510; 3 W. & P. 2833.

As betvpeen — Landlord and tenant. — See 10 L. 723.

Same — Mortgagor and mortgagee. — See 1 L. 350; 10 L. 725.

Same — Representatives and heirs. — See 10 L. 721.

Same — Vendor and vendee. — See 10 L. 724.

Belonging to soil, as to. — See 11 L. 727.

Character as fixtures or personalty, before annexation, of
articles brought on premises to be annexed. — See 4 A. C. 1160.

Cistern as.— See 3 W. & P. 2841.

Consent of owner to remove. — See 3 W. & P. 2836.

Definition of. — See 69 L. 892; 3 W. «fe P. 2832-2846.

Design or intention. — See 93 A. D. 299; 3 W. & P. 2836.

Effect of renewing tenancy without reservation of riglit to
remove.— See 1 L. N. S. 1192.

Efficacy of chattel mortgage on. — See 15 L. 56.

Engine as fixture when placed upon land by owner of realty. —
See 8 L. N. S. 376.

Fastened to building, as to method and effect of. — See 44 L.
559.

Fixing character of property as realty or personalty by agree-
ment. — See 1 A. C. 312.

Floating dock not a. — See 3 W. & P. 2841.

Furniture is when.— See 92 A. D. 766; 3 W. & P. 2842.

Gas — Fittings and mirrors, are when. — See 29 A. R. 403; 37
A. R. 472.

Same — Pipes and other appliances when are. — See 34 A. R.
354; 37 A. R. 472.

Intention as criterion. — See 3 L. 34.

Machinery — Becomes when. — See 11 A. R. 314.

Same— Is when.— See 10 L. 724; 3 W^. & P. 2843.

484



II



i Tit.I.] APPURTENANCES. |§ 661, 662

Manure as. — See 14 A. D. 397.

Mirrors as personalty or realty. — See 1 A. C. 6S7.

Mortgagee's right of action against third person removing. —
See 13 A. S. 153.
■ New lease — As affecting right to remove. — See 3 A. C. 331.

i^ Same — As implied surrender of right to remove fixtures under

I old lease. — See 1 L. N. S. 1193.

Removal by tenant in violation of covenant to leaving prem-
ises in good condition. — See 64 L. 662.

Right — As between life tenant and remainderman. — See 2 A. C.
405.

Same — Of lessee under mining lease to remove machinery and
other appliances. — See 2 A. C. 738.

Same — Of person claiming under tenant as to time for removal
of fixtures. — See 10 A. C. 109.

Tenant may remove when. — See 11 A. D. 241.

Tenant's right as to. — See 1 L. N. S. 1192; 3 L. N. S. 69.

Trade fixtures and removal of. — See 3 W. & P. 2845.

When and against whom may retain the character of personal
property. — See 84 A. S. 877.

Whether personal property. — See 29 A. R. 407.

§ 661. FIXTURES ATTACHED TO MIIVES. Sluice boxes,
flumes, hose, pipes, railway tracks, cars, blacksmith-shops,
mills, and all other machinery or tools used in working or
developing a mine, are to be deemed affixed to the mine.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 11 pars, annotation.

76 C. 578, 582, 583, 585, 18 P. 772, 774 (applied, cited, and con-
strued) ; 80 C. 510, 512, 22 P. 217, 218 (applied— lien in favor of
material-man); 102 C. 134, 142, 34 P. 702, 36 P. 388 (applied and
construed); 118 C. 148, 153, 50 P. 378 (construed); 118 C. 635,
636, 50 P. 683 (cited); 142 C. 529. 539, 76 P. 243 (distinction
between freehold estates and estates for years).

§ 662. APPURTEIVANCES. A thing is deemed to be inci-
dental or appurtenant to land when it is by right used with
the land for its benefit, as in the case of a way, or water-
course, or of a passage for light, air, or heat from or across
the land of another.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 53 pars, annotation.

52 C. 385, 395, 396, 28 A. R. 634 (applied); 56 C. 11, 13 (applied);

485



§ 663 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.Pt.I.

62 C. 182, 184, 185, 186, 45 A. R. 659 (applied); 67 C. 493, 497, 8
P. 29 (applied); 77 C. 399, 402, 403, 19 P. 689 (applied); 79 C.
587, 590, 21 P. 1099, 1100 (applied) ; 80 C. 310, 315, 316, 22 P. 178, 179
(applied); 86 C. 335. 338, 24 P. 993, 994 (cited in discussion); 91
C. 146, 155, 27 P. 543, 546 (applied); 91 C. 187, 190, 27 P. 587, 588
(applied); 93 C. 365, 368, 370, 28 P. 953, 954 (construed); 109 C. 29,
36, 41 P. 1024 (applied — continuous flow of water on land is real
property); 110 C. 582, 585, 42 P. 1091 (construed); 43 P. 611, 612
(construed); 120 C. 488, 490, 493. 52 P. 843, 40 L. 476 (applied);
140 C. 183, 187, 73 P. 826, 827 (referred to); 142 C. 529, 539, 76 P.
243 (distinction between freehold estates and estates for years);
146 C. 398, 400, 81 P. 542 (cited — appurtenance is question of fact
— shares of stock as appurtenance); 146 C. 435, 440, 80 P. 623
(applied — extension of ditch as appurtenance); 150 C. 426, 432,
88 P. 1094 (applied to water-right); 4 C. A. 18, 24, 87 P. 213
(applied — water ditch-easement).

Appurtenant easements. — See 2 L. 285; 14 L. 300.

Articles that will pass as appurtenances upon sale of chattels.
— See 8 L. N. S. 793.

Corporeal appurtenances to realty. — See 15 L. 652.

Land-owner's right to percolating waters. — See 99 A. S. 66-75;
64 L. 236-239.

What are appurtenances. — See 13 A. D. 657; 40 A. R. 381; 81
A. S. 764.

What articles will pass as appurtenances upon sale of chattels.
—See 8 L. N. S. 793.

§663. PERSONAL PROPERTY. Every kind of property
that is not real is personal.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 20 pars, annotation.

57 C. 254, 255 (construed and applied); 113 C. 345, 353, 45 P.
680 (referred to); 142 C. 529, 539, 76 P. 243 (distinction between
freehold estates and estates for years); 1 C. A. 511, 513, 82 P.
562 (cited).

As to fructus industriales, see 1 Kerr's Benjamine on Sales 111,
note 2.

As to right of landlord where rent received in part of crop,
see 37 A. D. 321; 14 A. S. 166.

As to what constitutes personal property, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§14 subd. 3 and note; also Kerr's Cyc. Pol. C. §3617 and note;
6 W. & P. 5346-5358.



486



Titll.ch.I.] PROPERTY OP STATE. §§ 669, 670

TITLE II.

OWNERSHIP.

Chapter I. Owners, §§ 669-672.

II. Modifications of Ownership, §§ 678-726.

III. Rights of Ownership, §§ 732, 733.

IV. Termination of Ownership, §§ 739-742.

CHAPTER I.

OWNERS.
§ 669. Owner.

§ 670. Property of the state.
§ 671. Wlio may own property.
§ 672. Aliens inheriting must claim within five years.

§ 669. OWNER. All property has an owner, whether that
owner Is the state, and the property public, or the owner
an individual, and the property private. The state may also
hold property as a private proprietor.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

73 C. 99, 102, 14 P. 394, 396 (cited in discussion with other
sections).

Definition of owner. — See 91 A. S. 331; 8 L. 147; 15 K 263; 6
W. & P. 5134.

§670. PROPERTY OF THE STATE. The state is the
owner of all land below tide-water, and below ordinary high-
water mark, bordering upon tide-water within the state; of
all land below the water of a navigable lake or stream;
of all property lawfully appropriated by it to its own use; of
all property dedicated to the state; and of all property of
which there is no other owner.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 217.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 6 pars, annotation.

62 C. 250, 259 (applied); 69 C. 122, 126, 127, 10 P. 323, 326

487



§§ 671, 672 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.Pt.I.

(applied); 70 C. 206, 209, 11 P. 695, 696 (applied); 138 C. 552, 558,
94 A. S. 70, 71 P. 707 (applied); 148 C. 55, 56, 82 P. 672, 2 L. N. S.
643 (applied — non-resident aliens — contest, by state, of probate
of will); 147 U. S. 695, 698, 37 L. ed. 335, 336 (erroneously cited
for § 670 C. C. P.).

§ 671. WHO MAY OWN PEOPERTY. Any person, whether
citizen or alien, may take, hold, and dispose of property, real
or personal, within this state.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 218.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 23 pars, annotation.

65 C. 593, 594, 595, 4 P. 639, 640 (construed and applied); 67
C. 380, 382, 7 P. 763 (applied); 67 C. 385, 386, 7 P. 766 (applied);
70 C. 153, 155, 156, 12 P. 121, 123 (cited); 76 C. 294, 296, 18 P.
407, 408 (cited); 127 C. 431, 434, 435, 436, 437. 59 P. 787 (applied);
180 U. S. 333, 336, 45 L. ed. 557, 560 (cited).

As to right of alien to inherit. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1404
and note; 1 Church's New Probate Law and Practice 38, 52; also
note § 672, post.

.§672. ALIENS INHERITING MUST CLAIM WITHIN
FIVE YEARS. If a non-resident alien takes by succession,
he must appear and claim the property within five years from
the time of succession, or be barred. The property in such
case is disposed of as provided in title eight, part three, Code
of Civil Procedure.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; repealed by Code Com-
mission, Act March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 391,
held unconstitutional, see history, § 4 ante.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 9 pars, annotation.

65 C. 593, 594, 4 P. 639, 640 (cited); 67 C. 380, 383, 384, 7 P. 763,
764 (construed and applied); 67 C. 385, 386, 7 P. 766 (construed);
70 C. 153, 156, 157, 12 P. 121, 123 (construed); 143 C. 135, 140, 76
P. 962 (property of non-resident aliens, how disposed of); 143
C. 194, 197, 198, 76 P. 968 (property of non-resident aliens, how
disposed of); 148 C. 55, 56, 82 P. 672, 2 L. N. S. 643 (applied-
contest, by state, of probate of will); 149 C. 208, 210, 85 P. 609
(applied); 180 U. S. 333, 336, 45 L. ed. 557, 560* (cited).

As to inheritance by alien. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1404 and
note; 1 Church's New Probate Law and Practice 38, 52.

Effect of naturalization upon alien's right to inherit. — See 31
L. 181.

488



Tit.II.ch.I.] CLAIMING BY ALIENS.



§672



Effect of state statute and constitution upon inheritance
through alien. — See 31 L. 146.

Effect of treatise upon alien's right to inherit.— See 32 L. 177.

Power of aliens to hold land. — See 14 A. D. 97.

Rig-ht of alien to inherit— As to generally.— See Kerr's Cyc
C. C. §1304 and note; 1 Church's New Probate Law and Prac-
tice, 38, 52.

Same — Right to receive or transmit. — See 12 A. S. 93; 31
L. 177.

Who are aliens. — See 84 A. D. 210; 1 W. & P. 299.



489



§ 678 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II,Pt.I.

CHAPTER II.

MODIFICATIONS OF OWNERSHIP.

Article I. Interests in Property, §§ 678-703.

II. Conditions of Ownersliip, §§ 707-711.

III. Restraints upon Alienations, §§ 715-718.

IV. Accumulations, §§ 722-726.

ARTICLE I,

INTERESTS IN PROPERTY.

§ 678. Ownership, absolute or qualified.

§ 679. When absolute.

§ 680. When qualified.

§ 681. Several ownership, what.

§ 682. Ownership of several persons.

§ 683. Joint interest, what.

§ 684. Partnership interest, what.

§ 685. Interest in common, what.

§ 686. What interests are in common.

§ 687. Community property.

§ 688. Interests as to time.

§ 689. Present interest, what.

§ 690. Future interest, what.

§ 691. Perpetual interest, what.

§ 692. Limited interest, what.

§ 693. Kinds of future interests.

§ 694. Vested interests.

§ 695. Contingent interests.

§ 696. Two or more future interests.

§ 697. Certain future interests not to be void.

s 698. Posthumous children.

I 699. Qualities of expectant estates.

§ 700. Same. [Mere possibility not an interest.]

§ 701. Interests in real property.

§ 702. Same. [Names and classification of interests.]

§ 703. What future interests are recognized.

§678. OWNERSHIP, ABSOLUTE OR QUALIFIED. The

ownersliip of property is either:

1. Absolute; or,

2. Qualified.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.
490



Tit.II,ch.II,art.I.] OWNERSHIP, qualities. §§679-682

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 7 pars, annotation.

107 C. 410, 420, 40 P. 552 (construed and applied with other
sections); 116 C. 339, 345, 58 A. S. 170, 48 P. 228, 36 L. 497 (con-
strued and applied with other sections); 131 C. 294, 307, 63 P.
470 (applied).

§ 679. WHEN ABSOLUTE. The ownership of property is
absolute when a single person has the absolute dominion
over it, and may use it or dispose of it according to his pleas-
ure, subject only to general laws.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 22 pars, annotation.

105 C. 467, 470, 38 P. 1109 (construed and applied); 106 C. 673,
680, 39 P. 1071 (construed and applied with other sections); 109
C. 552, 555, 42 P. 448 (construed and applied); 112 C. 387, 399.
44 P. 734 (construed and applied in connection with other sec-
tions); 116 C. 339, 345, 58 A. S. 170, 48 P. 228, 36 L. 497 (con-
strued and applied).

§ 680. WHEN QUALIFIED. The ownership of property is
qualified:

1. When it is shared with one or more persons;

2. When the time of enjoyment is deferred or limited;

3. When the use is restricted.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 9 pars, annotation.

107 C. 410, 420, 40 P. 552 (construed and applied with other
sections); 112 C. 387, 399, 44 P. 734 (construed and applied with
other sections); 116 C. 339, 345, 58 A. S. 170, 48 P. 228, 36 L. 497
(construed and applied); 133 C. 420, 422, 65 P. 952 (construed
and applied with other sections); 150 C. 177, 178, 88 P. 706



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