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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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63 C. 312, 316 (construed); 70 C. 23, 25, 11 P. 391, 392 (held not
applicable); 74 C. 217, 218, 15 P. 746 (cited); 90 C. 444, 477, 27
P. 356, 366 (construed and applied); 96 C. 298, 306, 307, 31 A. S.
209, 31 P. 166, 168 (construed and applied); 98 C. 514, 518, 33
P. 486, 488 (mortgag-e is not conveyance); 32 P. 885 (cited);

646



Tit.IV,ch.IV,art.IV.] RECORDING. § 1214

104 C. 395, 398, 399, 400, 38 P. 53 (referred to): 109 C. 186, 189,
50 A. S. 29, 41 P. 1010 (applied); 128 C. 627, 632, 61 P. 371 (ap-
plied); 131 C. 552, 556, 557, 82 A. S. 391, 63 P. 844 (construed
and applied with other sections); 134 C. 441, 447, 66 P. 587
(cited dis. op); 144 C. 19, 35, 77 P. 712 (construed — "conveyance"
embraces what instruments); 146 C. 3, 8, 79 P. 527 (applied with
other sections to contract to secure purchase money of land).



§1214. COWEYAXES TO BE KECORDEI), OH .\KE
VOID, ETC. Every conveyance of real property, other than
a lease for a term not exceeding one year, is void as against
any subsequent purchaser or mortgagee of the same prop-
erty, or any part thereof, in good faith and for a valuable
consideration, whose conveyance is first duly recorded, and
as against any judgment affecting the title, unless such con-
veyance shall have been duly recorded prior to the record
of notice of action.

History: Enacted March 21. 1872: amended Maroli 12. 1S05,
Stats, and Amdts. 1895. p. 50.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 87 pars, annotation.

46 C. 603, 606, 608, 609 (construed and applied — §§1213. 1214.
and 1215 prevail over §2937): 63 C. 312, 316 (construed): 65 C.
158, 159, 3 P. 659 (construed and applied); 74 C. 217, 218. 15
P. 746 (cited): 74 C. 444, 446, 16 P. 242 (construed): 75 C. 552.
554, 17 P. 680, 681 (cited): 77 C. 534, 538, 20 P. 62, 64 (cited):
82 C. 621, 624, 625, 23 P. 193, 194 (construed and applied): 85
C. 270, 272, 24 P. 713, 714 (cited): 96 C. 298. 306, 307. 31 A. S.
209, 31 P. 166. 168 (cited): 97 C. 575, 582, 31 A. S. 209. 32 P.
579. 21 L. 33 (cited): 98 C. 514, 518, 33 P. 486, 487 (cited — mean-
ing of "conveyance"): 100 C. 590, 591. 35 P. 170 (construed a.s
not applicable): 104 C. 395. 398, 399, 38 P. 53 (applied): 109
C. 186, 189, 50 A. S. 29, 41 P. 1010 (applied): 113 C. 526, 531.
532, 45 P. 820 (held not applicable); 119 C. 61, 63, 64, 51 P. 11
(held not applicable); 124 C. 577. 579. 57 P. 463 (held not
applicable); 126 C. 600. 604. 606, 59 P. 130 (applied): 130 C.
455, 458, 62 P. 738 (cited): 131 C. 552. 558, 559. 560. 82 A. S.
391, 63 P. 844 (applied): 134 C. 441, 443, 66 P. 587 (applied):
69 P. 228, 231 (cited): 144 C. 19, 31. 35, 77 P. 712 (cotistrued—
"conveyance" embraces what instruments): 145 C 410, 413, 104
A. S. 61, 78 P. 957 (construed with §1217 and applied): 7 C. A.
140, 146, 93 P. 894, 895 (who is not subsequent purchaser in
good faith for valuable consideration).

647



§§ 1215, 1216 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.Pt.IV.

§1215. CONVEYANCE DEFINED. The term "convey-
ance," as used in sections twelve hundred and thirteen and
twelve hundred and fourteen, embraces every instrument in
writing by which any estate or interest in real property is
created, aliened, mortgaged, or encumbered, or by which the
title to any real property may be affected, except wills.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 18 pars, annotation.

46 C. 603, 607, 608, 609 (construed and applied — §§1213, 1214, and
1215 prevail over § 2937) ; 55 C. 525, 528 (cited) ; 55 C. 564, 566 (mean-
ing of "instrument" — it does not embrace what) ; 74 C. 217, 218, 15
P. 746 (construed — "conveyance" includes mortgage) ; 74 C.
345, 349, 16 P. 189, 191 (construed); 96 C. 298, 307, 31 A. S. 209,
31 P. 166, 168 (construed); 98 C. 514, 518, 33 P. 486, 487 (con-
strued); 98 C. 527, 529, 33 P. 458, 459 (construed); 104 C. 395,
398, 38 P. 53 (cited with other sections in discussion); 120
C. 177, 179, 52 P. 305 (construed); 126 C. 600, 603, 606, 59 P.
130 (applied); 144 C. 19, 35, 77 P. 712 (applied — "conveyance"
embraces what instruments); 146 C. 3, 8, 79 P. 527 (applied
with other sections to contract to secure purchase money of
land, recorded in book of "covenants").

Sections of code construed together. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 1158 and note.

§1216. POWERS OF ATTORNEY, HOW REVOKED. No

instrument containing a power to convey or execute instru-
ments affecting real property, which has been recorded, is
revoked by any act of the party by whom it was executed,
unless the instrument containing" such revocation is also
acknowledged or proved, certified and recorded, in the same
office in which the instrument containing the power was
recorded.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 2 pars, annotation.

55 C. 564, 565, 566 (meaning of "instruinent" — it does not em-
brace what).

Power of attorney— As to revocation of.— See 110 A. S. 854.

Same — Construction of — ^Whether limited to property then
owned by the principal. — See 35 A. S. 593.

Same— Covering several tracts of land — Judgment of cancel-
lation and removal from one tract in proceedings to remove

648



Tit.IV,ch.IV,art.IV.] UNRECORDED DEED. § 1217

cloud from title does not affect the power as to the other
tracts. — See 9 A. C. 874.

Same — Effect of provision in declaring that it shall not be
revoked by death. — See 6 L. N. S. 855.

Same — Given to two or more — Construction of. — See 22 A. S.
726.

Same — How revoked. — See 47 A. D. 343-348.

Same — Notice of revocation of. — See 1 L. N. S. 577.

Power to give option included in power of attorney to sell
real estate. — See 10 L. N. S. 867.



§1217. UMiECOKDED I>STRUME>T VALID BETWEEN
THE PARTIES. An unrecorded instrument is valid as be-
tween the parties thereto and those who have notice thereof.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 16 pars, annotation.

82 C. 621, 626, 23 P. 193, 195 (applied); 85 C. 270, 272, 24 P.
713, 714 (construed and applied); 96 C. 298, 305, 306, 31 A. S.
209, 31 P. 166, 168 (construed and applied); 100 C. 590, 591, 35
P. 170 (construed and applied); 37 P. 914, 916 (construed and
applied); 104 C. 395, 398, 38 P. 53 (cited with other sections in
discussion); 108 C. 250, 252, 253, 255, 256, 49 A. S. 84, 30 P. 783.
41 P. 472 (cited); 118 C. 258, 260, 50 P. 380 (construed); 119 C.
61, 63, 51 P. 11 (applied); 119 C. 364, 371, 51 P. 549, 51 P. 955
(construed and held not applicable); 124 C. 577, 579, 57 P. 463
(applied); 130 C. 455, 457, 62 P. 738 (construed and applied);
69 P. 228, 231 (referred to); 144 C. 19, 31, 77 P. 712 (referred
to); 145 C. 410, 413, 104 A. S. 61, 78 P. 957 (construed with
§1214 and applied); 146 C. 3, 9, 79 P. 527. 530 (applied to
contract to secure purchase money of land, recorded in
book of "Covenants"): 151 C. 118, 122, 90 P. 521 (purchaser
with notice of another's claim cannot take advantage
of fact that conveyance under which the other claims was
not recorded); 150 F. 546, 548 (effect, in bankruptcy proceedings,
of failure to record deed or mortgage given as security,
until after grantor becomes bankrupt).

Judicial sale of homesteads, — as to, see generally Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 1241 and note.

Knowledge of unrecorded deed. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1214
and note.

Possession puts purchaser on inquiry. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 1214 and note.

Recitals in instruments constituting chain of title. — See
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 18 and note pars. 30-42.

Recordation — Effect of. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1213 and note.

649



§ 1218 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.Pt.IV.

§ 1218. RECOKDING CERTIFIED COPY OF RECORDED
INSTRUMENT. A certified copy of an instrument affecting
the title to real property once recorded may be recorded in
any other county, and, when so recorded, the record thereof
has the same force and effect as though it was of the original
instrument.

History; Enacted at instance of Code Commision, Act March
16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 398; re-enacted March 21,
1905, Stats, and Amdts. 1905, p. 604.



G50



Tit.IV.ch.V.] TRANSFERS, VOID. § 1227

CHAPTER V.

UNLAWFUL TRANSFERS.

§ 1227. Certain Instruments void against purchasers, etc.

§ 1228. Not void against purchaser having notice, unless fraud

is mutual.
§ 1229. Power to revoke, when deemed executed.
§ 1230. Same. [Deemed executed when entitled to execute.]
§ 1231. Other provisions.

§1227. CERTAIN I>STROIE>TS VOID AGAINST PUR-
CHASERS, ETC. Every instrument, other than a will, affect-
ing an estate in real property, including every charge upon
real property, or upon its rents or profits, made with intent
to defraud prior or subsequent purchasers thereof, or encum-
brancers thereon, is void as against every purchaser or en-
cumbrancer, for value, of the same property, or the rents or
profits thereof.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 15 pars, annotation.

55 C. 564, 566 (meaning of '"instrument" — it does not embrace
what); 25 P. 404 (question of intent is one of fact); 114 C. 526.
535, 43 P. 613, 46 P. 460 (discussed in connection with § 1589

C. C. P. and other sections); 117 C. 140, 146, 48 P. 1025 (dis-
cussed with otlier sections).

As to exempt property, there can be none. — See 20 A. R. 150.

Bona fide purchaser from fraudulent vendee, as to, see 28
A. D. 688; 28 A. D. 734.

Declarations of vendor as evidence against hi.s vendee to
show fraud. — See 42 A. D. 631.

Fraud in conveyance of real estate, as to, generally, see 2 A.

D. 77-81.

Fraudulent transfer — As to creditors. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 3439 and note.

Interest of party question of fact for jury. — See Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 3442 and note.

Knowledge of vendee as affecting validity of. — See 15 A. S.
695; 20 A. S. 632; 34 A. S. 395-402.

Voluntary conveyance fraudulent, when. — See 28 A. S. 618.

What are— as to, see 7 A. D. 703; 28 A. R. 721; 14 A. S. 739.

What will avoid conveyance. — See 55 A. D. 411-415.

651



§§ 1228-1230 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II,Pt.IV.

§1228. NOT VOID AGAINST PURCHASER HAVING
NOTICE, UNLESS FRAUD IS MUTUAL. No instrument is to
be avoided under the last section, in favor of a subsequent
purchaser or encumbrancer having notice thereof at the time
liis purchase vv'as made, or his lien acquired, unless the per-
son in w^hose favor the instrument was made was privy to the
fraud intended.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872, founded upon § 2, Act
April 19, 1850, Stats. 1850, p. 266.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 3 pars, annotation.

55 C. 564, 566 (meaning of "instrument" — it does not embrace
what).

Fraudulent conveyance — Knowledge of grantee. — See Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. § 1227 note par. 9.

Trust deed — Revocation of, — as to, see 20 A. S. 858-864.

§ 1229. POWER TO REVOKE, IVHEN DEEMED EXE-
CUTED. Where a power to revoke or modify an instrument
affecting the title to, or the enjoyment of, an estate in real
property; is reserved to the grantor, or given to any other
person, a subsequent grant of, or charge upon, the estate,
by the person having the power of revocation, in favor of a
purchaser or encumbrancer for value, operates as a revoca-
tion of the original instrument, to the extent of the power,
in favor of such purchaser or encumbrancer.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872, founded upon § 4, Act
April 19, 1850, Stats. 1850, p. 266.

55 C. 564, 566 (meaning of "instrument" — it does not embrace
what); 132 C. 523, 558 (section refers to case where power to
modify or revoke instrument affecting real property is reserved
to grantor, or given to another — it assumes right to create such
power, and states its effect in certain cases), 84 A. S. 70, 60 P.
442, 64 P. 1000, 1007.

§ 1230. SAME. [DEEMED EXECUTED lYHEN ENTITLED
TO EXECUTE.] Where a person having a power of revoca-
tion, within the provisions of the last section, is not entitled
to execute it until after the time at which he makes such
a grant or charge as is described in that section, the power

652



I



Tit.IV,ch.IV.] OTHER PROVISIOXS. § 1231

is deemed to be executed as soon as he is entitled to exe-
cute it.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872, founded upon § 6, Act
April 19, 1850, Stats. 1850, p. 267.

§ 1231. OTHER PROVISIOXS. Other provisions concern-
ing unlawful transfers are contained in part two, division
fourth, of this code, concerning the special relations of debtor
and creditor.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.
See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 3439 et seq. and notes.



653



§ 1237 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.Pt IV.



TITLE V.

HOMESTEADS.

Chapter I. General Provisions, §§ 1237-1261.

11. Homestead of the Head of a Family, §§ 1262-1265.
m. Homestead of Other Persons, §§ 1266-1269.
IV. Alienation of Homesteads of Insane Persons,
§§ 1269a-1269c.



CHAPTER I.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

§ 1237. Homestead, of what it consists.

§ 1238. From what may be selected.

§ 1239. From what not.

§ 1240. Exempt from forced sale.

§ 1241. Sale on execution, when.

§ 1242. How conveyed or encumbered.

§ 1243. How abandoned.

§ 1244. Same. [Effectual from when.]

§ 1245. Proceedings on execution against homestead.

§ 1246. Same. [Application, how made.]

§ 1247. Same. [Petition, where filed.]

§ 1248. Same. [Notice of hearing, service.]

§ 1249. Same. [Appointing appraisers.]

§ 1250. Same. [Appraisers to be sworn.]

§ 1251. Same. [Determining value and divisibility.]

§ 1252. Same. [Report of appraisers, contents.]

§ 1253. Same. [Setting off homestead exemption.]

§ 1254. Same. [Order directing sale, when.]

§ 1255. Same. [What bid may be received.]

§ 1256. Same. [Application of proceeds of sale.]

§ 1257. After sale, money equal to homestead exemption pro-
tected.

§ 1258. Compensation of appraisers.

§ 1259. Costs. [How paid and collected.]

§ 1260. Who may select homestead, value of.

§ 1261. Head of a family defined.

§1237. HOMESTEAD, OF WHAT IT CONSISTS. The

homestead consists of the dwelling-house in which the claim-

654



Tit.V.ch.I.] HOMESTEADS. § li;37

ant resides, and the land on which the same is situated,
selected as in this title provided.

History: Enacted March •21, 1S72: aniendcd Marcli 30. 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 228; amended by Code Conimision, Act
March 16, 1901, Stats, and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 398, held unconstitu-
tional, see liistory, § 4 ante.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 63 pars, annotation.

52 C. 629, 630 (construed and applied); 62 C. 125, 134 (cited);
62 C. 286, 289 (construed and applied); 4 P. 1177, 1178 (cited);
69 C. 195, 198, 10 P. 406, 407 (referred to); 70 C. 236, 239, 11 P.
656. 657 (referred to); 71 C. 300, 302, 303, 12 P. 230, 231 (referred
to); 73 C. 590, 592, 2 A. S. 834, 15 P. 290, 292 (construed and
applied); 75 C. 422, 424, 7 A. S. 180, 17 P. 539 (construed and-
applied); 76 C. 639, 643, 18 P. 805, 807 (referred to in dis. op.);

78 C. 310, 312, 12 A. S. 58, 20 P. 715. 716, 3 L. 781 (referred to);

79 C. 608, 610, 12 A. S. 180, 21 P. 973 (referred to); 80 C. 71, 73,
22 P. 79 (cited); 82 C. 226, 228, 233, 237, 16 A. S. 108, 22 P. 1145,
1146, 1147 (referred to); 92 C. 514, 519. 27 A. S. 158, 28 P. 593,
594 (referred to); 98 C. 472, 478, 33 P. 484, 485 (referred to);
117 C. 352, 353, 355, 59 A. S. 190, 49 P. 211 (construed and
applied); 125 C. 320, 325, 57 P. 1070 (construed and applied);
126 C. 527, 528, 77 A. S. 206, 58 P. 1063 (construed and applied);
141 C. 646, 649. 99 A. S. 92, 75 P. 301 (construed — what is meant
by "dwelling house"); 146 C. 426, 429, 106 A. S. 47. 80 P. 620
(construed — no limit of area of homestead); 149 C. 687, 689.
87 P. 577 (referred to).

HOMESTEA l)S — I N <;K.\ EH A I,.

Abandonment of — As to generally, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§§ 1243, 1244 and notes.

Same — Absence from by reason of conviction and confinement
in penitentiary, not a. — See 8 A. C. 678; 3 L. N. S. 515.

Same — By child or children, — See 56 L. 84.

Same — By husband deserting and leaving family, effect on
rights. — See 11 A. C. 423.

Same — By stepfather or stepmotiier. — See 56 L. 84.

Same — By surviving parent. — See 56 L. 81.

Same — Departure from f<ir pleasure, business or liealtli does
not constitute. — See 13 L. N. S. 430.

Same — During life of botli parents. — See 56 L. 80.

Same — Effect of insanity and imprisonment as. — See 3 L. N.
S. 515.

Same — Neither spouse can abandon for tiie other witliout liis
or her consent. — See 13 L. N. S. 430.

Same — On partition of homestead in connuunity property. —
See 4 L. N. S. 799.

655



§ 1237 CIVIL CODE. [Div.IT.Pt.IV.

Same — Or forfeiture — As to, by involuntary or compulsory
absence. — See 8 A. C. 681.

Same — What constitutes. — See 60 A. D. 607; 36 A. R. 728; 102
A. S. 388. •

Acquisition of, as to. — See 8 A. C. 678.

Actual occupancy, residence and possession. — See 4 W. & P.
3329.

Adverse possession of by wife or husband. — See 18 A. S. 113.

Against what debts a protection. — See 56 L. 57.

Alienation — And encumbrance of — As to generally. — See
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1242 and note.

Same — And encumbrance by survivor, effect of on right of
child to claim. — See 56 L. 71.

Same — Restraint on. — See 10 L. 220.

Same — Without joinder or consent of wife, effect of. — See 9
A. C. 3.

Antemortem. — See 1 Church's New Probate Law and Practice,
595-619.

Appraisement of.— See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1245-1253 and
notes.

As an estate.— See 26 A. S. 319; 4 W. & P. 3331.

As an exemption right. — See 58 A. S. 755; 4 W. & P. 3332.

As to selection of, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1262-1264 and notes.

Attachment and judgment liens against.— See 38 A. S. 247.

Building alone, as. — See 4 W. & P. 3330.

Business — Partial use of for, effect of. — See 76 A. D. 516; 91
A. D. 637; 4 W. & P. 3335.

Children entitled to take parent's, who are. — See 56 L. 52.

Confinement in penitentiary — As to whether an abandonment
of a.— See 8 A. C. 678.

Constitutionality of statutes exempting as applied to pre-
existing contracts. — See 87 A. D. 464.

Continuance of family a condition of continuance of home-
stead necessary when. — See 16 L. N. S. 111.

Contract between husband and wife concerning. — See Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. § 158, note par. 31.

Conveyance of — As to, generally, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1242
and note; 65 A. D. 482; 9 L. 805.

Same — By husband after abandonment by wife. — See 8 L. N.
S. 565.

Same— By husband to wife, effect of.— See 39 L. 379.

Same — By one spouse, whether may become operative on
abandonment or other future event. — See 12 A. S. 683.

Same — By widow during minority of children. — See 10 L. N.
S. 787.

Same — By wife during husband's confinement as an insane
person, does not estop him to assert his rights in. — See 13
L. N. S. 430.

656



Tit.V,ch.T.] HOMESTEADS. § 1237

Same — Contract by husband alone. — See 9 L.. 804.

Same — During insanity of one of the spouses, effect of on
rights. — See 13 L. N. S. 430.

Same — Foreclosure of mortgage on. — See 9 L. 805.

Same — Or encumbrance by one spouse only. — See 95 A. S. 909.

Same — Restraint on. — See 10 L.. 220.

Same — Wife's a separate deed in connection with a convey-
ance or encumbrance by husband, or her subsequent joinder
therein, effect of. — See 8 L. N. S. 748.

Damages for condemnation of, under right of eminent domain.
—See 13 L. N. S. 420.

Death — Provisions respecting homestead after. — See Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. P. §§ 1474-1486 and notes.

Declaration as to residence necessary. — See Kerr's Cyc. C. C.
§ 1263 and note.

Decree of divorce awarding. — See 23 L. 240.

Defeated by loss of family, as to, see 13 L. 743.

Definition of.— See 4 W. & P. 3327-3329.

Descent of, or continuance in family. — See 56 L. 40.

Designation of amount of land. — See 4 W. & P. 3329.

Divorce — Effect on. — See 4 L. N. S. 396.

Domicile of child — Effect on right to claim parent's. — See 56
L. 62.

Doxible house, as a. — See 12 L. 477.

Dwelling house — And adjoining land. — See 70 A. D. 292; 76
A. D. 244; 76 A. D. 432; 4 W. & P. 3330.

Same — In course of erecting. — See 48 A. S. 815; 4 W. & P.
3331.

Same — Necessary to. — See 4 "W. & P. 3330.

Effect of divorce on. — See 23 L. 239.

Encumbrance of — As to, generally, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 1242
and note; 8 A. C. 721; 9 A. C. 1 ; 9 A. C. 930.

Same — By widow during minority of children. — See 10 L. N.
S. 787.

Same — During insanity of one of the spouses, effect of on
rights.— See 13 L. N. S. 430.

Same — Validity — And effect of alienation or encumbrance of
homestead without joinder or consent of wife. — See 9 A. C. 3.

Same — Same — Of mortgage upon government land made by
claimant holding under homestead act prior to final proof. —
See 9 A. C. 934.

Estate held in common, in. — See 12 L. 519.

Estate of decedents — Provisions respecting homesteads out of.
— See Kerr's C. C. P. §§ 1474-1486 and notes.

Estoppel to assert right of. — See 13 L. N. S. 430.

Exchange of, property obtained in, exemption of. — See 19
I.. 38.

Execution, sale of under. — See 87 A. D. 273.

657



§ 1237 CIVIL CODE. [Div.II.Pt.IV.

Exemption of.- — As to generally, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1240,
1241 and notes.

Same — From liability for torts, etc. — See 24 L. 789; 16 L. N.
S. 947.

Same — Of portion of building-. — See 12 L. 477.

"Family"— Continuance of necessary to continuance of home-
stead when. — See 16 L. N. S. 111.

Same — Definition of. — See 4 L. N. S. 366; 3 W. & P. 2673.

Same — Different aggregations of people. — See 4 L. N. S. 367-
388.

Same — Meaning of as used in homestead law. — See 6 L.
813; 7 L. 747.

Same — Rights acquired in by survivorship. — See 4 L. N. S.
390.

Same — What constitutes a, under homestead exemption laws.
—See 4 L. N. S. 366.

Fine or costs — Exemption from liability for. — See 24 L. 790.

For what claims and credits liable. — See 45 A. S. 383.

Foreclosure — Of lien paramount — Does homestead exemption
attach to surplus. — See 18 L. N. S. 491.

Same — Of mortgage on. — See 9 L. 805.

Forfeiture — By loss of family, as to, see 13 L. 743.

Governed by what law. — See 56 L. 47.

Head of family, who is and what constitutes a family. — See
61 A. D. 586; 70 A. S. 107; 11 L. 518.

Husband — As head of family is entitled to claim, although fee
of the property is vested in wife.— See 13 L. N. S. 170.

Same — Insurable interest in. — See 66 L. 660.

In what property — Claimed. — See 56 L. 60.

Same — Estate held in common.— See 12 L. 519.

Same — In partnership land. — See 28 L. 15.

Same — Land held under estate by entireties. — See 30 L. 313.

Incumbrance of. — See "Encumbrance" this note.

Insane person, of. — 1 Church's New Probate Law and Practice,
646-651.

Intent as governing.— See 34 A. S. 832; 4 W. & P. 3332.

Judgment liens on.— See 34 A. S. 496: 11 L. 705.

Land — Held under estate by entireties, in. — See 30 L. 313.

Same — Never actually occupied. — See 2 A. S. 834; 4 W. & P.
3332.

Lease of by surviving widow during minority of children. —
See 10 L. N. S. 787.

Lien for purchase money of. — See 99 A. D. 574; 86 A. S. 174.

Liens as affecting — Of judgment. — See 11 L. 705.

Same— Of mechanics'. — See 9 L. 805.

Same — Same — Enforcement of against building only erected
upon homestead lands. — See 62 L. 375.

Loss of — By loss of family. — See 12 A. C. 717.

658



Tit.V.ch.I.] HOMESTEADS. § 1237

May consist of contiguous parts of different government sub-
divisions. — See 8 A. C. 721.

Mechanics' lien on. — See 9 L. 805.

Same — Enforcement of against building only. — See 62 L. 375.

More than one house, effect of. — See 7 A. S. 180: 16 A. S. 108;
4 W. & P. 3333.

Mortgage of. — See "Encumbrance of" this note.

Non-contiguous lands as. — See 91 A. D. 637; 63 A. S. 164; 77
A. S. 873; 4 W. & P. 3333.

Nonresident widow, rights of therein. — See 96 A. D. 412.

Occupancy of — By widow, as to necessity for to perpetuate
her rights.— See 12 A. C. 786.

"Official bonds" exemption from liability for. — See 24 L. 790.

On public lands, right to before receiving patent, to recover
for injuries to preinises and measure of damages therefor. — See
17 L,. N. S. 598.

Outbuildings and contiguous lands. — See 76 A. D. 432: 27 A. "R.



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