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Oral contract of gift, improvements on land made under, in
good faith, right to compensation for. — See 53 L. 337.

Oral gift of land, improvements made on land in good faith,
right to compensation. — See 53 L. 337.

Oral insurance contract, validity of. — See 22 L. 768.

Oral promise to pay by request, validity of. — See 3 L. 339.

Oral sale of standing timber, validity of. — See 19 L. 721.

Parol agreement for release, entry under as part performance.
— See 20 L. 36.

Parol evidence — -As to consideration in sealed instrument. — See
5 L. 596.

Same — As to consideration of deed. — ^See 20 L. 101.

Parol modification of original contract, to be in writing. — See
4 L. N. S. 980.

Parol partnership for dealing in lands, validity of. — See 16
L. 745.

Same — Effect of statute of frauds upon partnership lands. —
See 24 L. 477.

Parol promise to accept an order or bill of exchange, validity
of. — See 26 L. 620.

Part performance — Effect to take contract out of statute of
frauds. — See 12 L. 123.

Part performance of contract for services, effect of. — See 24
L. 231.

Part performance of contract obviates lack of mutuality. — See
8 L. N. S. 433.

Part performance of contract relating to real property, effect
to take contract out of the statute. — See 3 L. N. S. 790; 3 L. N. S.
852; 10 L. N. S. 638; 11 L. N. S. 1186.

Payment of a part of a liquidated and undisputed debt as a
consideration for a discharge of the whole. — See 11 L. N. S.
1018.

Payment of existing debt as a consideration. — See 34 L. 33.

Performance — By broker. — See "Broker's contract" this note.

850



Tit.I.ch.I.] CONTRACTS, GENERALLY. 5 I549

Same — Admissibility of books oJ account to prove. — See 52 L.
714.

Same — Effect of part performance of contract for services. —
See 24 L. 231: 69 L. 124.

Same — Effect of stipulation to give satisfaction. — Sec 17 L.
207.

Same — Excuse for non-performance — As to effect of distribu-
tion of building upon building contract, -see 2 A. C. 812; 12 L.
571.

Same — Same — As to effect of intervening impossibility to per-
form. — See 14 L. 215.

Same — Same — As to effect of part performance, see 24 L. 231.

Same — Same — Effect on contract of death of party. — See 23
L. 707-713.

Same — Same — Recovery and service interrupted by sicknesS
or death. — See 16 L. 858.

Same — Same — Waiver of provision. — See 6 L. 557.

Same — Same — When party entitled to relief from forfeiture.
— See 10 L. 828.

Same — Of building contract — As to. generally, see 5 L. 270.

Same — Of contract for perman<»nt employment. — See 35 I>. 516.

Same — Option as to performance, election. — See 12 L. 690.

Same — Rights of one who completed in disregard of notice to
desist. — See 16 L. 655.

Same — Time of performance — As essence of contract. — See
10 L. 828: 12 L. 239-241.

Same — Same — Extension of when last day of p<rformance
falls on Sunday. — See 14 L. 120.

Same — Same — First and last d.iys in computation of time. — See
49 L. 205.

Same — Same — Implied agreement, as to. — See 11 L. 526.

Same — Same — Making time of the essence by demand or
notice. — See 15 L. 737.

Performance of — Certificate of by engineer, etc. — See 1 L. N.
S. 1050: 6 L. N. S. 774.

Same — Contracts and effect of "strike clause" in contract of
sale and delivery. — See 9 L. N. S. 11R7.

Same — Destruction of building Ijefore completion, who to bear
the loss. — See 2 A. C. 812: 5 L. N. S. 1105.

Same — Effect of passage of statute rendering performance
impossible. — See 11 L. N. S. 415.

Same — For permanent employment. — See 35 L. 51fi.

Same — Injunction against inducing breach of. — See 11 L. N. S.
202.

Same — Necessity of perfecting title before time of. — See 3
L. N. S. 103.

Same — Prevention of, when gives a riglit to recover on. —
See 59 A. S. 283.

851



§ 1549 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.Pt.II.

Same — Remedy of wrongfully discharged servant by action
for damages. — See 6 L. N. S. 49.

Same — Responsibility of contract for p-erformance of entire
work. — See 8 L. N. S. 1171.

Same — Riglit to recover for services rendered beyond period
of limitation upon breach of parol contract to make provision
in will.— See 6 L. N. S. 703.

Permanent employment, invalidity of contracts for. — See 35
L. 513.

Persons of existing obligation as a sufficient consideration —
As to generally, see 34 L. 33-43.

Place of performance, when governed by. — See 30 A. S. 828.

Place of within tlie meaning of the law respecting usury. — See
55 A. R. 609.

Place where contract is deemed to have been made. — See 99
A. D. 663; 55 A. S. 44.

Post-nuptial written contract to confirm antenuptial oral con-
tract relinquishing rights in property. — See 11 L. N. S. 593.

Pre-existing debt — As consideration for bona fide purchasers
of property not negotiable. — See 36 L. 161.

Same — As consideration for chattel mortgage, as against
other credits or equities. — See 35 L. 305.

Pre-existing statutes making illegal. — See 120 A. S. 468.

Preliminary negotiations are merged in written contract. — See
3 L. 308.

Presumption as to consideration, in absence of express
acknowledgment on face of contract. — See 12 L. 845.

Price left indefinite, effect on validity of contract. — See 53 L.
288.

Privity of, as an element of actionable negligence. — See 1 A. C.
755.

Privity sustaining recovery under by one not a party to.
— See 18 A. S. 380.

Promise arising from acceptance or devise chargeable with
payment of legacy, statute of limitations applicable in action
to enforce. — See 8 L. N. S. 393.

Promise of additional compensation for completing an execu-
tory contract other than a contract for the payment of money.
—See 11 L. N. S. 789.

Promise of additional compensation for completing contract,
as a consideration. — See 34 L. 38.

Promise of performance by stranger to contract. — See 34 L. 43.

Promise to do duty as consideration. — See 34 L. 37.

Promise to perform additional duty for same consideration. —
See 34 L. 42.

Promise to support another person — As to generally, see 3 L,
836; 13 L. 640.

852



Tit.T.ch.I.] CONTRACTS, GENERALLY. § 1549

Same — Agreement to transfer future-acquired property in
consideration of, validity of. — See 70 L. 485.

Promissory note, gift of, necessity of consideration. — See
26 L. 305.

Promissory note given as a forfeit or as collateral to an
invalid oral agreement within the statute of frauds, validity
of.— See 18 L. 142.

Proof of consideration — Burden of proof, for transfer by
husband to wife. — See 56 L. 828.

Same — Oral evidence — As to consideration of deed. — See 20
L. 101.

Same — Same — In case of sealed instruments. — See 5 L. 593.

Same — Presumptions, in absence of express acknowledgment
on face of contract. — See 12 L. 845.

Same — Recital in receipt. — See 3 L. 804.

Same — Recital of money consideration in deed. — See 68 L. 925.

Proposal, acceptance of must be unequivocal. — See 3 L. 94.

Public contracts — Liability of public officers on, made by tlieni
for the public. — See 15 L. 509.

Same — Power to contract with public body or municipality
which he represents. — See 15 L. 520.

Same — Public officer — Power to make, binding on successors
for a term of years. — See 16 L. 257.

Same — Rights of lowest bidder on. — See 26 L. 707-711.

Same — Statute legalizing invalid or illegal contract. — See 27
L. 696.

Public policy, when void because for services forbidden by. —
See 66 A. D. 505.

Purchase by agent for principal of jiroperty which the agent
personally had an option of contract to purciiase. — See 11 L. N. S.
122.

Purchase of indefinite quantity, validity of contract for. — See
15 L. 218.

Purchase of office or official influence, agreement for. invalid.
— See 4 L. 683.

Quantum meruit under special. — See 19 A. D. 272.

Question relating to, as federal question. — See 62 L. 537.

Ratification of — As to generally, see 59 A. S. 638.

Same — By school district of unauthorized contracts. — See 20
L. 136.

Real property — Contracts respecting to be in writing. — See
2 L. 662; 3 L. 337; 5 L. 245; 7 L. 671: 10 L. 726; 12 L. 67: 15 L.
754; 16 L. 745; 19 L. 721; 20 L. 36; 23 L. 450; 26 L. 799; 27 I>.
477; 32 L. 597; 53 L. 337.

Receipt by carrier, as to sufficiency of to satisfy statute of
frauds. — See 22 L. 426.

Recital in receipt of consideration. — See 3 L. 804.

853



§ 1549 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.Pt.II.

Recital of money consideration in deed as contractual. — See
68 L. 925.

Recovery of profits as damage for breach of contract to sell
on commission. — See 10 A. C. 654.

Recovery on contract by party guilty of wilful default. — See
5 A. C. &18.

Reformation of — As to general jurisdiction of court of equity.
— See 2 L. 64; 3 L. 189; 5 L. 156; 6 L. 200; 6 L. 838; 12 L. 273.

Same — By suits in equity. — See 65 A. S. 481.

"Refusal", rights conferred by. — See 21 L. 127; 7 W. & P.
6032.

Relinquishment of security as sufficient consideration for
deed.— See 2 L. 530.

Remedies of party to contract upon anticipatory breach
thereof or prevention of performance. — See 1 A. C. 427.

Representative, contract made by, ratification. — See 15 L.
520; 16 L. 254; 20 L. 136; 33 L. 788.

Rescinding in equity where there is no actual fraud, accident,
or mistake. — See 15 A. D. 572.

Rescission and abandonment — As to generally, see 1 L. 827;

9 L. 608; 17 L. 779; 24 L. 231.

Same — Duty to restore or tender back what has been received.
—See 1 L. N. S. 379.

Same — Right to rescind by taking of worthless papers. — See

10 L. N. S. 552.

Same — Right to rescind on abandonment cause of other party's
fault. — See 11 L. 196; 30 L. 33-69.

Rescission, how and within what time right of must be exer-
cised. — See 74 A. D. 657.

Rescission of, when, how, and by whom may be made. — See 50
A. D. 672.

Right conferred by "refusal" or "option". — See 21 L. 127.

Right of party to proceed to execute after his adversary
declines to do so. — See 33 A. S. 791.

Right to duplicate portrait or photograph without consent of
the person under contract with whom the original was produced.
—See 7 L. N. S. 362.

Right to rescind by taking of worthless papers. — See 10 L. N.
S. 562.

Right to sue for damages for anticipatory breach of life
insurance contract. — See 9 A. C. 655.

Sale of office, contract of, invalid. — See 5 L. 217.

Sale of property for unlawful use, invalid and price cannot
be recovered. — See 15 L. 834; 61 L. 417.

Sale or mortgage of crops to be in writing. — See 23 L. 450.

Secret promise for individual advantage of promoter of
enterprise, validity of. — See 12 L. 123.

854



Tit.I.ch.I.] CONTRACTS, GENERALLY. § 1549

Separate instruments constitute contract construed tog'ether.
—See 3 L. 579.

Scliool district, ratification by of unautliorized contracts. —
See 20 L. 136.

Shares of corporate stock, necessity of writing to make trans-
fer of. — See 2 L. N. S. 804.

Signing contract by mark, sufficiency of. — See 22 L. 372.

Signing contract by proxy, sufficiency of. — See 22 L. 329.

Stamps, internal revenue, omission of from. — See 94 A. S. 185.

Standing timber, effect of contract respecting, to pass title to
same. — See 6 L. N. S. 469.

State's evidence, validity of agreements concerning. — See 40
A. S. 767.

Statute leagalizing contract, constitutionality of. — See 22 L.
379; 27 L. 696.

Statute of frauds — As affecting, conflict of laws as to. — See
64 L. 119.

Same — As affecting right to assume debts on dissolution of
partnership. — See 9 L. N. S. 54.

Same — Agreement concerning realty, as to generally, see 2
L. 662; 3 L. 337; 5 L. 245; 7 L. 671; 10 L. 726; 12 L. 67; 15 L.
754; 16 L. 745; 19 L. 721; 20 L. 36; 23 L. 450; 26 L. 799; 27 L.
477; 32 L. 597; 53 L. 337.

Same — Agreement to give property by will. — See 8 I.,. 414; 14
L. 862.

Same — Contract for sale of goods, as to generally, so.> 1 1,.
507; 11 L. 143; 14 L. 230; 22 L. 426; 70 L. 320.

Same — Contract for work and labor. — See 1 L. 507.

Same — <:;ontract not to be performed within a year, as to
generally, see 2 L. 373; 3 L. 337; 7 L. 784; 11 L. 621; 35 L. 514.

Same — Contract to answer for debt or default of anotlier. — See
5 L. 617; 25 L. 26-f; 33 L. 359; 39 L. 378.

Same — Contract void in part. — See 3 L. 468.

Same — Effect of part performance to take contract o\it of. —
See 12 L. 123.

Same — Non-negotiability of contracts in violation of. — Sel* 12
L. 123.

Same — Sufficiency of writing — As to generally, see 2 L. 212:
11 L. 97; 11 L. 143: 22 L. 273; 50 L. 202; 50 L. 240.

Same — Same — In several writings. — See 2 L. 212.
Same — Same — Memorandum, essentials of. — See 2 T>. 212; 11
L. 97, 143.

Same — Same — Telegrams as writings, sufficiency of. — See 50
L. 240.

Same — Same — Undelivered deed as memorandum, sufficiency of.
— See 22 L. 273.

Same — Symbolical delivery by sample, sufficiency of, to
satisfy. — See 70 L. 321.

855



§ 1549 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.II.

Same — Use as a protection to fraud. — See 25 L. 569.

Same — Validity of oral insurance contract. — See 22 L. 768.

Same — Validity of parol promise to accept order or bill of
exchange. — See 26 L. 620.

Same — Validity of promissory note given as a forfeit or as
collateral to an invalid oral agreement, within. — See 18 L. 142.

Same — Who is bona fide purchaser within. — See 31 L. 612.

Statute of limitations— Applicability of, to action to enforce
an implied promise arising from acceptance or devise charged
with payment of legacy. — See 8 L. N. S. 393.

Statutory liability. — See 4 W. & P. 3431.

Stipulation to give satisfaction, effect of. — See 17 L. 207.

Strike, existence of as excuse for nonperformance of con-
tract in absence of special stipulation relating thereto. — See
12 A. C. 313.

Subscription contract — Is it joint or several. — See 22 L. 880.

Subscription to common object, sufficiency of consideration. —
See 3 L. 468.

Successive actions for breach of contract performable in
installments. — See 6 A. C. 63.

Sufficiency of consideration. — See "Consideration", this note.

Same — ^As to generally, see 3 L. 760; 5 L. 856; 12 L. 46.

Same — Benefit to promiser and detriment to promisee. — See
12 L. 465.

Same — Concurrent promises. — See 12 L. 463.

Same — For contract for permanent employment. — See 35 L. 515.

Same — For new contract. — See 13 L. 581.

Same — For subscription to common object. — See 3 L. 868.

Same — For transfer by creditor in satisfaction of debt. — See
36 L. 346.

Same — Marriage as. — See 2 L. 372; 12 L. 464.

Same — Pre-existing debt — As a, for bona fide purchaser of
property not negotiable. — See 36 L. 161.

Same — Same — ^As a, for chattle mortgage as against other
creditors or equities. — See 33 L. 305.

Same — Promise to support person.- — See 3 L. 836; 13 L. 640.

Same — Relinquishment of security as consideration for deed.
— See 2 L. 530.

Same — Validity of agreement to transfer future-acquired
property in consideration of maintenance. — See 7 L. 485.

Same — Valuable when. — See 2 L. 530.

Same — Waiver of legal right. — See 3 L. 466; 12 L. 466.

Sunday, extension of time when last day of performance
falls on. — See 14 L. 120.

Sunday, validity of contract made on. — See 3 L. 244; 4 L. 680;
7 L. 498; 11 L. 63; also "Holiday", this note.

Sunday or holiday, validity of contract made on. — See 4 L. N.
S. 1151; 5 L. N. S. 295; also "Holiday", this note.

856



Tit.I,ch.I.] CONTRACTS, GENERAT.T.Y. § 1549

Symbolical delivery by sample, as to sufficiency of to satisfy
statute of frauds. — See 70 L. 321.

Third persons, promises for the benefit of. — See 3 A. D. 305;
9 A. D. 155; 35 A. S. 331; 71 A. S. 178.

Time and place of consummation of contract where offer by
letter is accepted by telegram or vice versa. — See 6 L. N. S. 1016.

Time of performance of contract — As essence of contract. —
See 10 L. 828; 12 L. 239, 241.

Same — Extension of when last day of performance falls on
Sunday.— See 14 L. 120.

Same — First and last days in computing. — See 49 L. 205.

Same — Implied agreement as to. — See 11 L. 526.

Same — Making time of the essence by demand or notice. — See
15 L. 737.

Time, when contract consisting of letters or telegrams show-
ing offer and unconditional acceptance is completed. — See 6 A.
C. 378.

Time, when of the essence of, in contracts for the sale of
land. — See 104 A. S. 265.

Time, when stipulations show it is made the essence of. — See
50 A. D. 597.

To assign future invention upon sale of patent Invalid as
against public policy. — See 2 L. N. S. 1094.

To deal in futures or margins, when invalid. — See 10 A. S. 33.

To do acts for the doing of which a penalty is imposed by
law. — See 25 A. R. 674.

To employ union labor only. — See 2 L. N. S. 292.

To forbear to sue, effect of. — See 36 A. S. 145.

To pay an officer of a railroad company for his own benefit,
conditioned on a specified location of the road or tlie depot.
— See 6 L. N. S. 524.

To pay thief for return of stolon property. — See 7 Jj. N. S. 17.">.

To perform work to the satisfaction of another. — See 33 A.
R. 353; 54 A. S. 711.

To prevent competition in trade. — See 7 A. D. 743.

Trade secrets, contract restraining use of, validity. — See 13
L. 652.

Transfer of property priferring creditor, void wlion. — See 3ti
L. 346.

Trusts, what are unlawful. — See 74 A. S. 235.

Ultra vires, of corporation.s. — See 70 A. S. 156.

Unconscionable, what are and whether may be bold voji). —
See 33 A. R. 182; 81 A. S. 663.

Unconscionable with expectant heirs and others. — Soo 41 A. R.
713.

Unilateral contract, enforcement of. — See 1 I.,. 554; 6 I^. 807.

Unlawful or illegal, when constitute defense against In action
to recover moneys collected. — See 99 A. D. 61.

857



§ 1549 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.II.

Unlicensed person, right to recover for services rendered by
licensed person. — See 2 L. N. S. 392.

Use of statute of frauds as a protection to fraud. — See 25 L.
569.

Validity of agreement between husband and wife renouncing
marital rights. — See 12 L. N. S. 848.

Validity of contract — As to, generally, see 14 L. 860; 16 L.
423; 22 L. 379; 24 L. 315; 27 L. 696; 33 L. 628.

Saine— Definiteness and certainty required. — See 15 L. 218; 35
L. 515; 53 L. 288-299.

Same — Contract made on holiday, as to validity of. — See 3 L.
224; 4 L. 680; 7 L. 498; 11 L. 63; 19 L. 317; also "Holiday," this
note.

Same — Fraud or unfair advantage. — See 2 L. 817; 6 L. 498, 501;
10 L. 606; 12 L. 123; 54 L. 440-453.

Same — Illegal, immoral or opposed to public policy — As to,
generally, see 3 L. 631; 4 L. 682; 9 L. 506; 9 L. 657; 12 L. 121;
35 L. 513; 48 L. 822; 58 L. 181; 60 L. 406; 70 L. 485.

Same — Same — Bribery or corruption. — See 3 L. 632; 4 L. 682;
5 L. 217; 12 L. 120. . »

Same — Same — Denial of remedy. — See 2 L. 817; 3 L. 631; 6 L.
218; 6 L. 458; 6 L. 588; 8 L. 476; 8 L. 497; 8 L. 501; 8 L. 511;
12 L. 121; 17 L. 113; 48 L. 882.

Same — Same — For services to procure legislation. — See 30 L.
737-742.

Same — Same — Restraint of trade. — See 1 L. 457; 8 L. 469; 11
L. 437; 11 L. 503; 13 L. 652; 22 L. 673; 35 L. 516; 64 L. 689.

Same — Same — To procure testimony. — See 19 L. 371.

Same — Same^Wagering contracts. — See 1 L. 140; 1 L. 656; 3
L. 679; 3 L. 784; 4 L. 398; 5 L. 200; 6 L. 137; 7 L. 705; 12 L.
121; 12 L. 776; 64 L. 160.

Same — Same — Where property sold for unlawful use, recov-
ery of price. — See 15 L. 834; 16 L. 417.

Same — Made by representative, ratification. — See 15 L. 520;
16 L. 257; 20 L. 136; 33 L. 788.

Same — Special, and obligation to pay in gold or silver. — See
29 L. 512-523.

Validity of contract for material patented or held in monopoly
where a public letting to the lowest bidder is required. — See
5 L. N. S. 680.

Validity of contract in a business, which it is a misdemeanor
to contract. — See 12 L. N. S. 575-623.

Validity of contract relinquishing rights in intended hus-
band's estate, signed by intended wife in ignorance of her legal
rights. — See 9 L. N. S. 953.

Validity of contract when made in business carried on with-
out a license, where a license is required. — See 1 L. N. S. 1159.

Validity of to procure legislative action. — See 4 L. N. S. 213.

858



Tit.I.ch.I.] ESSENTIALS OF CONTRACT. § I5r,0

"Valuable consideration" — As affected by inadequacy. — See 8
W. & P. 7273.

Same — Acts to be separately performed. — See 40 L. ed. 960;
8 W. & P. 7273.

Same — Agreement to forbear. — See 8 W. & P. 7273.

Same — Agreement to pay debt of another. — See 8 W. & V.
7273.

Same — Cancelation of pre-existing- debt. — See 74 C. 444, 16 P.
242; 7 W. & P. 2773.

Same — Dismissal of condemnation proceedings. — See 8 W. &
P. 7273.

Same — Term in deed construed. — See 2 L. 530; 8 W. & P. 7271.

Verbal chattel mortgage, validity of. — See 7 L. N. S. 418.

Verbal contracts for exchangi- of land, enforcibility of. — See.
5 L. 245.

Voluntary deed, validity of. — See 13 L. 640.

Wagering contract, as to validity of, see 1 L. 140; 1 I^. ii.')C;
3 L. 679; 3 L. 784; 4 L. 398; 5 I.. 200; 6 L. 137; 7 L. 705; 12 L.
121; 12 L. 776.

Wagering policy of insurance, validity of. — See 6 L. 137.

Waiver of legal right, as sufficient consideration. — See 3 L.
466; 12 L. 463.

Warranty, parol evidence to siiow, notwithstanding written
contract. — See 5 A. S. 197.

Whether stipulated forfeiture for breach of contract is a
penalty for liquidated damages. — See 1 A. C. 244; 10 A. C. 225.

Will, agreement to give property Ijy. to be in writing. — Si e
8 L. 414; 14 L. 862.

Witlidrawal of order given agent before acceptance by jirin-
cipal, right of.— See 10 L. N. S. 1138.

Written contract — Piiliminary negotiations are merged in. —
See 3 L. 308.

Wi-itings within statute nf frauiLs — Telegrams as. — See 50 L.
240.

§ 1 :>:.(). ESSEM'I.VL ELKMKXTS OF ('(»>TK.V(T. It is

essential to the existence of a contract that there should l)e:

1. Parties capable of contracting;

2. Their consent;

3. A lawful object; and,

4. A stiflicient cause or consideration.

IliMlory: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 36 pars, annotation.

64 C. 108, 110, 28 P. 63 (construed and applied); 85 C. 1 1 , 30.
20 A. S. 197, 24 P. 707, 711. 9 L. 376 (construed and applied);

859



§ 1550 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.II.

115 C. 512, 515, 47 P. 250 (construed with other sections); 135
C. 561, 563, 67 P. 1054 (construed and applied); 68 P. 484 (con-
strued); 139 C. 507, 512, 73 P. 247 (construed and applied); 145
C. 497, 498, 499, 78 P. 1056 (referred to).

As to consent, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1565, 1585 and notes.

As to consideration, necessity of, and what constitutes, see
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1605, 1615 and notes.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to contracts, see note
§ 1549, ante.

As to parties, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1556 et seq. and notes.

As to subject-matter, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1665, 1569 and
notes.

As to telegrams as writings to constitute contract within
statute of frauds, see 50 L. -240, 254.

As to unlawful contracts, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §| 1667, 1676
and notes.



860



Tit.I.ch.II.] WHO MAY MAKE. §§ 1556, 1557



CHAPTER II.

PARTIES.

§ 1556. Who may contract.

§ 1557. Minors, etc.

§ 1558. Identification of parties necessary.

§ 1559. When contract for benefit of third person may be enforced.

§ 1556. ^VHO MAY CONTRACT. All persons are capable
of contracting, except minors, persons of unsound mind, and
persons deprived of civil rights.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 22 pars, annotation.

54 C. 178 (construed and applied with other sections).

As to contracts by persons of unsound mind, see Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. §§ 38, 39, 40 and notes.

As construed of infants, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 33-37 and



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