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The codes of California as amended and in force at the close of the thirty-eighth session of the Legislature, 1909 (Volume 2 Civil Code) online

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contract in writing may be altered by a contract in writing,
or by an executed oral agreement, and not otherwise.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872; amended March 30, 1874,
Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 243.

66 C. 114, 115. 4 P. 1091 (construed and applied); 68 C. 27, 28,
8 P. 518, 519 (construed and applied); 77 C. 383, 388, 11 A. S. 288,
19 P 641 644 (construed and applied); 82 C. 533, 546, 23 P. 217
(construed and applied); 95 C. 630, 634, 30 P. 786 (construed
and applied); 103 C. 163, 167, 37 P. 147 (construed and apphed ;
104 C 168 170 43 A. S. 81, 37 P. 900 (construed and applied);
40 P. 39, 40 (construed and applied); 112 C. 46, 52, 44 P. 354 (con-
strued and applied); 112 C. 634, 635, 636, 44 P. 1060 (construed

921



§§1699,1700 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.II.

and applied); 117 C. 204, 211, 48 P. 1083 (construed and applied);
120 C. 657, 659, 53 P. 264 (construed and applied); 121 C. 167,
175, 53 P. 565 (construed and applied); 123 C. 681, 686, 56 P.
547, 548 (construed and applied); 126 C. 591, 598, 77 A. S. 209,
59 P. 36 (construed and applied); 127 C. 656, 657, 60 P. 426 (con-
strued and applied); 129 C. 301, 305 (construed and applied with
§ 1697 C. C, erroneously cited as § 1697 C. C. P.), 61 P. 937, 939
(correct citation); 132 C. 133, 136, 64 P. 88 (construed and
applied); 140 C. 57, 62, 73 P. 740 (waiver of forfeiture of policy
of lifo insurance by extending time for payment of premiums
may be shovvn by parol); 146 C. 196, 199, 79 P. 875 (instance of
valid executed parol agreement); 146 C. 555, 560, 80 P. 711
(instance of original agreement not altered in accordance with
this section); 2 C. A. 15, 17, 82 P. 1127 (executed contract modify-
ing written contract in lease concerning pasturage) ; 2 C. A.
306, 309, 310, 311, 83 P. 302 (applied — payment of interest in
advance does not extend time for payment of written con-
tract); 3 C. A. 115, 120, 84 P. 435 (clear and precise terms of
written contract cannot be varied by parol); 4 C. A. 58, 60, 87 P.
210 (oral agreement does not have to be executed at time of
inception of written agreement).

As to alteration and cancelation of contracts, see full annota-
tion Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 3412-3414 and notes.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to contracts, see note
§ 1549, ante.



§ 1699. EXTINCTION BY CANCELATION, ETC. The de-
struction or cancelation of a written contract, or of the sig-
nature of the parties liable thereon, with intent to extin-
guish the obligation thereof, extinguishes it as to all the
parties consenting to the act.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

87 C. 581, 584, 25 P. 963, 964, 966 (construed and applied).

As to alteration and cancelation of contracts, see full annota-
tion Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 3412-3414 and notes.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to contracts, see note
§ 1549, ante.



§1700. EXTINCTION BY UNAUTHORIZED ALTERA-
TION. The intentional destruction, cancelation, or material
alteration of a written contract, by a party entitled to any
benefit under it, or with his consent, extinguishes all the

922



Tit.V,ch.TII.] ALTERING DUPLICATE. § 1701

executory obligations of the contract in his favor, against
parties who do not consent to the act.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

S1701 ALTERATION OF DUPLICATE, NOT TO PREJU-
DICE Where a contract is executed in duplicate, an altera-
tion or destruction of one copy, while the other exists, is not
within the provisions of the last section.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.



923



§§ 1708, 1709 CIVIL CODE. [Div. III.



PART III.

OBLIGATIONS IMPOSED BY LAW.

§ 1708. Abstinence from injury.

§ 1709. Fraudulent deceit.

s'j.710. D'^-cit, what.

§ 1711. Deceit upon the public, etc.

§ 1712. Restoration of thing wrongfully acquired.

§ 1713. When demand necessary.

§ 1714. Responsibility for wilful acts, negligence, etc.

§ 1715. Other obligations.

§ 1708. ABSTINENCE FROM INJURY. Every person is
bound, without contract, to abstain from injuring the person
or property of another, or infringing upon any of his rights.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 26 pars, annotation.

110 C. 374, 385, 42 P. 896 (applied with other sections); 111 C.
39, 45, 52 A. S. 146, 43 P. 398, 31 L. 220 (applied); 118 C. 315, 321,
62 A. S. 238, 50 P. 373 (applied with other sections); 123 C. 42,
44, 55 P. 706 (applied with other sections).

As to fraud generally, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 1571-1574 and
notes.

As to liability for bite of dog previously gentle, see 55 L. 671.

As to liability of owners for acts of vicious dogs, see 10 A.
R. 270; 36 A. R. 752; 27 L. 862; briefs 30 L. 608; 54 L. 420.

As to liability where dog wrongfully provoked, see 61 L. 351.

Animals, vicious — as to liability for damages by, see Kerr's
Cyc. C. C. § 1714 note pars. 13-28, 39-49.

Implied warranty in sale for known purpose is fully discussed
in Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 43 note.

§1709. FRAUDULENT DECEIT. One who wilfully de-
ceives another with intent to induce him to alter his posi-
tion to his injury or risk, is liable for any damage which
he thereby suffers.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 10 pars, annotation.
65 C. 326, 327, 4 P. 33 (fraudulent promise is actionable); 76
C. 192, 193, 18 P. 318, 319 (referred to with other sections); 77

924



pt jjl ] FRAUD AND DECEIT. § 1709

C. 22, 25, 18 P. 791, 793 (applied with other sections): 99 C.
179 185 33 P. 859, 862 (construed and applied); 134 C. 441, 444,
66 'p. 587 (applied with C. C. P.); 136 C. 26, 29, 68 P. 321
(applied).

FRAUD AND DECEIT.

As to what constitutes, see 1 A. C. 906; 2 A. C. 997; 7 A. C.
505- 8 A. C. 251; 8 A. C. 1051; 12 A. D. 64; 25 A. D. 282; 67 A.

D. 775; 74 A. D. 736; 33 A. R. 641; 38 A. R. 736; 56 A. R. 31; 14
A S 7'32- 17 A. S. 482; 32 A. S. 378; 45 A. S. 514; 46 A. S. 753; 51
a'. S. 435; 62 A. S. 544; 69 A. S. 171; 89 A. S. 181; 3 L. 37; 4 L.
158- 5 L 702; 5 L. 841; 6 L. 149; 7 L. 756; 18 L. 188; 21 L. 409; 30
L 465- 33 L. 721; 34 L. 533; 34 L. 642; 43 L. 593; 45 L. 33; 51
L. 262; 52 L. 59; 53 L. 387; 54 L. 445; 57 L. 675; 62 L. 240; 69 L.
686- 69 L. 849; 1 L. N. S. 258; 1 L. N. S. 1075; 6 L. N. S. 556
7 L. N. S. 646; 8 L. N. S. 452; 10 L. N. S. 245; 10 L. N. S. 640
3 W & P. 2943-2954; 21 L. ed. 835; 23 L. ed. 363; 24 L. ed. 586
25 L. ed. 309; 28 L. ed. 76; 28 L. ed. 565; 29 L. ed. 248; 32 L. ed.
625; 32 L. ed. 878; 34 L. ed. 931; 34 L. ed. 851; 44 L. ed. 723.^

Same — As to sales of personal property. — See 1 L. 618; 2 L.
154; 4 L. 369; 14 L. 264; 17 L. 795; 21 L. 206; 64 L. 827.

Same— Act involving breach of duty, trust, or confidence.— See
62 A. S. 544; 32 L. ed. 878; 3 W. «& P. 2944.

Same— Actual fraud or fraud in fact. — See 14 A. R. 186; 24
L. ed. 586; 25 L. ed. 309; 28 L. ed. 565; 29 L. ed. 248; 32 L. ed. 621;
34 L. ed. 951; 44 L. ed. 723; 3 W. & P. 2944.

Same — All modes of deceit comprehended. — See 59 A. D. 451; 74
A. D. 736; 44 L. ed 723; 3 W. & P. 2951.

Same — As a personal thing. — See 3 W. & P. 2953.

Same— As affecting judgment.— See 11 L. 160; 20 L. 679; 30
K 238; 30 L. 562; 30 L. 787; 31 L. 753.

Same — As conclusion of law. — See 56 A. R. 31; 45 A. S. 514;
3 W. & P. 2945.

Same — As criminal offense. — See 3 W. & P. 2946.

Same— As fact to be proved.— See 32 A. S. 378; 3 W. & P. 2946.

Same— As relating to signature of instruments. — See 3 W.
& P. 2953.

Same — As rendering conveyance void. — See 46 A. S. 753; 7

W. & P. 2953.

Same — As rendering debtor liable to arrest. — See 45 A. D.

394; 3 W. & P. 2953.

Same — As rendering instrument void. — See 3 W. & P. 2953.

Same — As rendering judgment void. — See 3 W. & P. 2954.

Same — As rendering marriage void. — See 38 A. R. 726; 3 W.
& P. 2954.

Same — Bad faith — Official, or official misconduct.— See 3 W,
& P. 2952.

Same — Same — Synonymous with. — See 3 W. & P. 2945.

Same — Concealment or suppression of facts. — See 3 W. & P
2945.

925



§ 1709 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.

Same— Constructive.— See 91 C. 15; 27 P. 599, 600; 31 A. R. 428;
58 A. S. 102; 35 L. 776; 2 W. & P. 1470.

Same — Same — Breach of duty as a. — See 2 W. & P. 1471.

Same — Same — Distinguished from actual fraud. — See 2 W. &
P. 1471.

Same — Damage must result from to give redress. — See 3
W. & P. 2946.

Same — Effect of to entitle or to deprive one of equitable
relief, as to, generally, see 1 L. 45: 2 L. 662; 3 L. 806; 5 L. 45;

5 L. 163, 6 L. 158; 6 L. 836; 8 L. 14; 11 L. 66; 17 L. 130; 19 L.
53; 19 L. 767; 22 L. 707.

Same — Error or mistake as. — See 17 A. S. 482; 51 A. S. 435;
28 L. ed. 76; S W. & P. 2946.

Same — Expression of opinion as fraud. — See 35 L. 417-441.

Same — False swearing synonymous with. — See 51 A. S. 435;
3 W. & P. 2947.

Same — Fraudulent concealment, constructive fraud, and deceit
synonymous. — See 3 W. & P. 2947.

Same — Gain to wrong-doer. — See 3 W. & P. 2947.

Same — In fact.— See 3 A. R. 588; 3 W. & P. 2954.

Same — In law. — See 3 W. & P. 2955.

Same — Inequitable or unconscientious advantage. — See 3 W.

6 P. 2947.

Same — Injustice distinguished. — See 3 W. & P. 2947.

Same — Infecting negotiable paper. — See 36 L. 434; 46 L. 768.

Same — Intention and act. — See 19 Eng. C. L. 183; 21 L. ed.
835; 3 W. & P. 2947.

Same — Knowledge of falsity of representation. — See 3 W. & P.
2950.

Same — Misrepresentations are when. — See 69 A. S. 171; 5 L.
841; 28 L. ed. 76; 3 W. & P. 2951.

Same — Misrepresentations by vendor of price paid for prop-
erty. — See 8 A. C. 1062.

Same — Moral turpitude. — See 3 W. & P. 2950.

Same — Official misconduct or bad faith. — See 3 W. & P. 2952.

Same — Responsibility for fraud of another. — See 19 L. 331; 21
L. 741; 28 L. 104; 28 L. 421; 51 L. 479.

Same — Right to rely upon representations made. — See 37 L.
593-615.

Same — Set-off as defense based on fraud. — See 21 L. 324; 23
L. 338; 32 L. 491; 50 L. 508.

Same — Silence and concealment where duty to speak and dis-
close. — See 1 L. 742; 4 L. 159; 5 L. 428; 6 L. 799; 7 L. 826; 26 L.
430.

Same — Suppression of facts. — See 3 W & P. 2945.

Same — Unconscientious advantage. — See 3 W. & P. 2947.

Same — Undue influence distinguished. — See 25 A. D. 282; 89
A. S. 181; 53 L. 387; 3 W. & P. 2954.

926



pt. III.] FRAUD AND DECEIT. § 1709

Same — Warranty distinguished. — See 3 W. & P. 2954.

Acting upon representations, as to, generally, see 14 Encyc. L.
106-115.

Action for — As to, generally, see 23 Cent. Dig. col. 1724, §§ 27-
34; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1281, §§ 31-58.

Action for price as bar to action for damages for. — See 8 L. N.
S. 582.

As affecting judgment. — See 11 L. 160; 20 L. 679; 30 L. 238: 30
L. 562; 30 L. 782; 31 L. 753.

Burden of proof — As a bona fides of transferee of warehouse
receipts for property secured by fraud. — See 10 L. N. S. 801.

Same — As to payment of value by, or notice of fraud to, sub-
vendee of chattels, when original seller seeks to rescind for
fraud of first purchaser. — See 8 L. N. S. 448.

Carelessness as a bar to relief from. — See 32 A. S. 384.

Character of representation as one of fact. — See 14 Encyc. L.
33-59.

Constructive fraud — Nature and elements of. — See 23 Cent. Dig.
col. 1655, § 7; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1244, §§ 5-7.

Damage or prejudice necessary to recovery. — See 23 Cent.
Dig. col. 1715, §24; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1271, §25; 14 Encyc. L.
137-147.

Damages for — As to, generally, see 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1312. §§ 59-
62; 14 Encyc. L. 177-189.

Same — Measure of. — See "Measure of damages" this note.

Deceit, in business transaction — At to what constitutes, see
74 A. D. 736; 3 A. R. 440; 49 A. S. 651; 61 A. S. 791; 23 Cent. Dig.
col. 1642, §§1-26; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1241, §§1-30; 29 L. 360; 33 L.
561; 2 W. & P. 1894, 1896.

Same — Alteration of court order.^ — See 2 W. & P. 1895.

Same — Cheating by false tokens. — See 2 W. & P. 1895.

Same — Silence, where in dutj^ bound to speak. — See 74 A. D.
736; 3 A. R. 440; 2 W. & P. 1895.

Deed, when void for at law. — See 93 A. D. 596.

Effect of — And remedies for. — See 14 Encyc. L. 156-176.

Same — By agent ex necessitate in making proofs of loss under
fire insurance policy. — See 9 L. N. S. 480.

Same — Extrinsic to trade — name or trade-mark on the right to
protection against infringement. — See 12 L. N. S. 1201.

Same — In proceedings for opening or extending highway, as
defense to proceedings to acquiring property for that purpose. —
See 7 L. N. S. 639.

Same — In securing release from servant accepting benefits of
relief fund. — See 11 L. N. S. 200.

Same- — On decision of architect, engineer or umpire. — See 1 L.
N. S. 150.

Same — On right to assessment debts on dissolution of partner-
ship. — See 9 L. N. S. 56.

927



§ 1709 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.

Same — On right to injunction against collection of purchase
money where title to land is defective. — See 7 L. N. S. 448.

Same — To entitle or deprive one of equitable relief. — See 1 L.
45; 2 L. 662; 3 L. 806; 5 L. 45; 5 L. 163; 6 L. 458; 6 L. 836; 8 L.
14; 11 L. 66; 17 L. 130; 19 L. 53; 19 L. 767; 22 L. 707.

Same — To estop infant misrepresenting as to age. — See 9 L. N.
S. 1117.

Same — To right of person on train procuring ticket by. — See
6 L. N. S. 1146.

Evi(i-c;iice in action for — As to, generally, see 1 A. C. 816; 7 A.
C. 276; 7 A. C. 505: 14 Encyc. L. 190-201.

Same — Burden of proof as to fraud. — See 45 L. 53.

Same — Same — Respecting will. — See 36 L. 737.

Same — Degree of proof required to establish. — See 10 L. 606.

Same — Establishment of by facts and circumstances. — See 4
L. 158.

Same — Fraudulent intent as question of fact. — See 9 L. 417.

Same — Inadequacy of consideration as evidence of. — See 4 L.
638.

Same — Parol evidence to prove fraudulent intent as to deed.
—See 4 L. 427.

Same — Presumptions and burden of proof as to fraud. — See 1
A. C. 809; 1 L. 520; 4 L. 832; 36 L. 737.

Same — Question of law and fact. — See "Question of law and
fact," this note.

Expression of opinion as fraud — As to generally, see 35 L. 417-
441.

Failure to read contract as affecting right to relief on ground
of.— See 6 L. N. S. 463.

False representation — As to, generally, see 23 Cent. Dig. col.
1648, § 3; 14 Encyc. L. 23-32; 14 Encyc. L. 63-66.

Same — Action to recover for. — See 20 A. D. 626; 18 A. S. 555.

Same — Recovery for injuries suffered from acting upon. — See
88 A. D. 442.

False statements in reports required by statute to be made to
public officers as basis of action by individual at common law
for deceit against officers and directors of corporation person-
ally.— See 6 L. N. S. 872.

Fraud — As a question of law or fact. — See 1 A. C. 446.

Same — Definition of. — See 14 Encyc. L. 19; 3 W. & P. 2943.

Same — Nature of. — See 14 Encyc. L. 19.

Fraudulent concealment, effect of to void promise of marriage.
—See 26 L. 430.

Fraudulent intent necessary to justify injunction against
unfair competition. — See 4 L. N. S. 960.

Fraudulent representations — As to, generally, see 23 Cent. Dig.
col. 1656, §§8-14; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1245, §§8-13.

Ignorance or carelessness as affecting right to equitable relief

928



pt. III.] FRAUD AND DECEIT. § 1709

from contract bj^ which one has been overreached. — See 5 L.
N. S. 799.

In sale of personal property. — See "Fraud in, as to sale of
personal property," this note.

In sale of real estate. — See 2 A. D. 77.

Injunction against proceedings in court of law in case of
fraud, accident or mistake. — See 5 A. C. 727.

Infecting negotiable paper. — See 36 L. 434; 46 L. 768.

Jurisdiction of equity — In case of fraud where adequate
remedy exists at law. — See 3 A. C. 611.

Same — To cancel instrument — Notwithstanding remedy at
law.— See 5 L. N. S. 1048.

Same — Same — On ground of. — See 5 L>. N. S. 1036.

Same — To cancel insurance policy for fraud and enjoining
action at law thereon. — See 12 L. N. S. 881.

Knowledge and intent — As to generally, see 14 Encyc. L. 85-
106.

■Knowledge of defendant. — See 23 Cent. Dig. col. 1650, § 4.

Life insurance, when amounts to against creditors. — See 29 A.
S. 360.

Limitations— ^On right to rescind fraudulent contract. — See
1 A. C. 910.

Same — Statute of, when prevented from operating by. — See
60 A. D. 511.

Materiality of facts represented or concealed. — See 23 Cent.
Dig. col. 1687, § 16; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1261, § 18; 14 Encyc. L. 59-62.

Measure of damages for — As to, generally, see 7 A. C. 276; S
A. C. 1057.

Misrepresentation by vendor as to price paid for property, as
actionable deceit. — See 8 A. C. 1062.

Part performance, payment is not. — See 27 A. D. 745.

Parties to actions for. — See 8 Encyc. P. 896.

Performance of executory contract for sale of personal prop-
erty after discovery of fraud, as affecting right of action for
damages. — See 7 A. C. 280.

Persons entitled to relief or redress for. — See 14 Encyc. L.
148-152.

Persons entitled to sue. — See 23 Cent. Dig. col. 1720, §25; 9
Decen. Dig. p. 1279, § 29.

Persons responsible for. — See 14 Encyc. L. 152-155.

Pleadings and proof in actions for. — See 8 Encyc. P. 897-913.

Power of equity to take jurisdiction of suit to cancel insur-
ance policy for fraud. — See 12 L. N. S. 881.

Presumptions and burden of proof as to fraud in action for.
—See 1 A. C. 809.

Proof of— And presumption as to. — See "Evidence in action
for," this note.

Same — What sufficient. — See 65 A. D. 157.
Kerr's C. C. — 30 929



§1709



CIVIL. CODE. [Div.ITI



Question of law and fact— As to, generally, see 1 A. C. 443; 7
A. C. 276; 14 Encyc. L. 205.

Same — Fraud as a. — See 1 A. C. 446.

Recriminatory, as a defense. — See 3 A. S. 727.

Reliance on representations — As to, generally, see 23 Cent.
Dig. col. 1690, §§17-23; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1262, §§19-23.

Relief to party defrauded by fradulent scheme, although he
went into it with the intention of defrauding others. — See 5
L. N. S. 906.

Remfc.3-''-« for — As to, generally, see 1 A. C. 906; 3 A. C. 608;
5 A. C. 363; 7 A. C. 276; 8 Encyc. P. 884-893.

Same — Election of, necessity and effect. — See 8 Encyc. P. 894.

Same — Injunction against proceedings in court of law in case
of fraud, accident or mistake. — See 5 A. C. 727.

Same — Jurisdiction of equity, where adequate remedy at law
exists. — See 3 A. C. 611.

Same — Limitations on right to rescind fraudulent contract. —
See 1 A. C. 910.

Same — Necessity of returning or tendering contracts vipon
repudiation or release of damages for personal injuries, pro-
cured by fraud. — See 10 A. C. 739.

Same — Performance of executory contract for sale of property
after discovery of fraud as affecting right of action for damages.
—See 7 A. C. 280.

Replevin by seller of property from fraudulent purchaser. — See
1 L. N. S. 474.

Responsibility for another's fraud — As to, generally, see 19 L.
331; 21 L. 471; 28 L. 104; 28 L. 421; 51 L. 479.

Return or tendering contracts, necessary upon repudiation of
release of damages for personal injuries procured by fraud. — See
10 A. C. 739.

Right — Of one partner of dissolved firm to maintain an action
at law against another for fraud practiced on dissolution with
respect to assets. — See 6 L. N. S. 263.

Same — Of party to a fraudulent or illegal transaction. — See
34 A. D. 735.

Same — Resulting from sale of trade-mark as affected by fraud.
—See 1 L. N. S. 723.

Same — To question judgment of court of sister state upon
ground that defendant was induced by fraud to go within its
jurisdiction. — See 12 L. N. S. 941.

Same — ^To rely upon representations made — As to, generally,
see 37 L. 593-615; 14 Encyc. L. 115-134.

Set-off or defense based on. — See 21 L. 324; 23 L. 338; 23 L.
491; 50 L. 508.

Silence and concealment when duty to speak and disclose. —
See 23 Cent. Dig. coL 1580, §15; 9 Decen. Dig. p. 1259, §§15-17;

930



pt. III.] WHAT IS DECEIT. § 1710

14 Encye. L. 66-84; 1 L. 742; 2 L. 799; 4 L. 159; 5 L. 428; 7 L. 826;
26 L. 430.

Statements recklessly made. — See 23 Cent. Dig. col. 1653, § 5.

Statute of frauds — As affecting right to equitable relief
against one who has purchased land in his own name, in viola-
tion of his agreement to purchase for and in the name of
another. — See 5 L. N. S. 112.

Stockholder's subscriptions as affected by. — See 3 A. S. 824.

Unfair competition — Necessity of fraudulent intent to justify
injunction against. — See 4 L. N. S. 960.

Waiver of fraud — As to, generally, see 4 L. 158; 67 L. 705.

Same — Right of action for. — See 4 L. 158; 67 L. 705.



§ 1710. DECEIT, WHAT. A deceit, within the meaning
of the last section, is either:

1. The suggestion, as a fact, of that which is not true, by
one who does not believe it to be true;

2. The assertion, as a fact, of that which is not true, by
one who has no reasonable ground for believing it to be
true ;

3. The suppression of a fact, by one who is bound to dis-
close it, or who gives information of other facts which are
likely to mislead for want of communication of that fact; or,

4. A promise, made without any intention of performing it.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 22 pars, annotation.

65 C. 326, 327, 4 p! 33 (fraudulent promise is actionable); 76
C. 192, 193, 18 P. 318, 319 (referred to with other sections); 77 C.
22, 26, 18 P. 791, 793 (applied with other sections); 79 C. 234,
236, 238, 21 P. 736, 737 (applied); 81 C. 1, 6, 22 P. 515, 516, 6 L. 219
(applied); 82 C. 77, 82, 22 P. 979, 980 (applied); 96 C. 433, 439,
440, 31 P. 358, 360 (applied with other sections); 99 C. 179, 186,
33 P. 859, 862 (applied); 136 C. 26, 27, 28, 68 P. 321 (applied with
other sections).

As to admissibility of parol proof of belief, intent, and reli-
ance of parties, see 53 L. 769.

As to representations which are deceitful and fraudulent, see
Kerr's Cyc. C. C. §§ 172, 173, 174 and notes thereto.

Actionable deceit — Mere silence, — as to, see discussion and
collection of authorities in note 1 L. 742, and brief 61 L. 305.

But mere expression of opinion and promise for future per-
formance, and statement of facts relating to future, as to, see
brief 56 L. 940.

931



§§ 1711-1714 CIVIL CODE. [Div.TII.

§ 1711. DECEIT UPON THE PUBLIC, ETC. One who prac-
tises a deceit with intent to defraud the public, or a particular
class of persons, is deemed to have intended to defraud every
individual in that class, who is actually misled by the deceit.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§1712. KESK.'RATION OF THING WRONGFULLY AC-
QUIRED. One who obtains a thing without the consent of
its owner, or by a consent afterwards rescinded, or by an
unlawful exaction which the owner could not at the time
prudently refuse, must restore it to the person from whom
it was thus obtained, unless he has acquired a title thereto
superior to that of such other person, or unless the transac-
tion was corrupt and unlawful on both sides.
History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§ 1713. WHEN DEMAJfD NECESSARY. The restoration
required by the last section must be made without demand,
except where a thing is obtained by mutual mistake, in
which case the party obtaining the thing is not bound to
return it until he has notice of the mistake.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

§1714. RESPONSIBILITY FOR WILFUL ACTS, NEGLI-
GENCE, ETC. Every one is responsible, not only for the
result of his wilful acts, but also for an injury occasioned
to another by his want of ordinary care or skill in the man-
agement of his property or person, except so far as the latter
has, wilfully or by want of ordinary care, brought the injury
upon himself. The extent of liability in such cases is defined
by the title on compensatory relief.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 246 pars, annotation.

66 C. 579, 586, 56 A. R. 119, 6 P. 637 (applied); 68 C. 455, 459,
9 P. 843, 845 (applied); 95 C. 279, 291, 30 P. 529, 531 (construed
and applied); 118 C. 315, 321, 324, 62 A. S. 238, 50 P. 373 (applied



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