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Discretion of trustee, control of by courts of equity. — See 6
A. S. 885.

Dissolution and termination of trusts, and decrees declaring.
—See 100 A. S. 101.

Donee of power to appoint, who may be appointed trustee by.
—See 4 A. C. 405.

Duties and liabilities of trustee.^ — See "Trustees — Duties of,"
and some "Powers, duties and liabilities of," this note.

Enforcing trusts — Effect of executor's promise as to payment
of legacy upon trust relation with legatee. — See 9 L. N. S. 214.

Same — Laches as a bar to enforcement of trust as against one
who knowingly purchased trust property in violation of the
terms of an express trust. — See 7 L. N. S. 370.

Same — Removal, because of separable controversy of actions
relating to trusts. — See 5 L. N. S. 87.

Same — Right of one whose interest is merely contingent, to
maintain suit to establish or enforce a trust. — See 7 L. N. S.
999.

Equitable enforcement of trust in case of land, as affected
by statute of frauds. — See 5 L. N. S. 112.

Establishment and enforcement of voluntary trusts in equity.
— See 34 A. S. 194.

Evidence contradicting recital of payment in the considera-
tion clause of deeds, whether admissible to prove trusts in
favor of grantors.— See 90 A. D. 270.

Ex maleficio trustees — As affected by statute of frauds. — See
11 L. 381.

Same — Devisees, heirs and legatees, when hold as. — See
106 A. S. 94.

Same- — Embracing devise or bequest within trust to prevent
fraud on testatory. — See 2 L. 662.

Same — Gift by consent as affected by promise to testator or
by secret trust. — See 20 L. 465.

Same — Law of as affecting right to revoke license. — See 49
L. 497.

Same — Rights of heir or distributee as. — See 2 A. C. 556.

Same — When trust arises. — See 11 L. 381.

Express trust — Effect of lapse of time to extinguish.— See
1 L. 328.

Fiduciary relation of trustee and beneficiary. — See 16 A. D.
616.

Following trust — Effect of legal remedy to defeat equit-
able jurisdiction. — See 6 L. N. S. 793.

Foreign coi'poration- — ^Power to act as trustee. — See 24 L. 291.

Foreign surety company, power to act as trustee. — See 48 L.
593.

1160



Tit.VIII,ch.I,art.I.] trusts, trustees. § 2215

"Heirs," necessitj' of word in deed or devise in trust, to pass
fee to trustee.— See 2 L. N. S. 172-183.

Implied trust.— See "Constructive trusts," "Resulting trusts,"
this note.

Same — Arising from renewal of lease. — See 7 A. C. 295.

Same — As arising between legal and equitable title. — See 8
L. 647; 4 W. & P. 3437.

Same — As express trust by statute. — See 4 W. & P. 3436.

Same — Definition of. — See 8 L. 647; 4 W. & P. 3436.

Same Express trusts distinguished. — See 4 W. & P. 3436.

Same — To effectuate purpose of contract when its terms can-
not be given effect. — See 58 L. 115.

Insurable interest of husband, as trustee, in wife's property.
— See 66 L. 659.

Intent, express or implied, to create necessary to. — See 15 A.
S. 531; 6 L. 403; 8 W. & P. 7122.

Investments which trustees may make without becoming
liable for loss. — See 40 A. D. 506.

Judgments against trustees, conclusiveness of upon bene-
ficiaries. — See 34 A. D. 722; 73 A. S. 164.

Laches as a bar to enforcement of a trust as against one
who knowingly purchased trust property in violation of the
terms of an express trust. — See 7 L. N. S. 370.

Lapse of time, effect of to extinguish express trust. — See 1 L.
328.

Lease of trust property, power of trustee to make. — See 2 A.
C. 787.

Legal estate, when vests in beneficiaries under the statute of
uses.^See 78 A. D. 406.

Liens against trust estates in favor of creditors or trustees. —
See 19 A. S. 67.

Life tenant or remainderman, which must bear loss due to
depreciation of securities caused by wearing away of purchase
premiums. — See 10 A. C. 515.

Majority of trustees, when ma5^ act. — See 11 A. D. 674.

Married woman, power of to act as trustee of express trust. —
See 7 A. C. 1082.

Mistake, fraud, undue influenco. etc., as ground for relief from
voluntary trust. — See 19 L. 767.

Mortgage of trust property, power of trustees, as to. — See
1 A. C. 942; 9 A. C. 639, 643; 10 A. C. 249, 255.

Negligence of servants, liability of trustee for. — See 63 L. 227.

Parol, creation of trust in land by. — See 115 A. S. 774.

Parol evidence — To establish resulting trust. — See 10 L. 401.

Same — To establish trust in third person. — See 20 L. 109.

Parol trust — As to generally, see 7 A. C. 1078.

Same — How far within statute of frauds. — See 10 L. 401.

1161



§ 2215 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.Pt.IV.

Particular words necessary to create trust. — See 1 A. R. 34; 8
W. & P. 7122.

Perpetuities, trusts are within the rule against. — See 49 A.
S. 128.

Power distinguished. — See 12 L. ed. 130; 8 W. & P. 7123.

Power of court to increase or diminish number of trustees
appointed by creator of trust. — See 6 A. C. 598.

Powers of trustee. — See "Trustees — Powers of," this note.

Preca+ory trust — Creation of. — See 2 A. C. 591, 593; 44 A. D.
372; 106 A. S. 499.

Same — Definition of. — See 6 W. & P. 5493.

Same — Precatory words to create, effect of. — See 33 A. R.
286; 6 L. 353; 7 L. 394; 7 L. 519; 13 L. 563; 6 W. & P. 5493.

Precatory words to create trust, effect of. — See "Precatory
trusts" this note.

Preference to trust deposit out of funds of insolvent bank. — -
See 1 L. N. S. 252.

Presumption as to trusts between family relatives. — See 2 L.
816.

Principal of trust fund, power of trustees to expend. — See
8 A. C. 1176.

Provisions directing the particular purposes to which property
conveyed to or for benefit of a religious or charitable organiza-
tion shall be devoted as creating a trust. — See 7 L. N. S. 1119;
11 L. N. S. 512, 520.

Purchasers from trustees, as to duty of. — See 4 A. C. 371.

Reclaiming funds of deposited in bank which has become
insolvent. — See 86 A. S. 801.

Removal of trustees, as to. — See 6 A. C. 596.

Resulting trusts — Arising from purchase of lands by agent
in his own name. — See 5 A. C. 255.

Same — By part payment as consideration for realty taken in
name of another. — See 2 A. C. 667.

Same — Definition of and when created. — See 51 A. D. 751.

Same — Establishment by parol evidence. — See 10 L. 401.

Same — How created and what suflficient to constitute. — See
2 L. 146.

Same — Lien or resulting trusts arising from payment of
money for purpose of improving land. — See 9 A. C. 249.

Same — Parol agreement, made with person interested in land,
that promisor will buy the land at judicial sale and hold if
for benefit of promisee, as implied trust enforceable in equity.
— See 5 A. C. 173.

Same — Rules as to, generally, see 2 A. C. 664; 5 A. C. 171;
5 A. C. 253; 5 A. C. 491; 6 A. C. 646; 9 A. C. 248; 1 L. N. S.
312; 4 L. N. S. 435; 5 L. N. S. 395; 5 L. N. S. 1172, 1179, 1193; 6
L. N. S. 381; 7 L. N. S. 1094; 8 L. N. S. 628; 12 L. N. S. 493.

Revocation of deeds of, trustor's power of. — See 20 A. S.
858.

1162



TitVIII.ch.I.art.I.] trusts, trustees. § 2215

Revocation of trust — As to power of. — See 6 A. C. 188; 15 L.
75-80.

Same — Effect upon trust of death of donor without exercising
power of revocation. — See 6 A. C. 189.

Same — Mistake, fraud, undue influence, etc., as ground for
relief from a voluntary trust. — See 19 L. 767.

Right to pursue and recover trust funds. — See 32 A. S. 125.

Rights of creditors — To create trust to pay debts. — See 12 L.
N. S. 369.

Rule in Shelley's case, applicability of to executory trusts. — -
See 2 L. 458.

Sale of trust property — Duty of purchaser from. — See 4 A. C.
371.

Same — Power of trustees to make. — See 3 A. C. 417; 3 A. C.
437; 9 A. C. 287.

Sales — and conveyances by trustees. — See 10 A. S. 266.

Same — Powers of, when vest in trustee by implication. — See
87 A. D. 209.

Same — Under powers in trust deeds to secure money. — See
92 A. S. 573.

Savings bank trusts. — See 1 A. C. 900, 901.

Secret trusts — For charity. — See 24 L. 465.

Same — For masses. — See 25 L. 361.

Servants, torts or negligence of, liability of trustee for. — See
63 L. 227.

Severability of trusts from perpetuities and forbidden trusts.
—See 64 A. S. 634.

Specifying use of real estate in devise to religious society,
effect of as creating a trust. — See 7 L. N. S. 1119; 11 L. N. S.
512, 520.

Spendthrift trusts — Conllict of laws as to validity of. — See 2 L.
N. S. 4 43.

Same^Sufficiency of instrument to create. — See 3 A. C. 1005,
1010.

Same — Validity and effect of. — See 3 A. C. 586, 588; 2 L. 113;
11 L. 565; 13 L. 215.

Spendthrifts — Definition of. — See 7 W. & P. 6609.

Same — Property of, whether may be exempted from execution
and creditors' suits. — See 9 A. S. 405; 24 A. S. 686.

Statute of frauds — As affecting equitable enforcement of
trust in land. — See 5 L. N. S. 112.

Statute of limitations — Application of to termination of trust.
— See 8 L. 480.

Same — When begins to run in favor of trustees. — See 1
L,. 319.

Suflficiency of declaration to establish voluntary trust where
legal title is retained by the settlor. — See 12 L. N. S. 547.

Suits for taxation of property held in trust. — See 2 A. C.
849, 850.

1163



§ 2215 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.IV.

Taxation of trust property, place of. — See 20 L. 151.

Termination of trust— And presumption of conveyance by the
trustee to the beneficiary. — See 58 A. D. 472.

Same — Application of statute of limitations to. — See 8 L. 480.

Same — Effect of lapse of time to extinguish express trust.—
See 1 L. 328.

Same— Power of court to dissolve. — See 18 L. 745.

Same — When statute of limitations begins to run in favor
of trustee. — See 1 K 319.

Testamentary trust for payment of debts, effect of creation
of.— See 5 L. N. S. 355-370.

Torts of servants, liability of trustee for. — See 63 L. 227.

Trust — Fund, right to follow. — See 46 A. S. 608.

Same — In partnership lands. — See 27 L. 468.

Same — In proceeds of collection by insolvent bank. — See 32 I...
715.

Same — In third person — Parol evidence to establish. — See 20
L. 109.

Same — In vessel, admiral jurisdiction of. — See 66 L. 235.

Same — Organization of by use of words "upon condition" in
will or conveyance or real property. — ^See 9 L. N. S. 758.

Same — Priority in assets of insolvent national bank by reason
of trust character of deposit. — See 25 L. 546.

Trust estate — As to generally, see 10 A. C. 511.

Same — Creation of lien on. — See 7 L. 656.

Same — Injunction against execution sale of. — See 30 L. 119.

Same — Insurable interest of husband, as trustee in wife's
property. — See 66 K 659.

Same — Place of taxation of. — See 20 L. 151.

Same — Provision against alienation of interest of cestui que
trust. — See 2 L. 113.

Same — Stock held in trust, duty of corporation as to transfer
of.— See 15 L. 643.

Same — To whom passes on trustee's death. — See 1 L. 334.

Same — Tracing — Following trust moneys paid without notice
of trust. — See 2 L. 482.

Same — Same — Funds in hands of third persons, when sub-
ject to obligations of trusts. — See 4 L. 746.

Same — Same — General rule as to following trust funds. —
See 7 L. 570.

Same — Same — Lands purchased by trustee subject to trust.
— See 2 L. 481.

Same — Same — Liability for taking deposit of trust funds in
payment of trustee's debt. — See 52 L. 790.

Same — Same — Mingling of trust funds. — See 2 L. 480; 8 L.
788.

Same — Same — Property converted by trustee continues sub-
ject to trust. — See 2 L. 480.

1164



Tit.VIII,ch.I,art.I.] TRUSTS, trustees. § 2215

Same — Where trustee sales are to be made. — See 39 L. 96.

Same — Whether life tenant or remainderman must bear loss
due to depreciation of securities caused by wearing away of
purchase premiums.- — See 10 A. C. 515.

Trustee ex maleficio, right of heir or distributee as, for
failure to perform oral promise which prevented making of will.
— See 2 A. C. 556; also "Ex maleficio trustee," this note.

Trustees — As to, generally, see 16 L. 719; 31 L. 642; 35 L.
678; 59 L. 385.

Same — As to who may be. — See 7 A. C. 1078; 8 A. C. 1176.

Same — Accounting of. — See 8 A. C. 1176.

Same — Appointment of, generally, see 4 A. C. 404; 6 A. C. 596.

Same — Care demanded of, to sell real estate. — See 3 L. N.
S. 415.

Same — Cestui que trust, rights of. — See 7 A. C. 551, 553; 7
A. C. 1078; 8 A. C. 917.

Same— Dealings with trust of cestui que trusts — As to,
generally, see 5 L. 166: 6 L. 369; 9 L. 792; 13 L. 491; 37 L. 613.

Same — Same — Fiduciary relations as affecting reliance on
fraudulent statement. — See 37 L. 613.

Same — Same — Purchase of objects of trust, by trustee— Effect
of.— See 13 L. 492.

Same — Same — Same — Relative from svich purchase. — See 9 L.
792; 13 L. 493.

Same — Same — Purchase by trustee inures to cestui que
trust. — See 9 L. 793.

Same — Same — ^Right to profit by trust estate. — See 9 L. 794.

Same — Same — Right to purchase it on sale. — See 5 L. 166;
6 L. 369; 9 L. 792; 13 L. 491.

Same — Duties of. — See 8 A. C. 1176.

Same — Effect of acknowledgment of deed of triist by. — See
16 L. 719.

Same — Equitable control of discretion vested in.— See 8 L. N.
S. 398.

Same — Ex maleficio. — See "Ex maleficio trustee," this note.

Same — Exoneration of by thefts, robbery, casualty, failure of
brokers and solicitors, defaults of agents, etc. — See 75 A. D.
799.

Same — Injunctive relief affecting church trustees. — See 3 L.
N. S. 860.

Same — Power of — Corporation to act as of charitable trust.
—See 8 A. C. 1181.

Same — Same- — Court to change number of designated in trust
instrument. — See 1 L. N. S. 802.

Same — Same — Court to increase or diminish number of
trustees appointed by creator of trust. — See 6 A. C. 598.

Same — Same— Married woman to act as of express trust. — See
10 A. C. 782.

1165



§ 2215 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III.PtlV.

Same — Same — Of joint trustees. — See 4 A. C. 952; 6 A. C. 596.

Same — Same — To convej' trust property without consent of
co-trustees. — See 4 A. C. 953.

Same — Same — To expend principal of trust fund.- — See 8 A. C.
1178.

Same — Same — To lease trust property. — See 2 A. C. 787.

Same — Same — To sell trust property. — See 3 A. C. 417; 3 A. C.
437; 9 A. C. 289.

Same— -"^a me — To mortgage trust estate for purpose of
making improvements so as to render it productive. — See 7
L. N. S. 263.

Same — Same — To mortgage trust property. — See 1 A. C. 940,
942; 9 A. C. 639, 643; 10 A. C. 249, 255.

Same — Powers, duties and liabilities of — Account of. — See 7
L. 570; 27 L. 821.

Same — Same — Contingency of claim against sureties on bond
of.— See 58 L. 86.

Same- — Same — Discretion of. — See 13 L. 212.

Same — Same- — Enforcement by. — See 9 L. 279.

Sanie — Same — Joint liability of trustees. — See 4 L. 529.

Same — Same — Joint receipt by trustees, effect of. — See 4 L.
529.

Same — Same — Liability of, for compound interest. — See 29 L.
622.

Same — Same— Same — For loss by bank failure. — See 14 L. 113.

Same — Same — Liability of — Of partnership for fraud with
respect to trust funds. — See 51 L. 486.

Same — Same — Same — For torts or negligence of servants. —
See 63 L. 227-234.

Same — Same — Liability of infant as. — See 57 L. 688.

Same — Same — Right to set-off in bankruptcy cases, claims
held in trust. — See 55 L. 46.

Same — Same — Stated account of. — See 27 L. 821.

Same — Purchasers from. — See 4 A. C. 371.

Same — Removal of. — See 6 A. C. 596.

Same — Right to enjoin an unlawful sale of church property
by. — See 2 L. N. S. 828.

Same — Right to have property wrongfully pledged by a
trustee for his individual benefit redeemed by money belonging
to his insolvent estate. — See 6 L. N. S. 487.

Same — Who are or may be — ^Corporation as. — See 11 L. 715.

Same — Same — Executors and administrators as. — See 1 L. 79,
80; 8 L. 648.

Same — Same — Foreign corporation as. — See 24 L. 291; 48 L.
593.

Same — Same — Foreign surety company as. — See 48 L. 593.

Same — Same — Municipal corporation as, of a charity. — See 14
L. 69; 16 L. 695.

1166



i



i



Tit.VIII,ch.I,art.I.] voluntary trust. §§ 22I6, 2217

Same — "Who may be appointed trustee of donee of power to
appoint. — See 4 A. C. 405.

Trustee's sale, where to be made. — See 33 L. 96.

Unlawful, what combinations constitute. — See 74 A. S. 235.

"Upon condition," creation of trust by use of words, in will
or conveyance of real property. — See 9 L. N. S. 758.

Use distinguished. — See 8 W. & P. 7123.

Uses and trusts — As to, generally, see note § 847, ante.

Same — Statutory regulation of. — See 4 L. 140.

Validity of trust to propagate a particular religious belief as a
charity. — See 6 L. N. S. 320, 321.

Voluntary parol in personal property, how created. — See 51 A.
S. 389.

Voluntary trusts — Arising from the declaration of the
truster. — See 34 A. S. 189.

Same — Mistake, fraud, undue influence, etc., as a ground for
relief from. — See 19 L. 767.

Voting trusts of corporate stock. — See 15 L. 683.

Who may be appointed trustee by donee of power to appoint.
—See 4 A. C. 405.

Words, particular necessary to create. — See 1 A. R. 34; 8 W.
& P. 7122.

§2216. VOLUNTARY TRUST, WHAT. A voluntary trust
is an obligation arising out of a personal confidence reposed
in, and voluntarily accepted by, one for the benefit of another.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 23 pars, annotation.

85 C. 436, 445, 25 P. 22, 24 (construed with other sections);
95 C. 63, 74 (applied, but erroneously cited as § 2216 C. C. P.),
30 P. 301, 303 (correct citation): 144 C. 314, 317, 77 P. 942 (cited
and construed with other sections; language quoted in full, but
no credit given to section of code).

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 2215 and note.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to trusts and trustees,
see note § 2215, ante.

As to trust arising from undue influence, etc., see Kerr's Cyc.
C. C. § 2224 and note.

§2217. INVOLUNTARY TRUST, WHAT. An involuntary
trust is one which is created by operation of law.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 54 pars, annotation.
76 C. 469. 471, 9 A. S. 242. 18 P. 429, 430 (construed with
§ 2224); 85 C. 436, 445, 25 P. 22, 24 (effect of code as to trust in

1167



§§ 2218, 2219 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.IV.

relation to personal propertj', created before its adoption); 99
C. 587, 590, 34 P. 331 (construed and applied).

As to constructive or resulting trusts in favor of party paying
purchase money, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 853 and note.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to trusts and trustees,
see note § 2215, ante.

As to trusts by operation of law, see Kerr's Cyc. C. C. § 852
note pars. 264-411.

§ 2218. PARTIES TO THE CONTRACT. The person whose
confidence creates a trust is called the truster; the person
in whom the confidence is reposed is called the trustee; and
the person for whose benefit the trust is created is called the
beneficiary.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 5 pars, annotation.

82 C. 351, 374, 16 A. S. 137, 23 P. 16, 20 (cited); 85 C. 436, 445,
25 P. 22, 24 (effect of code as to trust in relation to personal
property, created before its adoption).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to trusts and trustees,
see note § 2215, ante.

§ 2219. WHAT CONSTITUTES ONE A TRUSTEE. Every
one who voluntarily assumes a relation of personal confidence
with another is deemed a trustee, within the meaning of this
chapter, not only as to the person who reposes such confi-
dence, but also as to all persons of whose affairs he thus
acquires information which was given to such person in the
like confidence, or over whose affairs he, by such confidence,
obtains any control.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 37 pars, annotation.

72 C. 556, 559, 1 A. S. 84, 14 P. 306 (construed and applied
with other sections); 82 C. 351, 373, 16 A. S. 137, 23 P. 16, 20
(construed and applied with other sections); 85 C. 436, 445, 446,
25 P. 22, 24 (construed and applied with other sections); 120
C. 322, 323, 49 P. 129, 52 P. 723 (construed and aplpied with
other sections); 120 C. 668, 678, 53 P. 304 (construed and
applied); 125 C. 227, 230 (construed and applied but erroneously
cited as § 2290), 57 P. 894, 895 (correct citation); 125 C. 674, 675,
683, 58 P. 271 (construed and applied); 130 C. 352, 357, 62 P. 555;
133 C. 489, 493, 65 P. 1044 (construed and applied with otiier

1168



Tit.VIII,ch.I,art.I.] PURPOSES. §§ 2220, 2221

sections): 141 C. 56, 57, 61, 74 P. 433 (construed and applied);
142 C. 59, 69, 75 P. 649 (construed and applied with other
sections); 49 P. 129, 130 (construed and applied); 2 C. A. 479, 483,
84 P. 326 (applied to fiduciary relation in which husband stood
toward his wife).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to trusts and trustees,
see note § 2215, ante.

§2220. FOR >VHAT PURPOSE A TRUST MAY BE CRE-
ATED. A trust may be created for any purpose for which a
contract may lawfully be made, except as otherwise prescribed
by the titles on uses and trusts and on transfers.

History: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 9 pars, annotation.

58 C. 457, 482, 483 (construed and applied); 70 C. 449, 458
(applied but erroneously cited as § 2320), 11 P. 659, 661 (correct
citation); 71 C. 513, 532, 12 P. 570 (construed and applied); 85 C.
436, 446, 25 P. 22, 24 (effect of code as to trust in relation to
personal 'property, created before its adoption); 108 C. 627,
656, 49 A. S. 97, 41 P. 772 (construed and applied with other
sections); 123 C. 140, 144, 55 P. 681 (construed and applied).

As to many miscellaneous matters as to trusts and trustees,
see note § 2215, ante.

§2221. VOLTNTARY TRUST, HOW CREATED AS TO
TRUSTER. Subject to the provisions of section eight hun-
dred and fifty-two, a voluntary trust is created, as to the
truster and beneficiary, by any words or acts of the truster,
indicating with reasonable certainty:

1. An intention on the part of the truster to create a trust;
and,

2. The subject, purpose, and beneficiary of the trust.

HKstory: Enacted March 21, 1872.

See Kerr's Cyc. C. C. for 67 pars, annotation.

58 C. 457, 466, 483 (construed and applied with otlier sections);
70 C. 449, 452, 11 P. 659, 661 (construed and applied with other
sections); 79 C. 613, 625, 22 P. 50, 53 (construed and applied
with §2222); 85 C. 436, 446, 25 P. 22, 24 (effect of code as to
trust in relation to personal property, created before its adop-
tion); 95 C. 160, 167, 27 P. 160, 161, 30 P. 196 (construed and
applied with §2222); 106 C. 651, 655, 40 P. 8 (trust creating no
beneficiary is radically defective): 108 C. 627, 656, 49 A. S. 97,

1169



§ 2222 CIVIL CODE. [Div.III,Pt.IV.

41 P. 772 (construed and applied with otlier sections); 112
C. 279, 284, 44 P. 565 (construed and applied with §852); 122

C. 19, 25, 54 P. 370 (construed and applied); 124 C. 418, 421, 57
P. 219 (construed and applied with §§852, 857); 126 C. 189, 191,
58 P. 543 (construed and applied with other sections) ; 132 C.
21, 27, 63 P. 1071 (what circumstances do not show express
trust); 135 C. 361, 367, 67 P. 333 (construed and applied with
§2222); 136 C. 92, 96, 68 P. 482 (construed and applied with
other sections); 144 C. 314, 318, 77 P. 942 (construed and
applied); 40 P. 954 (construed and applied with §2222); 127 U.
S. 300, 311, 312, 32 L. ed. 138, 143 (is merely declaratory of
pre-existing law).

As to effect of depositing money in bank in trust for tlTird
person, see 32 L. 373.

As to many miscellaneous matters as to trusts and trustees,
see note § 2215, ante.

As to voluntary parol trust in personal property, see 51 A.

D. 756; 51 A. S. 389.

As to voluntary trusts arising from declaration of the truster,
see 34 A. S. 189.

As to when beneficiaries must be designated in trust, see 61



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