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UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



*>



SCHOOL OF LAW
LIBRARY



Owartment of PuWic ^"_^!^JL.




I



THE



POLITICAL CODE



'?',/cJryv.a' LuoS^imfoh^j&Tc.



n
/

THE



POLITICAL CODE



STATE OF CALIFORNIA.



AS ENACTED IN 1872, AND AMENDED UP TO AND
INCLUDING 1897.



BY

JAMES H. DEERING,

Of the San Francisco Bar.



SAN FRANCISCO:

BANCROFT-WHITNEY CO

Law Publishers and Law Booksellers.
1897.



C3^

Copyright 1897,
Br BANCROFT-WHITNEY CO.



San Francisco:

The Fii.mer-Rollins Electrotype CoisrPANT,

Typographers and Stereotypers.



ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENTS.



PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS, §§ 2-20.

PART I.

OF THE SOVEREIGNTY AND PEOPLE OF
THE STATE, Etc., §§ 30-60.

PART II.

POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF THE STATE, §§ 75-
203.

PART III.

GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE, §§ 220-3900.

PART IV.

GOVERNMENT OF COUNTIES, Etc., §§ 3901-
4457.

PART V.

SOURCES OF LAW AND EFFECT OF CODES,
§§ 4466-4505.

ADDENDA.

GENERAL LAWS ON SUBJECTS EMBRACED
IN THE POLITICAL CODE.



(V)



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS.



PART I.

OF THE SOVEREIGNTY AND PEOPLE OF
THE STATE, AND OF THE POLITICAL
RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF ALL PERSONS
SUBJECT TO ITS JURISDICTION, §§ 30-60.

Sovereignty of tlie State, Title i, §§ 30-44.
Residence of sovereignty, chap, i, § 30.
Territorial jurisdiction of the State, chap, ii,

§§ 33-34.
General rights of the State over persons, chap.

iii, § 37.
General rights of the State over property,
chap, iv, §§ 40-44.
Persons Composing the People of the State, Title

ii, §§ 50-52.
Political Rights and Duties of all Persons Subject
to the Jurisdiction of the State, Title iii,
§§ 54-60.



PART II.

OF THE CHIEF POLITICAL DIVISIONS, SEAT
OF GOVERNMENT. AND LEGAL DIS-
TANCES OF THE STATE, §§ 75-203.

Chief Political Divisions of the State, Title i, §§
75-142.
Counties, chap, i, § 75.

Senatorial districts, chap, ii, §§ 78-106. (Su-
perseded.)
Congressional districts, chap, iii, § 117. (Su-
perseded.)
Judicial districts, chap, iv, §§ 125-142. (Re-
pealed.)
Seat of Government, Title ii, § 145.
Legal Distances in the State, Title iii, §§ 150-203.
(vi)



Summary of Contents.



PART III.

OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE, §§
220-3900.

Public Officers, Title i, §§ 220-1032.

Classification of public officers, chap, i, § 220.
Legislative officers, cliap. ii, §§ 225-337.
Executive officers, chap, iii, §§ 341-715.
Judicial officers, chap, iv, § 726.
Salaries of judicial officers, chap, v, §§ 736-

739.
Ministerial and other officers connected with

the Courts, chap, vi, §§ 749-831.
General provisions relative to different classes

of officers, chap, vii, §§ 841-1032.

Of Elections, Title ii, §§ 1041-1365.

General px'ovisions i*elatiug to elections, chap,
i, §§ 1041-1073.

Qualifications and disabilities of electors,
chap, ii, §§ 1083-1084.

Registration of electors, chap, iii, §§ 1094-1117.

Election precincts, chap, iv, §§ 1127-1132.

Boards of election, chap, v, §§ 1142-1150.

Opening and closing the polls, chap, vi, §§ 1160-
1164.

Poll lists, chap, vii, §§ 1174, 1175.

Election ticliets and ballots, chap, viii, §§ 1185-
1191.

Voting and challenges, chap. Ix, §§ 1224-1243.

Canvassing and returning the vote, chap, x,
§§ 1252-1268.

Canvass of returus; declaration of result; com-
missions and certificates of election, chap,
xi, §§ 1278-1297.

Elections for Electors of President and Vice-
President, chap, xii, §§ 1307-1322.

Elections for members of Congress, chap, xiii,
§§ 1332-1347.

Primary elections, chap, xiv, §§ 1357-1365.

Education, Title iii. §§ 1.385-1888.

Univex-sity of California, chap, i, §§ 1385-1477.
State Normal School, cliap. ii, §§ 1487-1507.
Public schools, chap, iii, §§ 1517-1888.



viii Summary of Contents.

State Militia, Title iv, §§ 1895-2117.

Enrolled militia, chap, i, §§ 1895-1902.
National Guard, cliap. ii, §§ 1912-2030.
Calling and drafting the militia into active ser-
vice, chap, iii, §§ 2039-2066.
Courts-martial and of inquiry, chap, iv, §§

2076-2087.
Board of Military Auditors, chap, v, §§ 2093-

2100.
Adjutant General, chap, vi, §§ 2107-2117.
Public Institutions, Title v, §§ 2136-2328.
Insane Asylum, chap, i, §§ 2136-2222.
Deaf. Dumb, and Blind Asylum, chap, ii, §§

2237-2282.
State Library, chap, iii, §§ 2292-2305.
Supreme Court Library, chap, iv, §§ 2313-2316.
Other public institutions, chap, v, §§ 2326-

2328.
Public Ways, Title vi, §§ 2348-2938.

Public waters, chap, i, §§ 2348-2572.

Highways, chap, ii, §§ 2618-2756.

Toll roads, chap, iii, §§ 2779-2832.

Toll bridges and ferries, chap, iv, §§ 2843-2895.

Wharves, chutes, and piers, chap, v, §§ 2906-

2920.
Miscellaneous provisions relating to public

ways, chap, vi, §§ 2931-2938.
General Police of the State, Title vii, §§ 2949-3387.
Immigration, chap, i, §§ 2949-2968.
Preservation of the public health, chap, ii, §§

2978-3063.
Registry of births, marriages, and deaths,

chap, iii, §§ 3074-3083.
Dissection, chap., iv, §§ 3093-3095.
Cemeteries and sepulture, chap, v, §§ 3105-

3111.
Lost and unclaimed property, chap, vi, §§ 3136-

3157.
Marks and brands, chap, vii, §§ 3167-3199.
Weights and measures, chap, viii, §§ 3209-3223.
Labor and materials on public buildings,

chap, ix, §§ 3233-3234.
Hours of labor, chap, x, §§ 3244-3245.
Time. chap, xi, §§ 3255-3260.
Money of account, chap, xii, §§ 3272-3274.
Auctions, chap, xiii, §§ 3284-3324.
Fires and firemen, chap, xiv, §§ 3335-3345.
Licenses, chap, xv, §§ 3356-3387.



Summary of Contents. ix

Property of the State, Title viii, §§ 3395-3597.
The public lands, chap, i, §§ 3395-3574.
The Yosemite Valley and INIariposa Big Tree

Grove, chap, ii, §§ 3584-3586.
The State Burying Ground, chap, iii, §§ 359G-

3597.

Revenue. Title ix, §§ 3607-3900.

Property liable to taxation, chap, i, §§ 3607-

3608.
Definition, chap, ii, § 3617.
Assessment of property, chap, iii, §§ 3627-3665.
Equalization of taxes, chap, iv, §§ 3672-3705.
Levy of taxes, chap, v, §§ 3713-3719.
Duties of Auditor in relation to revenue, chap.

vi, §§ 3727-3738.
Collection of property taxes, chap, vii, §§ 3746-

3816.
Collection of taxes by the Assessor on certain

personal property, chap, viii, §§ 3820-3830.
Poll taxes, chap, ix, §§ 3839-3862.
Settlements with the Controller and payments

into the State Treasury, chap, x, §§ 3865-

3880.

Miscellaneous provisions, chap, xi, §§ 3881-3900.



PART IV.

OF THE GOVERNMENT OF COUNTIES,
CITIES, AND TOWNS, §§ 3901-4457.

Of Counties, Title i, §§ 3901-3985.

County boundaries and county seats, cliap. i,

§§ 3901-3958.
General provisions relating to counties, chap.

ii, §§ 3969-3985.
The Government of Counties, Title ii, §§ 4000-4347.
Counties as bodies corporate, chap, i, §§ 4000-

4007.
The Board of Supervisors, chap, ii, §§ 4022-

4087.
County officers, chap, iii, §§ 4101-4316.
Salaries and fees of office, chap, iv, §§ 4328-

4333.
Other county charges, chap, v, §§ 4343-4347.



X Summary of Contents.

The Government of Cities, Title iii. §§ 4354-4449.
Cities as bodies corporate, chap. i. §§ 4354-4374.
Executive powers, chap, ii, §§ 4385-4393.
Legislative powers, chap, iii, §§ 4403-4414.
Judicial powers, chap, iv, §§ 4424-4432.
Certain statutes relating to cities and towns

and existing corporations continued, chap.

V, § 4442.
Funding and refunding of city indebtedness,

chap, vi, §§ 4445-4449.
Liability of Counties and Cities for Injury to

Property by Mobs or Riots, Title iv, §§

4452-4457.



PART V.

OF THE DEFINITION AND SOURCES OF

LAW— EFFECT AND PUBLICATION OF

THE CODES, AND THE EXPRESS RE-
PEAL OF STATUTES, §§ 4466-4505.

Definition and Sources of the Law, Title i, §§

4466-4468.
Effect of the Codes. Title ii. §§ 4478-4484.
Publication of the Codes, Title iii, § 4494.
Express Repeal of Statutes, Title iv, §§ 4504-

4505.



APPENDIX.



PEELIMINARY PROVISIONS.



THE POLITICAL CODE



STATE OF CALIFORNIA.



AN ACT

TO ESTABLISH A POLITICAL CODE.

[Approved March 12, 1872.]



Tlie People of the State of California, repre-
sented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as fol-
lows :

TITLE OF THE ACT.

S 1. This Act shall he known as The Political
Code of the State of California, and is divided in-
to five Parts, as follows:

Part I. Of the Sovereignty and People of the
State, and of the Political Rights and
Duties of all Persons subject to its Ju-
risdiction.
TI. Of the chief Political Divisions. Seat of
Government, and Legal Distances of
the State.

III. Of the Government of the State.

IV. Of the Government of Counties, Cities

and Towns.

V. Of the Definition and Sources of Law; the

Common Law; the Publication and Ef-
fect of tlie Codes; and the Express Re-
peal of Statutes.
Mode of citing: Sec. 20.
Pol. Code— 1. (1)



THE POLITICAL CODE



STATE OF CALIFORNIA.



PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS.

§ 2. When Code takes effect.

§ 3. Not retroactive.

§ 4. Construction of the Political Code.

§ 5. Provisions similar to existing laws, hovr construed.

§ 6. Tenure of offices preserved.

§ 7. Construction of repeal as to certain offices.

S 8. ."ictions, etc., not affected by this Code.

§ 9. Limitations shall continue to run.

§ 10. Holidays,

i 11. Same.

§ 12. Computation of time.

§ 13. Certain acts not to be done on holidays.

§ 14. Seal defined.

§ 15. Joint authority.

§ 16. Words and phrases.

§ 17. Certain terms used in this Code defined.

§ 18. Statutes, laws or rules inconsistpnt with Code re-
pealed.

§ 19. Certain statutes preserved.

§ 20. This Act, how cited, etc.

S 2. This Code takes effect at twelve o'clock,
noon, of the first day of January, eighteen hundred
and seventy-three.

Same provision — in § 2 of the other Codes.

Existinu enactments — and proceediucs, how af-
fected, §§ 8, 18.

Effect of the Codes-=-§§ 447S-4484. and see sees.
3-19 inclusive.

Publication of the Codes— § 4494.

Operation of statutes— §§ 323-330.

Promuluatiou of statutes— §§ 318, 52G-52S.

^2^



3 Prelimiuary Provisions. §§ 3, 4

§. 3. No part of it is retroactive, unless ex-
pressly so declared.
Saiiie provision — by § 3 of the other Codes.
Accrued rights— not affected, §§ 8-18.
Impairing vested rights: See sec. 8, post.

§ 4. The rule of the common law, that statutes
in derogation thereof are to be strictly construed,
has no application to this Code. The Code estab-
lishes the law of this State respecting the sub-
jects to which it relates, and its provisions and all
proceedings under it are to be liberally construed,
with a view to effect its objects and to promote
justice.

Similar provision — by sec. 4 of the other Codes.
Construction of Statutes:

Amendments— Sees. 325, 330; see Const. Cal..
art. 18, sec. 1.

Codes— construction of, sees. 4478, 4480.

Common law— statutes in derogation of, see
see. 4.

Conflicting enactments: See sees. 4480-4484; also
sees. 4478-4479.

Contemporaneous exposition— best aid to con-
struction: Civ. Code, sec. 3535.

Declaring what is written: See Code Civ. Proc,
sec. 1858.

p]ffect to all portions— should be given: See Code
Civ. Proc, sec. 1858; Civil Code, sec. 3541.

Enacting clause — of statutes: Const. Cal., sec. 1,
art. 4.

Intention of Legislature— is guide: See Code
Civ. Proc, sec. 1859.

.Judicial interpretation: See Code Civ. Proc,
sec. 1858.

Mandatory provisions— of Const. Cal. 1879: See
same, art. 1, sec. 22.

Natural right— preferred : See Code Civ. Proc,
sec 1866.

Particular provision — or intent controls general:
Code Civ. Proc, sec. 1859; Civil Code, sec. 3534.

Political Code— Construction of: Sees. 3-5, 8, 18.
and generally, sees. 1-20.

Reasonable interpretation— required: See Civil
Code, § 3542.

Itules — of construction and interpretation: See
Code Civ. Proc. sees. 1858, 1859, 1866.

Words— and phrases: See sees. 15, 16, 17.



S§ 5-9 Preliminary Provisions. 4

§ 5. Tlie provisions of this Code, so far as ihey
are substantially the same as existing statutes,
must be construed as continuations thereof, and
not as new enactments.

Similar provision: Sec. 5 of the other Codes.

§ 6. All persons who, at the time this Code
talces effect, hold office under any of the acts re-
pealed, continue to hold the same according to the
tenure thereof, except those officers which are not
continued by one of the Codes adopted at this
session of the Legislature, and excepting offices
filled by appointment. [Amendment approved
March 30: Amendments 1873-4, p. 3. In efCeci
July 6, 1874.]

Similar provision— in Code Civ. Proc: Sec. C.
Offices not continued— by Codes: see sec. 7.

§ 7. When any office is abolished by the repeal
of any act, and such act Is not in substance re
enacted or continued in either of the four Codes,
such office ceases at the time the Codes take ef-
fect.

Same provision— in Code Civ. Proc: Sec. 7.

Repeals by implication: See sec. 18, post.

§ 8. No action or proceeding commenced before
this Code talies effect, and no right accrued, is af-
fected by its provisions, but the proceedings there-
in must conform to the requirements of this Code
as far as applicable.

Similar provisions— in Civ. Code: Sec. 6; Code
Civ. Proc, sec. 8; Penal Code, sec. 6.

§ 9. When a limitation or period of time pre-
scribed in any existing statute for acquiring a right
or barring a remedy, or for any other purpose, has
begun to run before this Code goes into effect,
and the same or any limitation is prescribed in
this Code, the time which has already run
shall be deemed part of the time prescribed as
such limitation by this Code. [Amendment ap-
proved Marcli 24, 1874; Amendments 1873-4, p.
279. In effect July 1, 1874.]



5 Prellmiuary Provisions. §§ 10-12

Same provision— in Code Civ. Proc: Sec. 9.
Limitations of civil actions: See Code Civ. Proc,
sees. 312-303.

§ 10. Holidays, within tlie meaning of this
Code, are every Sunday, the first day of January,
the twenty-second day of February, the thirtieth
day of May, the fourth day of July, the ninth day
of September, the first Monday in September, tlie
twenty-fifth day of December, every day on which
an election is held throughout the State, and every
day appointed by the President of the United
States, or by the Governor of this State, for a pub-
lic fast, thanlisgiving, or holiday. If the first day
of January, the twenty-second day of Februai-y,
the thirtieth day of May, the fourth day of July,
the ninth day of September, or the twenty-fifth
day of December fall upon a Sundas', the Monday
foUoAving is a holiday. [Amendment approved
February 23, 1897; Amendments 1897, chap. xvi.
In effect immediately.]

Also amended in 1893: Stats. 1893, p. 187.

Similar provisions— in Civ. Code: Sec. 7, and
Code Civ. Proc, sec 10.

§ 11. If the first day of January, the twenty-
second day of February, the fourth day of July,
or the twenty-fifth day of December, fall upon a
Sunday, the Monday following is a holiday.
[Approved March 30; Amendments 1873-4, p. 2. In
efllect July 6, 1874.]

Similar provisions— in Civ. Code: Sees. 7, 8, and
Code Civ. Proc, sees. 10, 11.

Holidays, Avhen counted: See sec. 13.

§ 12. The time in which any act provided by
law is to be done is computed by excluding th<'
first day, and including the last, unless the last
day is a holiday, and then it is also excluded.

Same provision— in Civ. Code: Sec. 10, and Code
T'iv. Proc, sec 12.

Time, how computed, and year, weel<, and day
defined: See post, sees. 3255 et seq.



§S 13-lG Preliminary Provisions. G

§ 13. Wlienever any act of a secular nature,
otlier than a vrovk. of necessity or mercy, is ap-
pointed by law or contract to be performed upon
a particular day, -svliicli day falls upon a holiday,
such act may be performed upon the next business
day with the same effect as if it had been perform-
ed upon the day appointed.

Same provision— in Civ. Code: Sec. 11, and Code
Civ. Proc.° sec. 13.

§ 14. When the seal of a court, public officer or
person is required by law to be affixed to any pa-
per, the word "seal" includes an impression ot
such seal upon the paper alone as well as upon
wax or a wafer affixed thereto.

Same provision— in Code Civ. Proc: Sec. 14.

Private writings- seals for: See Code Civ. Proc.
sees. 1920-1934.

Abolition of distinction— between sealed and un-
sealed instruments: See Civ. Code, sec. 1G29; Code
Civ. Proc, sec 1932.

Impression of seal — sufficient: See Civ. Code, sec.
1628.

Seals other than official are abolished bv the Civ.
Code: Sec. 1629.

Seals of courts: See Code Civ. Proc, sees. 147-
153.

§ 15. Words giving a joint authority to three or
more public officers, or other persons, are con-
strued as giving such authority to a majority of
them, unless it is otherwise expressed in the' act
giving the authority.

Same provision — in Civ. Code: Sec. 12; Code Civ.
Proc, sec. 15.

§ 16. Words and phrases are construed accord-
ing to the context and the approved usage of the
language: but technical words and phrases, and
such others as have acquired a peculiar and ap-
propriate meaning in law. or are defined in the suc-
ceeding section, ai"e to be construed according to
such peculiar and appropriate meaning or detiui
tion.

Same provision— in Civ. Code: Sec. 13, and Code
Civ. Proc. sec. 16.

Words of a contract— how interpreted: See Civil
Code. see. 1644.



7 Preliminary Proyisious. § 17

Terms of a writing— liow construed: See Code
Civ. Proc, see. 1861.
Technical words: See Civil Code, sec. 1645.

§ 17. Words iised in tliis Code in the present
tense include the future as well as the present;
words used in the masculine gender include the
feminine and neuter; the singular number includes
the plural, and the plural the singular; the word
"person" includes a corporation as well as a nat-
ural person; writing includes printing; oath in
eludes affirmation or declaration; every mode of
oral statement under oath or atflrmatiou is em-
braced by the term "testify," and every written
one in the term "depose;" signature or sulsscription
iucludes mark, when the person cannot write, his
name being written near it, and witnessed by a
person who writes his own name as a witness.
The following words, also, have in this Code the
signification attached to them in this section, un-
less otherwise apparent from the context:

One— The word "property" includes both real and
personal property.

Two— The words "real property" are coexten-
sive with lands, tenements and hereditaments.

Three— The words "personal property" include
money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evi-
dence's of debt.

Four— The word "month" means a calendar
month, unless otherwise expressed.
Five — The word "will" includes codicils.
Six — The word "writ" signifies an order or pre-
cept in writing, issued in the name of the People,
or of a Court or judicial officer; and the word "pro-
cess," a writ or summons issued in the course of
.iudici.nl proceedings.

Seven — ^J'he word "vessel," when used in refer-
ence to shipping, includes ships of all kinds,
steamboats and steamships, canal boats, and every
structure adapted to be navigated from place to
T)lace.

Eiglit— The term "peace officer" signifies any of
the officers mentioned in section eight hundred
and seventeen of the Penal Code.

Nine— The term "magistrate" signifies any one
of the officers mentioned in section eight hundred
and eight of the Penal Code.

Ten— The word "State," when applied to the dif-
ferent parts of the United States, includes the Dis-



§§ IS, 19 Prelim iuaiT Provisions. 8

trict of Columbia and the Territories; and tlie
words "United States" may include the Districa
and Territories. [Approved March 30; Amend-
ments 1S73-4, p. 2. In effect July 6, 1874.]

Similar provisions— in Civ. Code: Sec. 14; Code
Civ. Proc, see. IT; Penal Code, sec. 7.

Words used in boundaries are defined in sections
39u3 to 3907 of this Code.

§ 18. No statute, law, or rule is continued in
force because it is consistent with the provisions
of this Code, on the sahie subject; but in all cases
provided for by this Code all statutes, laws, and
rules heretofore in force in this State, whether
consistent or not with the provisions of this Code,
unless expresslj" continued in force by it, are re-
pealed and abrogated. This repe.al or abrogation
does not revive any former law heretofore repeal-
ed, nor does it affect any right already existing
or accrued, or any action or proceeding already
taken, except as in this Code provided; nor does
it affect any private statute not expressly repealed.

Same provision— in Civ. Code: Sec. 20, and Code
Civ. Proc. sec. 18.

Repealing statutes— and repeals generally: Sees.
327-329, 4504, 4505.

Statutes continued in force: Sec. 19.

The repeal of a repealing act does not revive the
original act: See post, sec. 328.

Vested rights: See sec. 8.

§ 19. Nothing in either of the four Codes af-
fects any of the provisions of the following stat-
tites. but such statutes are recognized as continu-
ing in force, notwithstanding the provisions of the
Codes, except so far as they have been repealed or
affected bv subsequent laws:

1. All acts incorporating or chartering muni-
cipal corporations, and acts amending or supple-
menting sticli acts;

2. All acts consolidating cities and counties, and
acts amending or supplementing such acts;

3. All acts for funding the State debt, or any
part thereof, and for issuing State bonds, and
acts amending or stipplementing such acts:

4. All acts regulating and in relation to rodeos;

5. All acts in relation to Judges of the Plains;



9 Preliminary Provisions. § 19

0. All acts creating or regulating boards of
water commissioners and overseers in the several
townships or counties of the State;

7. All acts in relation to a branch State prison;

8. An act for the more effectual prevention of
cruelty to animals; approved March thirtieth,
eighteen hundred and sixty-eight;

9. An act for the suppression of Chinese houses
of ill-fame, approved INIarch thirty-first, eighteen
liundred and sixty-six;

10. An act relating to the home of the inebriate
of San Francisco, and to prescribe the powers an<l
duties of the board of managers and the officers
thereof, approved April first, eighteen hundred and
seventy;

11. An act concerning marks and brands in the
county of Sisliiyou, approved March twentieth,
eigliteen hundred and sixty-six;

12. An act to prevent the destruction of fish in
the waters of Bolinas Bay, in Marin County, ap-
proved March thirty-first, eighteen hundred and
sixty-six;

13. An act concerning trout in Sislviyou County,
approved April second, eighteen hundred and six-
ty-six;

14. An act to prevent the destruction of fish in
Napa River and Sonoma Creek, approved January
twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight;

15. An act to prevent the destruction of fish and
game in, u])on, and around the waters of Lake
Merritt, or Peralta, in the county of Alameda, ap-
proved IVIarch eighteenth, eighteen hundred and
seventy ;

16. An act to regulate salmon fisheries in Eel
River, in Humboldt County; approved April
eighteenth, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine;

17. An act for the better protection of stock-
raisers in the counties of Fresno, Tulare, Monterey
and Mariposa, approved Marcli twentieth, eighteen
liundred and sixty-six;

18. An act concerning oysters, approved April
twenty-eighth, eighteen hundred and fifty-one;

19. An act concerning oyster beds, approved
April second, eighteen hundred and sixty-six;

20. An act concerning gas companies, approved
April fourth, eighteen hundred and seventy;

21. An act to empower the board of supervisors
of the several counties of the State to aid in the



§ 19 Preliminary Provisious. 10

construction of a I'ailroad in their respective coun-
ties, approved April fourth, eighteen hundred and
seventy;

22. An act supplemental to the act mentioned in
the preceding subdivision, approved April fourth,
eighteen hundred and seventy;

23. All acts in relation to lawful fences, estrays.
and the trespassing of animals upon private prop-
erty;

24. An act for the relief of insolvent debtors
and the protection of creditors, approved May
fourth, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, and the



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