Calvin J Medlin.

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tract. Some merchants balk at signing a con-
tract, but have no hesitation about signing
an order.

The advertising agreement can be printed
in duplicate and bound into books of 50 for
the convenience of solicitors. The original
copy is given to the merchant, and the carbon
is used by the advertising manager. A good
form of such agreement is shown in Figure
12.3. Rates charged for space should be
printed in the agreement to assure the mer-
chant that he is getting the same rate as other
advertisers. Advertising agreements often are
furnished by the printer.

Some merchants refuse to sign agreements
for advertising space, but are willing to buy
an ad. It is not essential that an agreement
be signed. All that is necessary is for the
salesman to get the copy and have a clear un-
derstanding of how much space is wanted and
the amount to be paid.



Methods of Raising Revenue 193



THE 1956

ORANGE AND BLACK



RATES:



Full page . . . .
Half page
Quarter page .
Eighth page . .
Sixteenth page

By



$00.00

00.00

00.00

0.00

0.00



OFFICIAL YEARBOOK OF
LINCOLN HIGH SCHOOL

Lincoln, Colo.

Advertising Agreement

19.

I hereby agree to insert

advertisement in the 1956 Orange and

Black for which I agree to pay to the

management $ upon presenta-
tion of correct proof.



Advertising Mgr. Signed



FIGURE 12.3. Advertising agreement forms for space in the yearbook will eliminate any
chance for misunderstanding about the size of the ad and the amount charged.






Give the Advertiser a Good Proposition

As in selling yearbooks, it is important that
the advertising staff have a proposal making
it advantageous for the merchant to contract
for space early. Some staffs request extra
proofs of ads from the printer. One is posted
on the bulletin board where students can see
it. One is sent to the advertiser with a nota-
tion that his advertisement is also being dis-
played on the bulletin board.

A sign with "PATRONIZE OUR YEAR-
ROOK ADVERTISERS" will draw added
attention. Eight to 10 ads can be displayed
at one time, usually for a week or so. Display-
ing advertisements in this manner pleases the
merchant. He pays only for space in the year-
book, and the bulletin board displays are an
added free service.

Another plan often employed is running
an advertisement in the school newspaper
naming all merchants and firms who have pur-
chased space in the yearbook. A headline
reading "These Merchants Are Helping to
Make the 1956 Orange and Black a Success
The Yearbook Staff Urges All Students to
Patronize Them," will indicate that the whole
community is interested and increase the ad-
vertisers' business.

Pictorial Advertising

Pictorial advertising is being used by more
yearbooks each year. Students usually read



pictorial advertisements, especially when the
pictures show friends and acquaintances buy-
ing, wearing or examining a product in the
merchant's store. Usually, the advertiser
leaves it to the discretion of the advertising
manager to select the students to appear in
the ads, and the manager should chose neat,
popular students.

For this type of advertising an agreement
should be made with the advertiser concern-
ing an extra charge for engraving, if the book
is done by letterpress. In most cases, the ad-
vertiser pays the cost of the cut, which is re-
turned to him after the book is printed.

If the yearbook is being produced by lithog-
raphy, the charge may be omitted for repro-
ducing photographs, drawings, cartoons or
signature cuts. Many lithographic printers
furnish a book showing cartoons, trade names
and entire advertisements prepared for dif-
ferent businesses. These items can be clipped
and used at no extra cost.

Another device to attract attention to the
advertising is to make it another division in
the annual. One large college yearbook, for
example, has used a heading and chapter num-
ber in keeping with the theme throughout the
book. A colored picture of the business dis-
trict opened the division and other pictures
of business activities, parades and modern
store fronts "dressed up" the section. After the
book was published, many students com-



194 School Yearbook Editing and Management



merited on the attractiveness and appeal, and
merchants were greatly pleased with the re-
sults. Some schools give a copy of the year-
book to each merchant who buys a page or
half page in the annual. However, if a $4.00
annual is given to each merchant who buys
$4.00 worth of space, advertising revenue will
not offset the cost for printing the section,
much less produce a profit for the yearbook.

Selling Out-of-Town Advertisers

An advertising field that is becoming more
profitable and should not be overlooked by
business managers is that of out-of-town con-
cerns who do business with the school. Al-
though some of these firms do not sell directly
to the students, they do a large quantity of
business with the school itself. A list of these
concerns and their addresses can be secured
from the treasurer of the board of education
or purchasing agent of the school.

Another profitable source of revenue is
merchants in nearby large cities. If the cities
are relatively near and travel facilities are
good, students probably do much buying
from these merchants. A letter to some of the
larger firms, giving details as to the number
of students in school and how much trading
they do annually, will often result in sale of
space.

Power and light companies, telephone com-
panies and trasportation firms are excellent
prospects. The presence of students means
extra income and ordinarily these businesses
are willing to advertise.

Letter Introduces Salesman

The yearbook and newspaper at Conway
High School, Conway, Arkansas, prepare the
way for their salesmen by writing each pros-
pect this letter before the student representa-
tive calls to sell space:

September 20, 1955
Dear Advertiser:

We are enclosing lists of the 1954-55 advertisers
of the Wampus Cat Yearbook and the Wampus Cat
Newspaper.

If your name appears on these lists, we should
like to take this opportunity to express our appreci-
ation to you for helping us make these publications
possible.



If your name does not appear, our business man-
agers will call on you sometime during the year. We
hope to add your name to these lists.

Respectfully yours,
(The business managers)

The list of 169 names was arranged alpha-
betically. If the merchant advertised in the
paper, his name was followed by one star, if
he advertised in the yearbook, two stars ap-
peared after his name and if he took space
in both publications, three stars were used.

"The letter of thanks seemed to please all
the merchants, and several were heard to re-
mark that it was the first letter they had ever
received thanking them for advertising," Mrs.
Guy Dean, adviser to the Wampus Cat, re-
ported at a meeting of yearbook advisers.

A letter of this kind not only introduces
the new business manager, but is so planned
that the merchant will want to read the entire
list of advertisers to see how many of them
are advertising in both publications. If his
name is not starred, he will want to "get
aboard the band-wagon" in most cases. If he
is already an advertiser, he will want to con-
tinue boosting for the school.

Selling the Local Advertiser

Most of the advertising space in the year-
book will be bought by local businessmen.
Every prospective advertiser should be so-
licited. This includes outlying stores, factor-
ies, mills and airports.

The classified section of the telephone di-
rectory will provide prospects who might
otherwise be overlooked. This section of the
directory in one city of 15,000 population lists
over 500 business concerns and professional
men, all of whom are potential advertisers.
The listing gives the name of the concern, its
street address and usually the name of the
owner.

Every man who buys space in the telephone
directory believes in advertising. Probably 50
per cent of the firms have never been solicited
by anyone from the school. In many cases
they will feel flattered by the call and happy
to place an advertisement in their yearbook,
published by their children. Don't pass up
the little man. He will want to be in the



Methods of Raising Revenue 195



permanent record (the school yearbook) with
other progressive merchants of the town.

Often it is wise to have several solicitors
selling advertising space. The list of prospects
can be divided among them; however, greater
efficiency will result if the community is di-
vided among the several salesmen, each taking
three or four blocks. Outlying concerns can
be given to those who have cars and can
make the calls in a minimum of time.

Advance Preparation

It is important for advertising salesmen to
make careful preparation before calling on
prospective advertisers. They should know
the name of the concern, the owner's name
(or in case of a large store, the name of the
advertising manager) , the merchandise
handled and how space in the annual will help
sell it.

They should know whether the prospect
has advertised previously and how much space
he has used. In some towns, merchants who
are in the same line of business and have an
association take a full page and list the mem-
bers. In one annual examined, a full page
was printed listing all the dry cleaners who
were members of the association, other pages
were purchased by the lumber dealers, filling
station operators, banks and real estate agen-
cies. This advertising is not so productive of
income, but it is better than none.

A carefully prepared layout of the proposed
advertisement will help the solicitor. Adver-
tising layouts are prepared in much the same
manner as for other pages in the annual, but
the work should be done by some member of
the staff who has special aptitude for ad de-
sign. Often the advertising teacher will co-
operate by having his classes prepare advertise-
ments for prospective advertisers.

Conducting the Interview

Courtesy will sell more advertising than
high-powered sales talks. The solicitor should
not interrupt the merchant while he is wait-
ing on a customer. If the store has a rush of
business, it is better to see some other pros-
pect and return later. If the store is a large
one, the person in charge of advertising will
be in his office. If the office door is closed,



knock; if he has a secretary, ask for an appoint-
ment.

As soon as the salesman has gained the at-
tention of the prospect, he should state his
name and business. "Good morning, Mr.
Jones. I am Bill Smith, on the business staff
of the Central High School annual. I have
been sent by the school to talk with you about
advertising with us this year."

Always ask for the ad in the name of the
school. Merchants do not like to say "no" to
schools. Inexperienced salesmen should first
interview several regular advertisers because
sales are fairly certain and the salesmen will
gain confidence. After a few interviews, the
new salesmen will be more self-assured and
skillful.

Filling Out the Order

As soon as the merchant has agreed to pur-
chase an ad, the salesman should fill out the
agreement and have it properly signed. It is
often unnecessary to give the entire sales talk.
Salesmen sometimes lose orders by talking too
much. If the merchant says, "Put me down
for the same size ad as last year," the salesman
can immediately reply, "Thanks very much,
Mr. Jones. I will fill out the order." As soon
as the order is signed (don't call it a contract)
and before it is torn out of the order book,
the salesman can say, "Mr. Jones, we are
planning a pictorial advertising section this
year and perhaps you will want more space."
Show him in detail what is planned. The
order can always be changed or a new order
written.

Answering Objections

The advertising salesman must be prepared
to answer the merchant's objections to ad-
vertising in the annual. His objections may
not be serious. He may say, "It's too early,
come back and see me later. I don't have
my advertising budget made out for next
year. I haven't made up my mind." What-
ever the reasons given, the salesman should
listen courteously (don't interrupt) , and
answer eacli objection in turn.

Don't try to win an argument. Get on the
merchant's side and get an order for space. If
he says, "It's too early," the salesman could



796 School Yearbook Editing and Management



reply, "Yes, Mr. Jones, I suppose it is a little
early in the year to be talking about advertis-
ing in the annual, hut this year we have
worked out a plan at the school that we be-
lieve will give you your money's worth. We
want to get your ad set up early and post
proofs of it on the bulletin board and urge
students to patronize you." Keep the tone of
the talk positive.

The instant the first objection has been
answered, present the prepared layout of the
proposed ad. It will convince the merchant
that the salesman is really interested. If it is
impossible to get the order on the first call,
ask the prospect to think the matter over.
Ask for a future appointment, and be sure
to thank the merchant for his time.

Advantages of Yearbook Advertising

The advertising salesman of the school an-
nual must be fully familiar with the advan-
tages of yearbook advertising over other types
available to the merchant.

Some of these are:

1. The life expectancy of the ad is greater in the
annual than any other medium. Newspapers
and magazines are read one day and thrown
away the next. A yearbook is kept year after
year and is often re-read. For the price, the
annual is the most permanent means of advertis-
ing.

2. Advertising in the school annual reaches young
people who have not formed buying habits.
They have a lifetime of buying ahead of them
and in years to come will purchase homes, food,
clothing, furniture, automobiles and many other
products. Merchants can build good will for to-
morrow's business.

3. Students buy many products and greatly influ-
ence their parents' buying. Big corporations
realize this and spend millions of dollars each
year on advertising directed toward the 12 to
21 age group. Local merchants can also appeal
to this group.

4. The enameled paper used in most yearbooks
makes it possible to obtain excellent photo-
graphic reproductions. School annual ads are
more attractive.

5. The yearbook advertisement is part of a com-
plete book that is treasured by the entire com-
munity.

Miscellaneous Sources of Income

When the sale of books and advertising does
not pay for all the expenses in the production



of the yearbook, other means of obtaining in-
come have to be planned. The business man-
ager must be careful, however, in selecting
the type of venture, since it may prove un-
profitable from the standpoint of expense and
effort necessary to stage such programs.

Selling space to school organizations is an
important source of income. Under this plan,
various organizations and classes are charged
a fee large enough to cover the cost of the
space devoted to their groups.

Most staffs charge each student for the cost
of having his photograph made for the year-
book. If such an expense were borne by the
yearbook, it would probably wreck the
budget.

Added income sometimes can be earned by
selling photographs after they have been re-
turned by the engraver. Although most of
these pictures will appear in the book, many
students want the original photographs and
are willing to pay for them. The price should
be low. Usually, a flat rate of 10 or 20 cents
is charged for each photograph. As much as
$300, or more, can be earned by this method
in larger schools.

One of the most common sources of extra
income for the yearbook is the class play. In
schools where the yearbook is published by
the senior class, the proceeds from the senior
play often go to the yearbook fund. Some-
times the annual staff produces an all-school
play for the same purpose.

Probably the most popular means of secur-
ing added income is the yearbook prom. II
the results of the beauty contest are an-
nounced at the prom, it should increase at-
tendance. However, business managers should
be careful in planning a dance of this type,
since it is easy to spend more than will be
gained.

Other sources of income include candy
sales, a circus or carnival or benefit movies.
All are minor so far as the amount of income
derived from them, but occasionally they
prove to be a necessary part of the revenue-
raising plan. It is important to remember
that these miscellaneous sources involve extra
work, and it is doubtful if they are worth
while if they require the attention of the staff
when its efforts should be devoted to the more
profitable ventures.



Chapter 13



Keeping Complete Financial Records






VERY SUCCESSFUL business, regardless of its
nature, needs a complete, accurate record of
all financial transactions. The business of
producing a school annual is no exception.

A simple, workable bookkeeping system is
a basis from which the yearbook business
manager or adviser can efficiently analyze and
direct the business transactions of the publica-
tion. The size of the annual and its financial
resources may determine to a certain extent
just what bookkeeping devices are necessary
to maintain complete financial records. How-
ever, even the smallest book operating on a
limited budget should have a system of keep-
ing records.

It is not the purpose of this book to teach
methods of bookkeeping. But, emphasis is
given here to the value of keeping records and
to presentation of forms which are helpful in
keeping adequate records. Fundamentally,
complete records for the yearbook consist
simply of a written record of all money taken
in from various sources and a similar record
of all disbursements.

Receipt Forms Needed

For the average yearbook, depending on its
size and systems of raising money, three re-
ceipt forms are needed, also a standard adver-
tising contract, a set of file cards and a ledger.

Sources of yearbook income may be divided
into four general divisions for bookkeeping
purposes. These are (1) Sale of books (2)
Sale of advertising space (3) Income from in-



dividual photographs (4) Miscellaneous in-
come such as that from sale of space in the
book, payments for group photographs and
money received from promotional activities.
A separate form for recording individual
transactions is required for each of these
general sources of income.

A receipt suitable for use in the book sales
campaign and a sample advertising contract,
used in selling yearbook advertising, were dis-
cussed and pictured in Chapter 12. Each of
these forms plays an important part in assemb-
ling the yearbook's financial records. Both
should be made in duplicate and filed in the
yearbook office. Book sales receipts should be
numbered consecutively. As in the case of
the receipt forms to be discussed later, in-
formation contained on the book-sales receipt
or the advertising contract must be trans-
ferred to the ledger as a permanent record.

Issuing Photographic Receipts

In addition to the two forms already de-
scribed, photographic and general receipts are
necessary. Figure 13.1 is an example of a
standard photographic receipt used by many
yearbooks. These receipts are numbered con-
secutively and made in duplicate with the
duplicate bearing the same number as the
original. For convenience in handling, they
can be bound in books of 50 or 100. Thus,
when an entire book of receipts has been
issued, the duplicates will still be in the
bound form. In such a form, they are easily
accessible.



[197]



198 School Yearbook Editing and Management



Name


ORANGE AND BLACK -Photograph Receipt

No. 4899


Home


Address


School


Class


Insert
Which


Picture in the Following Sections:
Class $


Name


of Fraternity $


Name


of Sorority $




Amount Received $


Date


1956 ORANGE AND BLACK
By







FIGURE 13.1. This standard photographic receipt can be issued to each student who pays
for an individual picture in the annual. A carbon copy is retained in the receipt book

for the use by the staff.



As shown on the sample photo receipt, the
section of the book in which the picture is to
appear should be indicated along with any
other information the editorial staff may need
in preparing the copy.

In some cases, it may be the policy of the
yearbook staff to allow the photographer who
takes the individual photos to issue the re-
ceipts and collect the money. However, this
is not recommended since the staff has no
assurance that complete and accurate records
will be kept. It is a better policy for the photo
receipts to be sold directly by the staff and the
money collected at the yearbook office. If
this is done, the business manager has a com-
plete record available at all times, and there
is less opportunity for errors resulting in the
omission of a picture which has been paid for.

Use of General Receipt

A general or miscellaneous receipt form is
also essential. Figure 13.2 is an example of
the general receipt issued when space in the
book is sold, when a group picture is paid for
or when money is received from any other
source such as candy sales and class plays.

General receipts also are numbered con-
secutively, made in duplicate and bound in
books of 50 or 100. These receipts are



handled in much the same manner as the
photographic receipts. In both cases, each re-
ceipt issued is recorded in the ledger when the
money is deposited in the bank. After a book
of receipts is filled, the information is trans-
ferred from the receipt to a file card which
will be discussed later.

All of the receipts are entered in the ledger
as a permanent record. The ledge" entry in-
cludes the name of the person or organization
to whom the receipt was issued, the number
of the receipt and the date of issuance.

When ordering the various forms at the
beginning of the year, make a careful estimate
of the number of each type that will be
needed. No two receipts, regardless of their
intended use, should be numbered the same.
For example, suppose the staff decides that
they will need 1,000 book sales receipts, 1,500
photographic receipts and 200 general re-
ceipts. They can all be numbered consecu-
tively with numbers 1 to 1,000 assigned to
book sales receipts, numbers 1,001 to 2,500
assigned to photographic receipts and num-
bers 2,501 to 2,700 set aside for the general
receipts. These numbers can be seen best if
placed in the upper right-hand corner of the
forms.



Keeping Complete Financial Records 799



ORANGE AND BLACK - Receipt No. 1001



Received of
For



Date



1956 ORANGE AND BLACK
By



FIGURE 13.2. A general receipt form can be used for recording miscellaneous cash re-
ceived from such items as sale of space to organizations, sale of pictures, etc.



Use of the Card File

A comparatively simple device and a valu-
able time-saver is the card-file system. In most
cases a 4 by 6 inch card or a 3 by 5 inch card
is suitable for the yearbook office. Each per-
son who buys a book or has a picture in the
annual is listed on a file card.

The cards are filed alphabetically in a small
cabinet. Information from the various receipt
forms is transferred to the file card along with
any material judged necessary by the staff. All
of the information appearing on the card
should be typed for legibility.



Figure 13.3 shows a recommended type of
file card. Spaces are left for receipt numbers,
money paid and money due and for the signa-
ture of the person receiving the book. In
addition, the numbers of the pages on which
pictures of the card ov\ner appear can be re-
corded in the margin of the file card. This
is a marked aid in indexing the book. With
the cards already filed alphabetically, it is
simple to assemble the index by copying the
name of the person and the page numbers
from the card. Similarly, the file card system
makes it easier to compile almost any special



Last Name

Amount paid on book
Amount due on book
Receipt number



First Name



Middle Initial



Photographic receipt number
Picture to appear



Class



1956 Orange and Black

Book received by



FIGURE 13.3. A file card for each individual who purchases a book or has his picture in

the annual is a valuable time-saver for the staff. It can also be used for compiling an

index and for subscribers to sign as they accept the annual.



200 School Yearbook Editing and Management


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Online LibraryCalvin J MedlinSchool yearbook editing and management → online text (page 18 of 20)