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Canada. Commission of Conservation. Committee on M.

Conservation of coal in Canada; with notes on the principal coal mines online

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The stables and pit bottom are equipped with electric lights, voltage
no, but, with these exceptions, Ackroyd and Best electrically-lighted
safety lamps which bum kerosene oil are used exclusively underground.
Stations for re-lighting these lamps are maintained in different portions
of the mine.

Haulage. — Haulage on each of the main deeps is performed by
endless rope, the engines being situated on the surface and the ropes
carried underground by ■■ sans of the material shafts. These engines
are 28 in. by 60-in. strc ^. Compressed air tail-rope haulage is used
on some of the levels. A first motion engine 20-in. by 54-in. stroke,
drtmi 8 ft. 9 in. in diameter, is i"^"d for hoisting out of the shaft. The
cages used are of the self dumping, type.



42 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

Forty-six-pound rails are used in the deeps, 30-pound rails in levels
and headways and 18-pound rails in the rooms.

The mine is equipped with steam and electric pumps capable of
discharging 1700 gals, of water per minute.

The boiler plant consists of five 212-h.p. and two 318-h.p. water
tube boilers, which are fired with slack coal from the screening plant.

Compressed air for coal cutters and mine havilage is supplied by
three air compressors, each having a capacity of 2500 cu. ft. of free
air per minute.

Bankhead. — The bankhead is a steel structure, housed with
corrugated iron, and fitted with shaking screens and picking belts.
Three sizes of coal can be obtained :

Domestic— that which passes over a 2 -in. bar screen.

Screened — that which passes over a ^-in. net screen.

Slack — that which passes through the ^-in. net screen.

The coal is loaded direct into 3S-ton steel hopper and 15-ton
wooden cars and shipped over the Sydney and Louisburg railway to
the shipping piers.

The mine has an output of about 2,000 tons per day. There are
490 men employed underground and about 100 above ground.

No. 2 Colliery

This colliery is situated on the main line of the Sydney and Louis-
burg railway at Glace Bay. It is the largest operated by the Dominion
Coal Company, and one of the largest coal mines in America. The seam
worked is the Phalen, having an average thickness of 7^ ft. and a dip
of 4° to 5° to the eastward. The hoisting shaft is sunk near the out-
crop of the Hub seam, and cuts the Harbour and Phalen seams at 405
ft. and 860 ft. from the surface, respectively. It is 37 ft. x 10 ft. wide
to the Harbour seam, from which point it is 21 ft. x 10 ft. wide It is
divided into five compartments, two for No. 9 Colliery, two for the
No. 2, and one for a pipe compartment. The workings from this shaft
on the Harbour seam are known as No. 9 Colliery.

The mine is developed by a pit-bottom level, 5000 feet in length ;
headways and deeps have been driven from the level for the purpose
of recovering the coal to the rise and to the dip.

System of Mining. — The system of mining is bord-and-pillar.
Rooms are 20 ft. wide and from 300 ft. to 600 ft. in length ; pillars
are from 48 ft. to 60 ft. thick, depending upon the cover, which varies
from 700 ft. at the rise workings to 950 ft. in the submarine. The
deepest workings are under the sea, one mile beyond the shore line.



C O A L M I N E S F N O V A S C O T I A 43

Some pillars have been drawn under the land area, but none have yet
been drawn in the submarine.

Blasting Methods. — The mine is naturally dry, and humidity
records are made at several points in the intake and return air-ways.
Sprinkling is done periodically by means of air pipes used as water
mains and also by water pipes laid for this purpose. In some sections,
the dust is swept up and taken out of the mine.

The coal is mined by compressed air machines of the puncher type ;
boring and shearing machines are used in narrow work. The shooting
is done by battery, Monobel and No. 7 detonators. The tamping
material is clay, which is sent into the mine. The cuttings from the
machines are loaded into cars and sent out of the room before shooting.

Ventilation and Lighting. — The mine is ventilated by a Dixon
fan (Guibal type) 24 ft. by 9 ft., belt driven from a steam engine, 20 in.
by 42-in. stroke. A similar steam engine is installed as a spare. A
Walker fan, 20 ft. by 6 ft. 6 in. and rope-driven from a steam engine, has
now been installed to ventilate No. 2 and No. 9 ColHeries. There are
five splits in the air current ; two ventilating the rise workings on the
north side ; one ventilating the rise workings on he south side ; and
two ventilating the deep workings on each side.

Electric lights are used at the shaft bottom and for a short distance
along the main roads, but, with this exception, Ackroyd and Best
electrically lighted safety lamps are used exclusively underground. Re-
Hghting stations are maintained in different portions of the mine.

In timbering the mine, .22 lineal feet of props and booms are used
per ton of coal mined.

Haulage. — Eight high-pressure compressed air locomotives are
used in the levels. Compressed air hoists are used in the headways
and deeps. The mine cars weigh 1850 pounds each, and have a capa-
city of 1 .95 tons of coal.

The pit bottom is equipped with two units for handling the coal.
The following is a brief description of one of these :

The loaded cars are gathered from the main roads and delivered
to the shaft bot om by means of compressed air locomotives They
are weighed, and then run by gravity on to a revolving tipple operated
by compressed air. A catch, operated by the car, which permits only
one car to enter and leave the scales at one time.



44 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

The coal is discharged from the tipple on to either of two inclined
chutes, which have a capacity of 8 tons each, and which are placed
opposite to each of the hoisting compartments in the shaft. The mouth
of the chute is closed by a hinged door fastened by a catch. The hinge
of the door is attached to a pulley over which a chain and counterpoise
for closing the door is htmg. The other end of the chain is fastened to
the opposite side of the shaft, so that, when the door is shut the chain
stretches across the shaft. When the hoisting tank is lowered almost
to the bottom, the door latch is opened by the descending tank. As
the tank is lowered still further, pulleys on the bottom of the tank
engage the chain and draw down the door, which forms the lip of the
chute. The coal is then discharged into the hoisting tank.

Any coal which falls from the chute and drops to the bottom of
the shaft is lifted by a bucket conveyer to the level of the pit bottom
and loaded into mine cars. As the tank is hoisted, a steel roller on the
top of it closes the door of the chute.

The hoisting tank has a capacity of 8 tons, but the actual average
is about 6 tons. It has an inclined bottom and is mounted on a frame
with its centre of gravity on the same side as the dump. There are
two sets of guide spears for the tank, one for the framework guides and
a smaller set for keeping it from dumping in case the lock slips while
it is in transit. On reaching the dumping level, the lock is released by a
catch on the framework guides and the tank limges forward, tightening
the side chains connected to the framework and door of the tank, while
at the same time opening its door automatically, and allowing the coal to
discharge into a 50-ton hopper.

Bankhead. — The bankhead is a large steel structure 132 ft. in
height. It is covered with corrugated iron and contains the screening
machinery for No. 2 and No. 9 coUieries.

The following is a brief description of the screening operations :

The coal is fed from the hopper to four sets of shaking screens
by means of four distributing belts set in the bottom of the hopper.
The shaking screens are arranged so that domestic, nut, slack, or run-of-
mine sizes of coal can be obtained. The shaking screens and picking
belts are driven by a 75-h.p. motor. The loading belts are driven by
a 40-h.p. motor.

The following illustrates graphically the plan of screening opera-
tions at No. 2 colliery :



COAL MINES OF NOVA SCOTIA 45



Automatic dump

50-ton steel hopper

Four distributing belts

Fovu" 2-in. snaking screens
15 ft. by 4 ft. 6 m. wide

- 1 +

' i

^-in. shaking screens 4 picking belts, 38 ft. to 54 ft. long ;

speed 41 ft. per minute.

- I + I

I I Loading belts ; 70 ft. by 4 ft. 9 in. wide;

170-ton slack hopper 70-ton nut hopper speed 82 ft. per minute

Railway cars Railway cars Railway cars

(market) (market) (market)

This mine has an output of nearly 3000 tons per day. There are
800 men employed underground, and 96 above ground.

Additional Surface Machinery. — There is the following addi-
tional siirface machinery :

One hoisting engine, with 34-in, by 48-in. cylinders and having a
double conical drum 10 ft. and i3>^ ft. in diameter, and 5>^ ft. wide.

One man hoist with 24-in. by 42-in. cylinders and having a dnmi
8 ft. in diameter.

The boiler plant consists of twenty 318-h.p. water-tube boilers.
They are fired by imder-feed stokers, and the draft is obtained from
two 8-ft. Sturtevant blowing fans. Compressed air for pimiping and
hatdage purposes is supplied from a battery of compressors as follows :

One compound Walker air compressor, capacity 6300 cu. ft. of free
air per minute ; size of cylinders, steam, 20 in. and 36 in. in diameter;
air, 32 in, and 51 in. in diameter. The stroke is 60 in.

Three compound Rand air compressors, capacity 3000 cu. ft. of
free air per minute; size of cylinders, steam, 20 in. and 36 in. in diameter;
air, 20 in. and 32 in. in diameter ; stroke, 48 in.

Two Norwalk high-pressure air compressors, capacity 1380 cu. ft.
of free air per minute.

The compressor-house is of steel-frame construction with walls of
concrete and expanded metal. In 1906, an addition was made to this
building to house the mine's central electric plant, whi h is described
on page 62, imder "Central Power Plants."

The siuface equipment also includes machine shops, blacksmith
shops and safety-lamp house.



46 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

No. 3 Colliery

This mine is situated on the outcrop of the Phalen seam about
half way between No. 4 and No. 5 collieries. The workings from No.
4 and No. 5 collieries form the eastern and western boundaries of this
mine, and No. 2 Mine workings form the boundary to the dip. It was
opened in 1889, and commenced to produce in 1900. About 3,500,000
tons have since been produced.

The entrance to the mine is by a slope 9500 ft. long and 12 ft. wide
driven on the dip of the seam, which is about 4° to the eastward.

System of Mining. — The method of working is pillar-and-stall.
Levels are driven to the east and west of the main slope, 400 ft. to 450 ft.
apart. The rooms are opened off the level and driven on the face of the
coal which makes an angle of about 45° to the level. The rooms are 20
ft. wide and the pillars are 25 ft. to 30 ft. wide, depending on the cover.
Crosscuts are driven evei^ 60 feet.

There are 19 levels on the east and west side which extend for a
distance of about 1200 ft. on each side of the slope.

The narrow work is almost completed and the pillars are now being
drawn from the barriers in retreat. The work is being done in a sys-
tematic manner similar to that already described under No. i colliery,
and practically no coal is lost.

Ventilating and Lighting. — The mine is ventilated by an elec-
trically-driven Capell fan, the power being supplied from the central
power plant. There are two equal splits in the air current, one going to
the east of the slope, the other to the west. The main haulage slope is
used for the retum-air.

Ackroyd and Best safety lamps are used exclusively imdergrotmd.

Haulage. — Haulage on the main slope is performed by endless
rope. The endless-rope engine is situated at the bankhead, 4,500 ft.
distant from the mouth of the slope, and has a total haul of nearly
14,000 ft.

The mine cars weigh 1895 lbs. and have a capacity of two tons.
All water from No. 3 Mine is now being pumped into No. 4 Mine.

Surface Equipment. — The boiler plant consists of three 318 h.p.
water-tube boilers fired with slack coal from the screening plant.

The bankhead is a wooden structure containing two rotary tipples,
shaking screens, picking belts, etc., for making screened coal, nut and
slack. The screening plant is driven by a steam engine 12 in. by 34-in.
stroke. One Walker air compressor, capacity 6000 cu. ft. of free air
per minute, fiunishes power for coal cutting and pumping.

The mine has an output of about 500 tons per day. There are
147 men employed undergroimd and 46 on the surface.



C O A L M I N E S O F N O V A S C O T I A 47

No. 4 Colliery

This colliery is situated on the Phalen seam at Caledonia. It was
first operated in 1866, and has produced about 9,000,000 tons of coal.
Of this amount, the Dominion Coal Company have produced 7,500,000
tons, or over 83 per cent, since 1893.

The mine is worked by a rectangular shaft, 18 ft. by 10 ft., and 185
ft. deep, sunk near the outcrop. The workings are divided into two
districts by a pillar of coal that underlies Glace bay and a creek that
flows into it. The east side workings are partly submarine and will be
extended to the No. 6 colliery barrier pillar. The west side workings
are bounded on the west by No. 3 mine barrier pillar.

The east side workings are developed by what is known as the East
deep haulage slope 7000 ft. in length and the west side by the West
deep haulage slope 9000 ft. in length.

The pillar-and-stall system of mining is used. The rooms are 20 ft.
wide and the room pillars vary from 2 5 ft. to 3 5 ft. in thickness, depending
on the thickness of cover. The maximum cover is 500 ft.

Some pillars have been drawn under the land area, but none have
been drawn in the submarine. n timbering, 2^ lineal feet of props
and booms are used per ton of coal mined.

Blasting Methods. — The mine is naturally wet, but himiidity
reports are regularly made at several points in the intake and return
air- ways. Sprinkling is resorted to where necessary. The coal in
rooms and narrow work is mined by compressed air machines. The
shooting is done by battery and squib, Monobel and Bulldog powder.

Ventilation and Lighting. — The mine is ventilated by a Murphy
fan delivering 95,000 cu. ft, of air per minute and is direct driven
from a steam engine, the cylinder of which is 11 in. by 14-in. stroke. A
Dixon fan, 14 ft. by 6 ft. 4 in. is held as a reserve. There are two splits
in the main air current, one going to each district. The east side
portion, which is split at No. 8 west level, ventilates No. 8 section and
returns by way of the coal shaft. The lower split ventilates all the
workings below No. 8 and returns by way of the air shaft at Bout-
hillier's shore.

Electric lights, voltage no, are used at the pit bottom and East
deep, but, with these exceptions, Ackroyd and Best electrically lighted
safety lamps are used exclusively underground.

Haulage. — Endless rope haulage is used on the East deep and
West deep, the length of hauls being respectively nearly 7000 ft. and
9000 ft. Main-and-tail ropes are also used on some of the levels.

A first-motion steam engine, 20 in. by 54-in. stroke, connected to a
drum, 8 ft. in diameter, is used for hoisting the coal. The cages used



48 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

are of the ordinary self-dumping type. The man-hoist is a second-
motion steam engine, size of cylinders i8 in. by 24-in.

The mine is equipped with electric pumps which discharge the
water to the surface by means of bore holes. On the west side, there
is an Aldrich five plunger pump, capacity 600 gals, per minute, and a
Gwynne centrifugal pump, capacity 250 gallons. The east side is
equipped with a McDougall turbine pump, capacity 420 gals, per
minute. In addition, there is a water shaft, situated on the banks of
Caledonia brook a short distance below the colliery, that is capable of
hoisting large quantities of water. The electric ables are taken under-
ground by means of bore-holes.

Power Plant. — The boiler plant consists of two i6o-h.p. water-
tube boilers, and five 218-h.p. water-tube boilers. Compressed air for
mine haulage and coal cutting is supplied by two cross-compound air
compressors, each having a capacity of 3000 cu. ft. of free air per minute.
The bankhead is a steel structure housed with corrugated iron and con-
tains the usual screening arrangements and picking belts.

The mine has an average output of 1 400-1 500 tons per day. There
are 450 men employed underground and 78 above ground.

No. 5 Colliery

This mine is situated on the outcrop of the Phalen seam near
Reserve Junction. The workings are bounded by No. i Mine barrier
pillar on the north, No. 3 Mine barrier pillar on the south, and No. 2
Mine barrier pillar on the east. Since the mine was opened, in 1872,
about 10,400,000 tons have been produced ; of this amount, the Do-
minion Coal Company have produced 8,900,000 tons, or 85.6 per cent,
since the organization of the Company in 1893.

It has been worked through three main haulage slopes, namely,
the French, Main, and East slopes. The French slope is the only one
now in operation, as the pillars have been drawn in others. It is 1 1,000
ft. in length and has a pitch of 4>^ degrees. The coal is approaching
exhaustion and all the pillars are being recovered.

The Emery seam, situated about 140 ft. beneath the Phalen, is
being worked at No. 10 Colliery and has the same bankhead as No. 5.
The pillar drawing in the upper seam is kept about one mile in advance
of the lower workings so that it will be possible to recover practically all
the coal from them. The system of mining is the same as that in use
in the mines already described.

Ventilation.— The mine is ventilated by two fans, one situated
near the bankhead and the other at the mouth of the East slope, about
one mile distant. The former is a Chandler fan, 15 ft. in diameter,
driven by direct connection from a 16 in. by 22 in. steam engine. There



COAL MINES OF NOVA SCOTIA 49

are two splits in this air current, one going to each side of the French
slope. The East slope fan is of the Guibal type, 24 ft. in diameter, and
rope-driven from a 16 in. by 22 in. steam engine.

Haulage. — Endless-rope haulage is used on the French slope as
far as No. 9 landing, 9,000 ft. from the surface. From No. 9 landing
to the bottom, ordinary trip haulage is used.

The boiler plant consists of seven water-tube boilers with a capacity
of 1878 h.p. Power for mine haulage, pumping and coal cutting is
supplied by two air compressors, capacity 2500 cu. ft. each, and one
air compressor, capacity 3500 cu. ft. of free air per minute.

Surface Equipment.- — The bankhead is a wooden vStructure and
serves for screening the coal from No. 5 and No. 10 collieries. The coal
is hauled from the mouth of the French slope on to the bankhead by
means of a car haiil, and is discharged by a Phillips dump on to a
feeder belt which delivers it to the screens. The bankhead machinery
is driven by electric motors, the power being supplied from the central
power plant.

The stuface equipment also includes a lamp house, machine shop,
blacksmith's shop, and a carpenter's shop, for doing ordinary mine
repair work.

The mine has an average output of about 1000 tons. There are
260 men employed underground and 65 on the siurface.

No. 6 Colliery

This mine is situated near McRae point at the eastern and southern
extremity of the Glace Bay coal basin. It was opened by the Dominion
Coal Company in 1904, and the present output is about 1,200 tons per
day. There are 258 men employed underground and 75 above ground.

As the seam worked — the Phalen — outcrops near the shore line,
the territory is largely submarine ; the dip is about 6" towards the
northeast.

The mine is developed from a main haulage deep driven for a dis-
tance of 5000 ft. from the outcrop. The bottom of the deep is about
1200 ft. beyond the shore line. The cover at the shore line is 375 ft.
and submarine work is now being earned on.

The pillar-and-stall system of mining is in use. In the land area,
the rooms are 20 ft. wide and the pillars 15 ft. thick. In the submarine
area, the rooms are 20 ft. wide and pillars, 30 ft. in thickness. Head-
ways 400 ft. apart are driven up to the pitch from levels, and the rooms
are opened off at right angles to the headways. Some pillars have been
drawn from a few places under the land area but no submarine pillars
have been drawn.



50 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION

Blasting Methods. — The mine is naturally wet, but humidity
reports are regularly made at several points in the intake and return
airways and sprinkling is resorted to where necessary. The coal in
rooms and narrow work is mined by compressed air machines.

The shooting is done by Bulldog powder and squib, and clay dug
in the mine is used for tamping.

Ventilation and Lighting. — The mine is ventilated by a 20 ft.
by 7 ft. Walker fan delivering 52,000 cu. ft. of air per minute; water-
gauge .8 in. The fan is rope-driven, from a 16 in. by 16 in. steam
engine. It is steel cased, placed on concrete foundations and the fan
engine-house is of fire-proof construction. There are two splits in the
main air current, one going to each side of the slope.- The main
haulage slope is the return air-way.

Ackroyd and Be^ electrically lighted safety lamps are used exclu-
sively imderground.

Haulage. — Ordinary haulage is used on the main slope, 20 cars
oi 1% tons capacity being hoisted at one time. A duplex steam engine
is used for hoisting. The cylinders have a diameter of 26 in. and a
stroke of 48 in. ; the diameter of the dnmi is 8 ft. and the width 4 ft.
No. 3 level has plain haulage ; No. 4 and No. 5 levels have main-and-
tail rope haulage, and No. 6 level has both plain and main-and-tail
rope haulage.

The mine pumping is done by means of compressed air pumps
which lift, on the average, 268,000 gals, per day.

Power Plant. — The boiler-house is of fire-proof construction
and contains six water-tube boilers with a rated capacity of 1500 h.p.
The draft is induced by means of Parsons forced draft blowers. An
annex to the boiler-house contains the feed water heaters and feed
pimips. The compressor house is also of fire-proof construction and
contains two Walker air compressors, capacity 3500 cu. ft. of free air per
minute each, which furnish power for coal cutting, pumping and mine
haulage. An automatic oiling and filter system is installed in the
compressor-house for oiling the compressors.

The cars are hauled from the mouth of the slope to the bankhead
and returned by means of up and down automatic car-hauls. The coal is
dumped into a steel hopper by means of a revolving side dimip tipple
and is fed from the hopper by means of two feed belts on to two sets
of shaking screens fitted with 2-in. and ^-in. perforations.

The lump coal is picked on picking belts and discharged into rail-
way cars. The slack and nut coal are carried by a conveyer and dis-
charged into separate cars.



COAL MINES OF NOVA SCOTIA 51

No. 7 Colliery

This mine is situated near the shore line at Table head. The
^oal seam worked is the Hub, the highest known seam in the land
area of Glace Bay basin. It derives its name from the outcrop, being
the approximate centre of the semi-circular outcrops of the other
seams in this coal basin. It underlies a small land area of about
one-half square mile, but the extent of the submarine area is not defi-
nitely known. The workings are now over 5500 ft. beyond the shore
line and are still advancing. The mine has an average output of 750
tons per day. There are 300 men employed underground and 50 above
ground.

The seam was first mined in 1858 and the mine has been in operation
for about thirty out of the succeeding fifty-four years. It has a thick-
ness of 8}4 ft., but is not so regular in character as some of the other
seams. The general dip is 3° to 4°. The roof is shale and the pave-
ment an imptire fire-clay.

The mine is developed from the shaft by a main haulage deep 12 ft.
wide and 8100 ft. in length. Pillars 34 ft. in thickness are left between
the parallel deeps, and pillars 100 ft. in thickness are left on each side
of the deeps.

Method of Mining. — The system of mining used is pillar-and-
stall with panels in the submarine area. The rooms are 20 ft. wide and
500 ft. in length, between headways. The room pillars vary in thick-
ness, depending on the amount of cover over the workings. The fol-
lowing table gives the thickness of pillars left in submarine work :


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Online LibraryCanada. Commission of Conservation. Committee on MConservation of coal in Canada; with notes on the principal coal mines → online text (page 5 of 20)