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below Point des Monts to the presence of these mammals. Taken as a whole the
returns show a considerable increase in value. The regulations were well observed and
no complaints were made.

Moisie Subdivision, — Officer Theotime Migneault reports that salmon fishing began
on the 23rd iVIay and ended on the 16th July. The fishery wa% a good one, though the
season was a poor one for netting, as the waters ^ ere too high and the currents too
strong to keep nets out, not 10 per cent of the salmon that entered Moisie River were
netted, 236 fish were taken by the anglers. The cod fishery was good, it began with
August and continued up to the 12th October. Herring missed entirely, the fishermen
attribute this to the great abundance of squid, and the white whales. One Gloucester
vessel called here halibut fishing, but on being warned not to set his trawls within the
three mile limit he sailed away. The salmon net regulations were strictly enforced and
observed.

Mingan Subdivision. — Officer George DuBerger reports that 17,467 cwt. of cod
were taken by the shore fishermen in his district ; this represents a fair fishery. The
salmon net fishery in the St. Johns tributary was good, almost 40,000 lbs. being taken,



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1J6 MARINE AND FISHERIES

1-2 EDWARD VIU A. 1902

this in spite of the fact that for two weeks the fishermen were unable to get their nets
out owing to the high water of the river, during all this time salmon were passing up in
great numbers. Sportsmen did well, 61 fish being taken in Jupitagan, 75 in Mingan,
170 in Romaine, while Mr. Hill and party took 200 in the St John.

Natashguan Svhdimsion, — Officer John W. Scott reports thai the seal hunt made
in the ice by the vessels from Natashgaan was a failure, only 1 20 seals being killed,
this was due to rough weather and the scattered condition of the ice. The salmon net
fishery show a decrease of 5,000 lbs., this was due to the high water in the river which
made it impossible to set out nets until the 18th June, by which time a large proportdon
of the fish had passed up, the sea coast nets did well. The cod fishery was good, their
being an increase of 2,300 cwt. over the catch of 1899. The lobster pack shows a
slight falling off, though the number of traps fished this year was much greater than in
any previous season.

The whole of which is humbly submitted.

I have the honour to be, sir.

Your obedient servant,

WM. WAKEHAM,

Officer in cfiarge of the G\df Fisheries



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FISHERY INSPECTORS* REPORTS—QUEBEC 187

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 22



REPORT ON THE FISHERIES ON THE SOUTH SHORE FROM LfiVIS TO
BAIE BES CHALEURS, BY INSPECTOR N. LAVOIE, M.D.



L'IsLGT, Que., January 15, 1901.



To the Dominion Commissioner of Fisheries,
Ottawa.



Sir, — In transmitting the fishery statistics for the year 1900, of that part of my
district extending from L^vis to Cape Chat, I beg to ofifer a few general remarks on the
fisheries of our coasts.

I regret to state that although eel and bar fishing may have proved pretty fair at
certain places, such as L^vis, Beaumont, St. Michel and St. Valier, the catch of other
fish proved almost a complete failure. In some localities, the decrease will amount to
about seventy-five per cent as compared with last year. At Trois-Saumons and L'lslet,
the disappearance of small fish has completely discouraged the fishermen, so much so that
on a distance of four miles on each side of the river of Trois-Saumons where there used
to be formerly seven fisheries, there is not a single one now. Fishermen attribute their
failure to sawdust and rubbish from the mills on Trois-Saumons River. As the bottom
of these fishing grounds is composed of mud, it is natural that sawdust should more
firmly adhere to it than if it were formed of rocky bottom. I was told that at several
plaoee, sawdust is several inches thick, and there can be no doubt that if such is the
case, the disappearance of the fish is due to this cause.

The eel fisheries down here have sensibly decreased during the past few years. Hiis
is due to the improvements in the large fisheries of L^vis, Beaumont and St. Michel.
These fisheries have, so far, proved very remunerative and it may be that this has some-
thing to do with the run of eels on the part of that coast. With favourable winds and
other lucky circumstances, a good catch may now and then be recorded among the brush
fisheries, but this is an exception.

Barfish were most abundant on the grounds around Crane and other adjacent
islands. Sportsmen were delighted. It is alleged that over 100 barrels of barfish were
caught on these grounds, with hook and line, during the past season.

Twelve seals were killed by people from Crane Island.

Cod.

The oldest fishermen all agree that cod has never been so abundant as now for the
past fifty years. This is easily accounted for by the enormous quantities of squid and
herring which has frequented this part of the coast during the whole season. The total
catch will amount to 3,446 drafts against 3,118 last year; an increase of 328 drafts.
As already stated, bait in the shape of squid and herring was abundant the whole season
round, and the weather proved all that could be desired.

Owing to the want of competition, prices are not so high as last year ; the usual
rate being from three dollars to three dollars and a half.

However, this still leaves a fair margin in the hands of the fishermen, owing to the
large increase in the catch.

Herring fishing.

The great success experienced in this fishery last year, induced many people to
believe that it would be again profitable this season. However, these expectations
were not ^realized in many cases. There are indeed some localities, such as Rimouski,
Ste. Luce, River Ouelle and Green Island where the catch was good, but everywhere
else it was almost a faillure. The statistics will show a falling off of nearly 2,000,000



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188 MARINE AND FISHERIES

t-2 EDWARD VUn A. 1902

pounds in tho catch of herring for the. past two seasons. The total yield this season
was hardly 2,000,000 pounds, while last year it amounted to six and seven million
pounds, and perhaps more. The cause of failure is ascribed to the frequent and long
continued easterly gales which destroyed most of the best brush fisheries of this division
from River du Loup to Ste. Flavie.

Eel fishery.

This fishery, which yielded 112,690 pounds in 1899, from St. Jean Port Joli to
Ste. Flavie, will not, this year yield more than 40,789 pounds. The brush fisheries of
St. Jean Port Joli, St. Koch, Ste. Anne, Riviere Quelle which used to catch eels by
the thousand, will not produce more than 200 or 500 each.

Sardine fishery.

Had it not been for an accidental run of sardines which occurred during the last
days of October, and at a time when it was least expected, this fishery would have been
a total failure. As it is, a great number of fishermen missed this stroke of good fortune
owing to their neglect to repair their fisheries in time, but several others who were more
careful, reaped a rich harvest. The localities where fishing was most successful were
Ste. Luce and Rimouski. The statistics will show 2,640 barrels, against 1,833 in 1899.

Salmon and Trout fishing,

Salmon fishing will show an increase of 6,532 pounds over the catch of last year,
bein? 15,942 pounds against 9,410. The most favoured localities were Green Island,
Ste. Luce and St. Denis. In other places, the catch amounted to 100 or 500 pounds.
Taken as a whole, this fishery was not a success.

The catch of trout amounted to 3,625 pounds, only 25 pounds of which were caught
on the river shores, the balance being taken in the interior lakes of St. Simon, St.
Fabien and St. Mathieu. Lake St. Mathieu now belongs to Mr. Tobin, M.P. He
keeps a large staff of experienced guardians on the numerous small lakes of his seigniory
for the purposes of preventing poaching and illegal fishing.

Sturgeon and Shad.

Although the catch of sturgeon is apparently on the increase, it is far from yielding
a fair revenue to the fishermen. In 1890 the catch is given at 12,297 pounds, while
this year it will reach 66,699. Kamouraska and the River Quelle were the most
favoured localities.

Shad will show only 3,692 pounds, against 4,820 in 1899. This is the whole catch
of the seventeen localities which I visited.

Porpoise Fishing.

This fishery, which in years past was so popular and so remunerative in some
localities, such as River Quelle, has sadly come down, so much so that for a number of
years it has hardly paid for the outfit. The owners, however, still cling to hope, always
expecting a fortune in the success of a new season. There were only twelve porpoises
killed at River Quelle this season, the same number as in 1899. The price of oil was a
little higher, having increased from 28 to 32 cents. Those twelve porpoises yielded
45 barrels of oil, or 1,125 gallons. At Trois Pistoles six porpoises were killed, yielding
about 560 gallons of oil. At Cap a I'Qrignal it is reported that sixteen seals were killed,
yielding 48 gallons of oil.

During the months of July, August and September, hardly a fish was caught in this
part of my division. Bad weather is blamed for this unsatisfactory state of things.
Easterly gales of long standing completely wrecked the brush fisheries, and this explains
how the statistics will show but a small quantity of mixed fish, far below that of 1899.
The catch of tbis season will barely amount to 344,000, against millions of pounds last
year. The number of brush fisheries was about the same as in 1899, but if what I
heard is true, this number will considerably be reduced in certain localities next season.



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FISHBRY INSPECTORS RBP0RT8-QUBBEC 18»

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 22

CoMPABATiVB Statement of the Yield of Ix)b8ters in the Divisions of Gasp^ and
Bonaventure daring the Years 1899 and 1900.



Locality.


Owner.


Traps.


Men.


Girls.


Flats.


Cases.


Remarks.


1900.
Belle Aiwe


HoeffK k Co


2,300

900

350

750

750

2,000

1,300

4,000

1,500

800

2,000

1,000

35

700

1,800

1,100

2,000

2.500

350

1,500

2,000

390

400

300

2,500

1,800

1,100

1,000

420


16

11

4

4

9

23

16

47

18

9

23

10

4

24

21

11

30

30

4

23

23

4

6

3

39

18

8

11

4


7
12

5

9
18

8

7

20
15
13
12
15

5
19
18
12
19
20

3
15
18

\

3

21

?

7
3


4

5

3

10

15

iS

6

"is'

\

9

20

8

10

18

4

3

2

23

'\

4
2


230




BoisBrul^

Anse Brillante


White&Hipson

Leggo 'Bros


121 1
36


Bois Brul^


J. F. White


173 1


Corner of the Beach

Perc6

Cape Despair

Little River East. . . .


O.Mabee

J.W.Windsor

Chas. Robin

J. W. Windsor

J. Alexander


180 New license.
133 ,
159 ,
300 1
95


Little River West. . ...




75 1




JAlexander


140 1


Little Pabos


J. Legoufife


100 ,


Grand Pabos

Anse auz Gascons

Newport Point


P. Hurley

J. Alexander

Chas. Robin

E. LeMarquand

J. W. Windsor

Ho€«ff & Co.


56|

60 i

218 '


Newport


69 1

200 1


Port Daniel


250 1




R. SuUivan


40

160

170

35

26

35

254




Port Daniel West

Shigawacke

Port Daniel West. . . .

Hopetown


Alexander Bros

P. Day".......:::;::;:

H. Joumeau

J. Alexander

Hceffg A Co


New license.

II
II


New Carlisle


Th. K)reham

Hoegflnk Co

J.P.Windsor

B. Lecleic


193 1


Bonaventure

Caplin River

Carleton


115 !
66
25 1




HoejM&Co

P. J7 White..






Totals


37,545


452


328


242


3,714


1899.

Belle Anse

BoisBrul^


2,400

900

300

600

780

950

1,600

1,500

2,500

1,000

2,000

800

1,500

300

800

1,200

600

2,000

2,500

460

1,600

2,000

1,800

900

1,000

400

1,100

1,600

35,090


19

9

3

5

6

8

18

14

27

12

20

14

18

4

8

12

4

14

30

3

15

28

7

8

8

3

4

18


20

12

4

5

12

12

20

13

10

12

4

6

14

15

8

17

20

4

15

25

6

6

8

4

15
16


5
4
3
5
3
5
8
7

20

15

5

10

14

4

4

6

2

7

20

3

25

25

15

5

5

3

4

6


270
100




Leggo Bros


35


BrillantCove

Comer of the Beach


White AHipson

O. Mabee

Alexander


116 1

166 '

52


Pero6


J.W.Windsor

Chas. Robin

J. W. Windsor.


220


II

Cape Despair

Little River East


173
560


J. Alexander


50 1


II II

Little River West. ...


11


200
200 t


II II

II II

Grand River


Soucey

J. Legoufife

P. Hurley


150 1

86

123


Little Pabos


90


Grand Pabos


122


Newport.


Chas. Robin

Hoegg&Co

A. Sullivan


116


Port Daniel


350


Port Daniel West


30

170

324

120

82

57

26

25

253




II II

Hopetown


Alexander Bros

Hoetrar & Co




New Carlisle


H. For**ham




Boiut venture


Ho^rcr & Co




CapUnRiver

Carleton


J. P. Windsor

B. Leclerc

E. LeMarquand

J. W. Windsor




Newport




Totals


339


325


228


4,165 1











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190 MARINE AND FISHERIES

1-2 EDWARD VIU A. 1902
Remarks on the Lobster Indtietry oj Oasp/ and Bonaventure Counties.

In order to present the matter in a clear and concise shape, I have prepared the
above schedule, showing the yield of the lobster fishery in 1900 and 1899, together with
such other information relative to the industry as I could procure. While there was
at the beginning of the season an actual increase of nearly 2,500 in the number of traps,
the number of cases packed shows a considerable falling off; no less than 451 cases, as
compared with 1899. This, I consider, should not be ascribed to a scarcity of lobsters
frequenting the grounds, so much so as to the damage done to fishing traps and other
gear by gales and storms during the months of May and July, as well as the cold weather
which prevailed during the whole month of May and the early part of June. The loss
experienced by each cannery has already been described in my progress reports ; it is
therefore unnecessary to return to the subject. Had it not been for these unfortunate
occurrences, I entertain no doubt that the total catch would have shown twenty-five per
cent better, making the number of cases packed this season at least 500 larger than last
year, and this too with no increase in the number of canneries.

One pleasing feature to notice is the alacrity with which people submit to the
regulations enacted for the protection of this valuable industry. During a whole season's
intercourse with fishermen and canners, I met with nothing but courtesy and willing
compliance. In this connection I may mention the fact that the regulation forbidding
the setting of traps in waters less than two fathoms deep was religiously observed, as
you have already been apprised by my progress reports. The regulation relative to the
minimum size of lobsters was also strictly observed, and when visiting boats on their
arrival, I never detected a single fish under 8 inches. 'As a matter of fact, lobsters
were on an average of a larger size this year than usual ; very few fish measuring less
than 10 inches and a good many over 15 and 16 inches.

Females in spawn did not visit the grounds until the middle of June. The cold
weather experienced during the whole month of May and the early part of June may
have had some influence on their migration.

The departmental reports for 1880 show a total lobster catch for the divisions of
Gasp^ and Port Daniel (fishing apparently not being carried on higher up than Port
Daniel Bay) of 448,559 one pound cans, which being reduced to cases of four dozen each
give a total of 9,345 cases against 3,714 in 1900. The figures for 1890 are not so dis-
proportionate and the difference is less striking ; being only 4,387 cases in 1890, against
3,714 in 1900.

These figures, if correct, are certainly instructive. They show the heavy inroads
made on the fishery since an enormous decrease of 5,631 cases occurs in the short spsoe
of twenty years. They would also go far to explain the heavy rise which has taken
place in prices during the interval.

I have the honour to be, sir,
Your obedient servant,

N. LAVOIE,
^ Inspector of Fisheries,



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FISHERY INSPECTORS* REPORTS— QUEBEC 191

SESSIONAL PAPER No. 22



REPORT ON THE FISHERIES OP THE WESTERN DIVISION OF QUEBEC
FOR THE YEAR 1900, BY INSPECTOR A. H. BELLIVEAU.

Ottawa, Ist Feby., 1901.

To the Dominion Commissioner of Fisheries,
Ottawa.

SiE, — The district under my charge comprises all that part of the province of
Quebec south-west of the Saguenay River and Bellechasse County. For the convenience
of establishing comparisons in the yield of fisheries with those of former years, the old
subdivisions are mostly adhered to, even when coming under different offcers.

In nearly every part of my large district, there seems to be a steady decline of the
best grades of fish, the bulk of the yield now chiefly consisting of the coarse kinds. For
instance, in the counties of Charlevoix and Montmorency, including the numerous weirs
of the Island of Orleans, although the aggregate value is even higher than the previous
ones, eels constitute the principal item therein. In fact, it is asserted that shad, bass,
whitefish and other good fishes have become so scarce that hardly any attempts are now
made to capture them, the weirs being only set late in the season for the eel fishing.
The season of 1 900 must have been a propitious and favourable one for that kind of
fish, as the catch of eels proved a profitable one.

The same remark could be applied to most of the other subdivisions. In the
counties of Richelieu and Yamaska, the best fishing localities of lake St. Pierre, the
catch is now chiefly made up of coarse and mixed fish, which exceeds three quarters of a
million pounds in the latter county alone. Not only the valuable food fishes are getting
scarcer, but even the coarse grades are gradually falling ofi in size as well as in quantity.
So small are some of the immature fish now offered for sale on our public markets, that
it seems a regrettable shortsightedness on the fishermen's part not to have liberated
them alive when possible. Fishery regulations should specify a minimum length or
weight of the different species which are worthy of protection ; but so long as immature
fish will be tolerated on our markets, so long will quality be sacrificed to quantity by
the improvident and needy fisherman.

Naturally, as the size of fish declines, the mesh of the capturing implements
decreases in proportion, hence the necessity of enactments restricting the size, use and
limits of all such fishing gear. This specially refers to the above mentioned district of
lake St. Pierre, around whose shore it is estimated, that there are over 3,000 hoop nets
in use, half of which perhaps would fall below the former measurement of mesh.

As nearly every fisherman in these localities is possessor of ten or fifteen of these
verveux, (though paying license for a couple) he replaces the useless ones by new ones
of as small a mesh as will be tolerated. Again, I strongly recommend that proper
regulations be adopted to modify and regulate this popular mode of fishing. Were all
licensed fishery apparatus so marked, it would very much facilitate the duties of the
different fishery officers.

While the catch of bass (achigan) in the whole inland district from Quebec City to
the Upper Ottawa, is given at only 86,000 pounds, that of pickerel, pike, eels, perch,
sturgeon and even catfish all exceeded 300,000 pounds, besides nearly 2,000,000 pounds
of other coarse and mixed fish not itemized. The total fish yield of this district
aggregates a value of nearly $170,000 being about as much as last year.

In the statistical table, the Ottawa River subdivision shows a value of $24,300,
which looks like an increase over the previous one, but it is not, as this amount includes
value of the fisheries of Gatineau lakes and streams as tiibutaries of the Ottawa, and in
fact, represents a decrease of about $6,000.

There is also a considerable falling of in the St. Maurice division, owing to the poor
catch of tom-cod in that vicinity. The shortage of this little frost fish was so much felt
that the local shippers had recourse to the Miramichi district to supply the demand. It



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m MARINE AND FISHERIES

1-2 EDWARD Vll^ A. IQtt

is to be hoped that the old time abundanoe of the tommy cod will again put in an
appearance, as it is considered quite a boom in that locality, coming as it does at a time
when other remunerative employment is scarce. C"^

When in Three Rivers, seeking information respecting this branch of the fishing
industry, I was told of a certain party who had shipped several car loads of torn ood.
Upon questioning the individual himself, I found out that it was true ; but that these
frost fish had not all been cauffht in the vicinity; that they came mostly from Chatham,
N.B,, and of course had already been included in the catch of that district.

It is most difficult to secure reliable data in such matters. Some fishermen are
unwilling to give any real information, fearing increased taxation, others answer with-
out reflection, at random, careless to deceive, and others with perceptible exaggeration
one way or the other. When one computes a weekly catch of a few hundred pounds
of fish, multiplied by four weeks, for six to nine months, the individual fishermen
remain astounded at the result I have met fishermen who when questioned about
their season's catch of fish would say, 'I don't know, a few hundredweights, perhaps
a couple of thousand pounds altogether.' Then by examining the books of the
wharfinger of the locality I would ascertain that the same doubtful party had shipped
as much as 1,500 lbs. of fish at one time to the Montreal market, and would average
over 700 lbs. weekly, all during the navigation time, thus bringing his individual
catch over 15,000 lbs., exclusive of the winter catch. Were it not to assort
the different species, it would be easier to estimate the bulk of fish shipped to
Montreal markets from the end of Lake St. Pierre to Lake St. Louis. Some better
means of obtaining more reliable information from the indifiTerent fishermen should
be devised for these inland divisions. However, even if the present figures are
partly estimated, I am of opinion that in most cases they are still undervalued,
as very often the catch of the amateur fisherman for domestic use is not included,
that of licensed fishermen alone being collected. On another occasion I met a fisher-
man on the Bonsecour market who admitted having about 2,000 lbs. of carp on
that June day, and who disposed of it all at fair prices. Although somewhat preju-
diced against all coarse fish in general, and of the sucker kind in particular, I found
this large carp, locally named nez galeux^ very palatable, so much so that I went to
examine the means of their capture. This characteristic of scabby snout in the cato»
tomtbs communis from which this species receives its local name, is only noticed in the
male fish during their breeding season, after which it disappears. They are canght
with seines in about 4 and 5 feet of water when approaching their spawning beds. "Die
current being rather strong in the vicinity of St. Lambert, it requires five men to
handle the seine, four of whom jump in the water at stated intervals as the seine is paid
out, all helping the fifth to draw it in and throw the fish into the large flat boat used
for that purpose. The fish are then liberated alive in a large reservoir near to shore,
where they are held prisoners by a loose stone wall through which fresh water passes
until the next market day. At this their spawning time, these carp are certainly good
esculent fish and much in demand on the Montreal markets. After the 30th June
none are caught or seen until the next spring.

The question of prohibiting all netting in Lakes St Louis and St. Francis, which
are enlargements of the St. Lawrence, is under serious consideration. Such a measure,
rendering any of the said fishing gear found in use liable to confiscation, would greatiy
facilitate the duties of the local officers. Although this apparently drastic measure
would seem rather hard on a few regular fishermen who depend exclusively on this
calling for a living, the general public would derive more benefit therefrom, and most
of these interested parties could easily find other employment if they were only willing



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