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consequence of their incessant pleading that they were anxious to
make peace with us, he had taken the Caepmen under his sub-
jection, and that the latter were prepared to restore half of .the



130

1659. stolen cattle. Thereupon she was sent back to Oedasoa with some
aoth~bct. presents and the following answer ; viz. :

That not for the sake of the Caepmen, but in consequence of
Oedasoa's request, we were willing to make peace, but that in that
case they were to restore to us what they had so treacherously
stolen from us, and should they agree to this some of their principal
men might accompany her to the Fort in order to speak of
peace.

But sirs ! we dare not trust Oedasoa and Eva, as we have men-
tioned more fully in ours of the 22nd September, so that we do
not know what the result of matters will be, but we shall expect the
best from God the Lord, and in the meantime fortify ourselves
with the abovementioned fences, &c., that our cattle may no longer
be so easily driven away from us.

And should we finally find that Oedasoa only intends to deceive
us, our intentions are (when the above mentioned defences have
been completed, and our cattle are inside of them under good pro-
tection) to detain such of his people as may visit the Fort, until
according to his promise, he has delivered our enemies into our
hands, or guided us to them, that we may ourselves attack them
and bring them to reason, &c. We, however, do not believe that
we shall take this step before we have obtained from you by the
next return fleet your wiser opinioB, unless urgent necessity com-
pels us, and the nature of affairs cannot suffer delay. In that case
we hope to conduct ourselves according to time and circumstances
in the best interests of the Company, and with such knowledge
and judgment as God the Lord may inspire us with.

Since Eva was sent away with our answer, the Watermen or
Kerry's people, before this attacked by the Corporal (as already
mentioned), came to us on the 14th instant, and requested once
more to be permitted to live near the Fort, with their huts, wives
and children. This was allowed in order to attract the Caep-
men also, that we may the better seize our opportunity against
them, one day or another, according to Resolution embodied in our
journal of the loth instant.

The annexed letters of her officers will inform you of the painful
voyage of the return yacht JEraxmu* from the Comoros and Mada-
gascar. Her 30 dead included her skipper, Lely. . . . The
survivors had suffered much in tbe unhealthy climate of the island
Ansuany. We are busy nourishing the weak ones, which, on
account of our healthy climate, is very successful. (See our
Resolutions of the 7th and 9th instant, as well as our journal.)
We have also decided to delay her departure uniil the arrival of
the return fleet, in order not to be captured by English privateers
with Swedish Commissions. Nor do we like her to call at St.
Helena, which the English have occupied and fortified on two-
tpots, according to letters of the Masters dated 7th May, hi which



131

it is also stated that we are not to expect any horses from home. 1669 -
Accordingly, we trust, in order to be able to defend and save our 20th"oct.
cattle, some will be sent us in the following return ships. . . .

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK.
ROELOFF DE MAN.
ABRAHAM GABBEMA.

Lists of annexures to preceding despatch .

No. 5. Invoice of turkeys (calcoenen) shipped in the Malacca.



To Batavia.

Since our last no change worth mentioning has taken place in 28 * h Dec.
the case of the Hottentoos, except that Eva, on the 14th Dec.,
accompanipd in the Schapenjachtje, Fiscal Gabbema and the
skippers Mangus and Corn. Lodewyckxe from Said. Bay, who
had been there further to explore and sound it. She mentioned
that her brother-in-law, Oedasoa, had given his little flag to the
Caepmen in order to send their Commissioners with it to the Fort
and treat of peace. What the facts are, time will show. In
the meanwhile we are safely getting our corn into the garners,
which has been as successful as never before, as more than one-
half more was reaped than the previous year, or about 30 lasts of
the different kinds, so that we as well as the freemen are already
living on it, and if matters continue so, will soon have turned the
corner. It is a pity that this year our best draught oxen have
been taken from us, and so many husbandmen ruined in conse-
quence, otherwise we might have had such an abundance that we
might have paid for the rice reqiiisitioned for with wheat, but this
is now a year lost. We hope, however, that it will be better in
future, if we can only obtain some cattle again. At any rate, we
shall, with the blessing of God, be able to subsist on what is still
left us of cultivation without requiring more than the rice lately
asked for, or any other grain from other places.

Herry and another Hottentoo prisoner escaped from Robben
Island in a little boat with two small oars, used for fishing
purposes and communicating with the vessels. It appears that he
reached the opposite shore safely, as the boat was found a day and
a-half 's journey from this with its oars high and dry on shore (see
journal of 13th Dec., 1659). Eva believes that as he once stole
our cattle, he will now return with many others of the Chainouquas
in order to gain our favour. This would be desirable, so that
everything may take a turn for the best, as this year has been a
very troublous one.

What happened here since the departure of the Malacca, and
how we narrowly escaped being murdered, and the settlement

K 2



132



1659.



28th Dec.



burnt, you will read in our journal of the 19th instant
(December). The Resolution of the combined Council on the
subject has, however, been left in abeyance until the arrival of the
return fleet. In the meanwhile eight of the principal ringleaders
were placed in close confinement, and some others who were less
guilty lightly (civiel) punished and exchanged for others on board
the Gccroonde Lecuw and sent to Batavia. Thus we have rid our-
selves as much as possible from those tares, with the hope that we
have extinguished the dangerous fire which would otherwise have
commenced to burn last Sunday night, the 14th, had it not been
revealed to us during the previous afternoon at 2 o'clock. The
return yacht Erasmus had also been threatened, as the conspirators
intended to seize and proceed in her to Angola, &c

The Erasmus has been so well provided from the Gccroonde
Leeinc that she will require nothing from the return fleet, and will
be able to accompany the latter at once. . . .



(Signed)



List of annexures to the above.



JOHAN VAN RlEREECK.
ROELOFF DE MAX.

ABRAHAM GABBEMA.



1660.
21st Jan.



To Batavia.

Since our last, the Hottentoos have kept quiet. A few days
ago we observed fires inland and sent out men to reconnoitre, but
hitherto they have discovered nothing. In the meanwhile the
corn has everywhere been gathered into the garners. What may
further happen (opdonderen) time will tell. There is every
appearance that our enemies, the Caepmen, are inclined to be
reconciled to us according to the reports from the freemen at
.Saldanha Bay. (See journal of the 18th instant.) . . .

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK.
ROELOFF DE MAN.
ABRAHAM GABBEMA.

P.S. With this vessel the Enck/wysen we send you tix turkeys,
three cocks and three hens. See invoice annexed.
Lists of annexures to the above.



To the Admiral and Broad Council of the Return Fleet.
expressly icith the Fiscal to sea in the little Schapenjac/ijen.



Sent



1 2th Feb. With humble greeting we inform you that the English have
garrisoned St. Helena, and that, as ordered by the Seventeen, the



133



fleet is not to call there, as we do not know whether, in con-
sequence of the tottering Government in England, a firmer
alliance with our State has been concluded, or a rupture has again
taken place. We inform you of this by express, that it may be of
service to you should strong south-easters kep you away from
this, and urge you to make for this roadstead as soon as the wind
enables you. If this be impossible, you are to anchor below
Eobben or Dassen Island, or make for Saldanha Bay, whence you
may sail to this with a W. breeze which often blows most unex-
pectedly. If you cannot do this, you can always be succoured
from here.

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEKCK.

KOELOFF DE MAN.

ABRAHAM GABBEMA.



1660.
12th Feb.



To the Hon. P. Sterthemius, Councillor of. India and Admiral of
thf- Return Fleet outside, sent by the flute Loenen to meet you.

On the evening of the 15th, between 9 and 10 o'clock, we
received with the little flute Loenen your very pleasant letter of
the 27th Dec., written on board Het Wapen van Holland at
Cracatouw. In compliance with its contents, we at once
despatched the Loenen to cruize about for you, and to warn you of
the tottering condition of English affairs, and that it is the
express order of the Masters that the fleet shall not call at St.
Helena this season. As the Loenen was kept back by calms, as
much was discharged from her as possible. The rest of her cargo
is still on board. We trust that our warning will reach you in
good time. Here everything is, thank God, in a desirable
condition. We have an abundance of fruit for refreshment, but
our cattle have been much diminished by the thefts of the
Hottentoos and an abnormal mortality among the animals.
However, the rogues have now left us in peace for a long while,
in consequence of the fright brought on them, praise be to God,
so that they are evidently desirous of peace.

We can hardly tell you how much the sending of the horses has
gladdened us. We only hope that they will reach us alive, and,
though the fleet may not touch at St. Helena, we humbly request
that the dogs may not be thrown overboard for that reason, but
brought to us, as they are very necessary for us here.

We have handed Skipper Schrael the Hollandse Mercurius and
other newspapers down to the 6th Sept., 1659, inclusive, in
order to be delivered to you, that you may at once be able to read
some home news. . . . We have also given him 22 large
baskets with yellow (carrots), 13 do. beet, and 4 do. parsnips,
besides 450 cabbages, 320 water melons, 2 melons, as well as



17th Feb.



134

i860. other vegetables. "What remains good he is to deliver to you for
nthFeb distribution. . . . We trust he will find you soon, that you
may enjoy the fruit, &c., in their fresh condition. Should, how-
ever, he fall in with you tardily and the stuff be spoilt, the fleet
will find enough on its arrival here, as, glory be to G-od ! the
gardens and vegetable plots are excellently furnished. Most of
the cattle, however, as already said, have disappeared through
thefts and mortality among them. For the n st, wheat cultivation
is in a desirable state, as for some time everything has been quiet
since the Hottentoo war. The latter are, as already mentioned,
asking for peace, as we shall communicate to you more fully
personally.

(Signed) JOHAN VAN RIEBEECK.

List of annexures to preceding despatch.



To the Seventeen,

19th March. Our last were dated the 5th March and 26th April, 1659. In
the one we wrote you very circumstantially, almost in the form of
a report (verbaal), regarding the state of this residency, and also
replied to your pleasant general and private letters down to the
2nd Sept., 1658.

On the 25th September, 1659, the return ship Erasmus arrived.
(For further particulars see journal 25th September, 1659, and
preceding despatches to Batavia.)

Ships' arrivals and departures.

This will be a reply to yours of the 7th May and to two small
letters of the Chamber Amsterdam, dated 23rd May and llth

June, as well as to your general despatch of the 5th Sept., 1659,

>

But first, as regards the war with which th* Hottentoos have
surprised us, shortly after all the outward winter and Indian
return ships had left, when, in obedience to your orders, the
garrison had been considerably reduced, and instead of soldiers
we had provided ourselves with farmers.

This the interpreter, Doman (who had been with Mr. van
Goens at Batavia and learnt too much there), had very nicely
observed with, his Caepmen and adherents, and turned to his
advantage, at the same time installing himself as Captain-General
over the warriors that had congregated together from the Caep-
men and tobacco thieves, as well as some men of their adherent
Ankaisoa, ere this cured by our surgeon from a severe wound in
the knee inflicted by a lion. To these resorted all the beach

ingers and brigands at the summons of Doman. Attacking us
suddenly, as already said, on all sides, in a short time they carried off
Irom the Company, but chiefly from the freemen, 148 of the best



135

draught oxen and milch cows, as well as 135 sheep, as will be seen

from the annexed memorandum, thus entirely ruining five corn farms T 9t h March.

and half ruining those of tbe Company and the Commander, which

are the two most important of all, and that at the worst and most

injurious time of the year, in the beginning of May, when the

ploughing season commences.

The tables were accordingly quickly and completely turned
against us, and everything of which we had been able to give such
favourable accounts in our last letters appeared to be going to ruin.
At the very first we had many wounded, whilst shortly afterwards
two were killed, so that, as already mentioned, being so short of
men, we did not know whither to turn, cr how to defend ourselves
in this sudden predatory war; whilst our anxiety became the
greater because we had collected and reared such a fine lot of
oattle, which with our corn culture we had to protect and preserve.
The first attack took place on the 4th May, one day after the
departure of the return yacht Naerden, as will be seen in our
journal, to which marginals have been added for easy reference,
and to which we refer you in order to avoid unnecessary details
here, and to show you as briefly as possible how we, during those
troublous times, placed ourselves in a posture of defence, as there
was no other course open to us, and we were hardly able to do
even that. At the same time we still managed to struggle along
with the cultivation of wheat, which we have maintained so far,
that, though no new ground has been broken, and only the old
lauds of last year have been sown, God the Lord has been pleased
to grant them such a good blessing that we are certain of it that
we shall thresh a third more grain than last year, judging from
the quantities already brought into the garners and still packed
in stacks. Last year the whole quantity consisted of about
32 lasts, of which 19 were raised by the Company alone, which now,
however, has much more from the same lands in its granaries
and stacks. The freemen in proportion.

Meanwhile the Orangie and Honingen arrived, and we were
necessitated to increase our garrison to 120 men, whilst it also
pleased God the Lord again to bless the Company's arms, first on
the 19th July in the first encounter under Fiscal Abraham
Gabbema and three horsemen, who shot down three Hottentoos
and heavily wounded their leader, the interpreter, Doman, who,
however, escaped; and afterwards, on the 4th August, with eleven
soldiers under Corporal Elias Giers, when three more were killed,
and a whole encampment of robbers disturbed and dispersed.
One of the killed was the chief of the beach rangers, named
Orosoa, so that since they bave been somewhat intimidated, and
left us for a long time afterwards unmolested, and we could in
the meanwhile regain our breath and find time to think of making
ourselves more secare, and enclose our cattle by the making of



136

160. three watch-houses and a fence of poles and rails, as the besfc
v i boundaries (raarkten) in the Fatherland, 2 ^?) high, and 2,000
' roods in length, at the places where they always drove our cattle
through and carried them off. This work was begun in accord-
ance with our resolutions of the 9th and 13th August, and has
been so far completed that they will not lightly be able, without
losing their lives, to rob us of so much cattle. But this is certain,
gentlemen, that the settlement cannot be maintained with less
than 120 men, however fine the peace may be ^that we may make
with these natives, as we more and more experience that (as soon
as they see a chance) they cannot refrain from their robberies, not
even the right Saldanhars, who appear to be so much more
reasonable than the Caepmeu and their friends, for through
intercourse (with us) they have also Become bold and overtrouble-
some, and are not to be trusted, as will be seen from the journal
in various places, especially on the 20th June, when we commenced
(treating) with Oedasoa, the chief or king of the Cochoquas or
Saldanhars, brother-in-law of the interpretess Eva, educated by
the Commander in his house. We thought that we would be able
to do very good business with him, according to Eva's statements,
who during the war voluntarily remained at the Fort, and whose
beginnings promised a great appearance of truth, but she also has
been found to be full of hypocrisy, so that we do not trust her
more than as a hypocritical friend, as will be seen from the
journal dated 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 26th, 28lh, 29th, and 30th
June, the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, and especially the 9th and 12th
and 16th July, the 20th, 21st, and 22nd September, and the 14th
December, which mention all our transactions with them, which
are briefly narrated here.

Being then, as above mentioned, suddenly assailed by war and
annoying robbery, and Eva alone staying with us in the Fort, she
informed us that neither Oedasoa, the chief of the Saldanhars and
her brother-in-law, nor any of hia people had any part in the war,
but that, on the contrary, it was altogether against their liking,
and that he would accordingly seize the opportunity, as the Caep-
nien had behaved so outrageously, to enter into a closer alliance
with us, in order to have the benefit of the Dutch nation, which
the Caepmen had so long but so ungratefully enjoyed, and that
for that purpose, as soon as he heard of it, he had decided to seize
the first opportunity when the weather was fine (the rain falling
and the wind blowing daily at present) to send us some of his
men, who would be known by the sheep which they would bring
with them, in order not to be received as enemies. All this fell
out, as stated on the 20th June aforesaid. (See full particulars in
our journal.) This was succeeded by various missions and nego-
ciations to and fro, but the more earnestly we endeavoured to-
come to some good and trustworthy alliance and conditions, th/>



137

more clearly it was made evident to us that it was only pretence 166 -
and hypocrisj', for at first he had boasted that we could just sit igth March,
still and take care of the cattle and goods that we still possessed,
as he would destroy all our marauding enemies and recover our
stolen cattle, and by barter supply us with as many more as we
needed.

Nothing, however, came of this, so that we proposed that he
should supply us with a few guides to enable us to find our
enemies and attack them ourselves. His reply was that he
would furnish us with a large number of his bravest warriors to
attack the enemy in conjunction with us, but that we should not
be in such a hurry, as he would take care to let us know when the
chances were favourable.

Of this also nothing came except wind, so that we insisted upon
having one or two men to show us where they were lying,
for the purpose before stated, when at last, on the 9th July, his
hypocrisy was exposed. For then he informed us through Eva
(whom he employed as his agent with us) and through his
emissaries that he had to retire deeper into the interior to search
for better pastures, and therefore could not very well induce any
of his people to conduct us to the Caepmen, whom we might treat
according to our fancy, kill those whom we caught, or employ
them as slaves, or send them away just as we liked, completely
surrendering to us all who endeavoured to rob us or cause us any
annoyance, even if they belonged to his own people, without
taking it amiss.

But the contrary has been experienced from what we under-
stood from captured Hottentoos and Herry, namely, that it was
bis object to get the Caepraen under his dominion for his own.
benefit, as he saw that without his assistance, we had, in the two
encounters above mentioned, brought terror on them. He there-
fore very cleverly seized the opportunity to take them under his
protection plausibly at their request and continuous complaints
and lamentations, and to set up as mediator in order to treat for
peace, as mentioned in the journal of the 20th and 21st Sept.

But what is to be thought or believed on this subject it is difficult
to gues?. One thing, however, seems clear, that Oedasoa would
rather not have us make a permanent peace with the Caepmen,
for now that they are beginning to sue for peace, Eva is continu-
ally at us, as will be seen from the journal of the 18th December,
with the statement that Oedasoa has ordered her continually to
remind us that the Caepmen do not ask for peace with their
hearts, but were only dissembling, and that we were to take care
not to believe them too much, but also on our part make a feigned
peace with them.

Above all we were to take care not again to estrange ourselves
from him, but be for ever allied to him as brothers. He soems to



138

1660. dread that the Caepmen will be again reconciled to us, whilst at
the same time he would not wish them to be ruined by us.

We have therefore concluded that we have here to do with no
other people than such against which we are continually to be on
our guard, the one (tribe) as well as the other, so that we cannot
effect our purpose with less than 120 men. Moreover it is not
unreasonable to suppose that Oedasoa intended, in case the Caepmen
had had any success, to render them assistance under hand, and if
the Caepmen had somewhat cleared the course, to side with them, his
intention no doubt having been all along to hoodwink us, and
having joined our enemies, to drive us completely away from the
Cape, as Doman had often pretended to be sufficiently practicable,
though, thank God, they were unsuccessful, and they now begin
themselves to offer us peace, &c.

And though it was dire necessity to defend ourselves against
enemies from without, it was too sad to find that sometimes un-
faithful fellows were found among our own people, as was ex-
perienced during this year of trouble, so named with justice,
as in addition to the said war and treachery within, we had
mortality among the cattle, and traitors (both servants of the
Company as well as of the freemen) who had planned a most
execrable and never-before-heard-of massacre and destruction at
this place. . . . (See journal 14th-24th December attempt to
seize the Erasmus, &c., and massacre the garrison.)

In reply to your letter of the 7th May and those from Amster-
dam of the 23rd May and llth July last, as well as those of the
4th and oth September following, we humbly state that according
to the books the wheat, &c., threshed in the year 1653-1659 were
as followe :

From the Company's Lands Only.

195 maids wheat, being fully 10-& lasts at 3,0-10 Ibs. or 1$
muids per last.

20| muids rye, being fully 1-Jg- lasts at 3,040 Ibs. or 19 muids
per last.

103 muids barley, being fully 5-^ lasts at 3,040 Ibs. or 19 muids
per last.

40 muids oats, being fully 2-fr lasts, all put into the
ground again this year (1659).

4| muids white and grey peas, all destroyed in the fields by
frost and beetles as soon as they began to blossom, so that we are
entirely out of them.

Mealies, \ Not more than a bushel altogether, which,

Cadjangh, however, have all been put into the ground again

Indian beane, ) to see whether we shall be able to multiply them.

Hence from the Company's lands alone we have obtained 19 T V
lasts.



139

From the Commander's Lands. 166 -

muids wheat. ) Planted on fully 12 morgen of land=ff I9th March

1 muid barley. ) last.

He has, however, 10 or 12 hundred vines growing, which will
bear in 2 or 3 years' time, judging from the appearance of the
mother stems in the Company's gardens.

From All the Freemen.

188fV muids wheat jr-.cn 011

41* do. barley } *>ng Wy Leasts.

Making a grand total of . . . . . . 32 T 2 y- lasts.

According to our calculation based on counting the sheaves in



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