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CAPE OF GOOD HOPE



PARLIAMENT



^s LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL



COMMITTEE ON THE
ANNEXATION OF THE
TRANSKEIAN TERRITORY



^- REPORT AND PROCEEDINGS




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES

GIFT OF

THE ARCHIVES DEPARTMENT.
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA.




)5 f CAPE OF GOOD HOPE

ti

REPORT AND PROCEEDINGS



illTEE OF THE LEGISLATIVE COONC



u



O'N THE ANNEXATION OF THE



MSKEIAN TERRITORY.




published hi) onU\[ of il^ S^jgislatiiri* dfouncil.



JULY, 1861.



V CAPE TOWN:

S0L0\0N AND CO., STEAM PRINTING OFFICE

\ 1861.

.'61. ANKEXATIO\



CAl'B OF GOOD HOPE.



REPORT AND PROCEEDINGS



OP THE



ITTEE OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL



ON THE ANNEXATION OF THE



TRANSKEIAN TERRITORY.




|ublishd h\) flrdiii of Ih^ S^jgislatitJ^ djouncil.



JULY, 1861.



SAUL SOLOM



,C3.— '01. ANNEXilj



OWN:
STEAM PRINTIN J OFFICE,



§V4

[Hi] Tiai

lv~\



REPORT



OF THE

SELECT COMMITTEE, appointed by RESOLUTION of
the LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, on the 18th July,
1861, on the subject of the ANNEXATION of the
TRANSKEIAN TERRITORY, with power to call for
PAPERS and EXAMINE WITNESSES.

PRESENT :

His Honour the President (in the Chair),



Mr. de Wet,
Mr. de Roubaix,
Mr. Jarvis,



Mr. von Maltitz,
Mr. Tucker,

Mr. Wicht.



Your Committee beg leave to report :

That, from information contained in the documents laid
before the Council, and by reason of the strong evidence
adduced by Sir Walter Currie and the Hon. Acting Colonial
Secretary it is expedient, in order to follow up the approved
policy of Sir George Grey with reference to the question,
that speedy measures should be devised for declaring British
Authority in that part of the country between the Kei and
the Bashee Rivers, and the latter and Natal, with a view of
securing tranquillity on the borders of the Colony. To carry
out so desirable, apparently urgent, an object, this commit-
tee would recommend that the evidence collected, and the
views entertained by them on the subject, be transmitted, by
respectful address, to His Excellency the Governor, with a
request to communicate the same to the Secretary for the
Colonies, so that such means may be adopted by the Imperial
Government as will ensure peace and efficient government in
this part of Her Majesty's Colonial Possessions.

WM. HODGES, Chairman.
Committee Rooms, 25th July, 1851.






PROCEEDINGS OE COMMITTEE.

Saturday, July 20th, 1861.



PRESENT :

His Honour the President.



Mr. de Wet,
Mr. de Roubaix,



Mi\ Tucker,
?,Ir. Wicht.



Resolved, that His Honour take the Chair.
Order for appointment of Committee read.
Sir Walter Currie examined.
Committee adjourns to Tuesday next.



Tuesday, 2^rd July, 1861.
PRESENT :

His Honour the President (Chairman),

Mr. de AVet,
Mr. de Roubaix,
Mr. Jarvis,



Mr, von Maltitz,
Mr. Tucker,
Mr. Wicht.



Committee in discussion.
After discussion.

Resolved, that Mr. Southey be summoned to attend to-morrow
at half-past 10 o'clock, to which time the committee then adjourns.



Wednesday, 24fh July, 1861.



present :
His Honour the President (Chairman).



Mr. de Wet,
Mr. de Roubaix,
Mr. Jarvis,



Mr. von Maltitz,
Mr. Tucker,
Mr. Wicht,



jMr. Southey examined.

Committee adjourns to to-morrow at half-past 10 a.m.



VI REPORT OF COMMITTEE,



Thursday, 25th July, 1861.



PRESENT :

His Honour the President (Chairman).



Mr. de Wet,
Mr. de Roubaix,
Mr. Jarvis,



Mr. von Maltitz,
Mr. Tucker,
Mr. Wicht.



Committee in deliberation.

Mr. de Roubaix moves : That from information contained in the
documents laid before the Council, and by reason of the strong
evidence adduced by Sir Walter Currie and the Honourable the
Acting Colonial Secretary, it is expedient in order to follow up
the approved policy of Sir George Grey, with reference to the
question, that speedy measures should be devised for declaring
British authority in that part of the country between the Kei and
the Bashee Rivers, and the latter and Natal, with a view of
securing tranquillity on the borders of the colony. To carry out
so desirable apparently urgent an object, this committee would
recommend that the evidence collected, and the views entertained
by them on the subject, be transmitted by respectful address to
His Excellency the Governor, with a request to communicate the
same to the Secretary for the Colonies, so that such means may
be adopted by the Imperial Government as will ensure peace and
efficient government in this part of Her Majesty's colonial pos-
sessions.

Discussion ensues.

During discussion,

Mr. Wicht moves as an amendment, the adoption of the follow-
ing: Your committee beg leave to report that they have
attentively perused the several despatches and other documents
relating to the Trans-Keian territory, that they have also
examined Sir Walter Currie, the Commander of the Mounted
Border Police, as well as the Acting Secretary to Government;
but they do not feel warranted in recommending that the
Trans-Keian territory should be annexed to this colony as it will
unquestionably entail additional expense, involve the colony in
all the quarrels which may arise among the different tribes, and
by thus further extending our boundaries into the interior, retard
the progress of the older portions of this colony, as the Gover-
nor's presence, either in the capacity of Governor or as High
Commissioner, will be almost constantly required on the more
immediate borders to settle the very intricate questions that may
arise ; and his absence may thus tend to the serious detriment of
the internal administration of this already overgrown settlement,
as the financial and administrative difficulties which Parliament
have been called upon to redress have abundantly proved ; but



PROCEEDINGS OF COMMITTEE. VII



your committee deem it, however, expedient to submit it for the
consideration of" the Council, that as there are now three settle-
ments under the British Crown, namely the Cape Colony, British
KafFraria, and Natal, that it will mainly tend to the tranquilli-
zation and improvement of the various races' inhabiting the Trans-
Keian territory, if that part of the country should be declared
also British possession under the more immediate control of the
Imperial Government, with exception of that portion to be
retained by Faku and his tribes, as your committee fear, unless
the Home authorities should do so and settle the country upon
a system of military tenure, that a scene of confusion and blood-
shed will arise, which may ultimately prove most disastrous to
the different important settlements of Her Majesty in South
Africa.

Discussion continues.

After discussion.

Mr. Wicht's amendment put and Committee divides.

Contents: — Messrs. Wicht and von Maltitz.

NoN-CoNTENTS : — Mcssrs, de Wet, Tucker, Jarvis, and de
Roubaix.

Whereupon amendment negatived.

Original motion put and Committee divides.

Contents: — Messrs. Tucker, de Roubaix, and Jarvis.

NoN-CoNTENTS : — Mcssrs. de Wet, Wicht, and von Maltitz.

The Chairman gives his casting vote with the Contents.

Whereupon original motion agreed to.

Resolved, that the above resolution be reported to the Council.



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE.



ATNNBXATION COMMITTEE.



Saturday, 20tk July, 1861.



PRESENT :

His Honour the President (Chairman),



Mr. De Wet,
Mr. Tucker,



Mr. De Roubaix,
Mr. Wicht.



Sir Walter Currie, (Commandant of the Armed Mounted
Police Force, examined.

1. Chamnan.] Will you be good enough to give the Sir tf. Currie.
Committee a general description of the territory, between jijy "^isgi
Kaffraria and Natal, — with reference to the map accom-
panying the report sent in by you ? — The Transkeian country

is somewhat larger than Kaffraria, or perhaps about the same
size, reaching from the sea to the Drakenberg mountains.
Since the expulsion of Kreli, there has been no one living
there except a few natives, who have been allowed to go in
with the consent of the Government, and pay taxes. Some
of them assisted in Kreli's expulsion under Major Gawler, and
they were allowed to remain three years without paying
taxes, though I believe that now the period has elapsed and
they also pay.

2. Is it an agricultural country ? — Yes ; nearly the whole
of it. The upper part is very good for pasturage, but the
lower part certainly not. The same as Kaffraria itself

3. What force have you there now ? — Since we expelled
Kreli, we have only had 100 men of our force there, exclu-
sive of certain Kafirs under a Magistrate, who also act as
policemen, but do not belong to our force. These 100 men
are posted at three stations ; 50 at Butterworth, 25 close to
the Bashee, and 25 at Isomo, another wagon road which
comes out from Queen's Town.

4. Speaking generally, is the country unoccupied now for

C —'61. ANNEXATION-1. B



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE TAKEN BEFORE THE



Sir w. Currie. the purposes of Qgriculture ?— It is unoccupied now, and wait-
Juiy "ioTisGi. ing to be taken possession of by some form of government
that can keep it. I have written, time after time, expressing
a wish that it might be occupied, as I have been very much
afraid of its being overrun again, in consequence of the small
force at present stationed there.

5. Is there any tax collected in the district now? — Only
from the natives who have been allowed to settle there. The
memorandum annexed to the report will give you full infor-
mation on that point ; for the natives never were under my
management, as I have only charije of the police.

6. When did you leave that district? — In April or May,
this year ; w^hen I returned from the East.

7. What have you to propose as a good mode of holding
this country .'' — The proper course would be to occupy it
with Europeans, and with the police that are there now.
They would be able to hold their own if the country were
parcelled out as the Queen's Town district was.

8. You mean that there should be farms granted on
military tenure ? — I would not say granted ; but on military
service, with a condition of personal occupation, the same as
at Queen's '^i'own, with the difference that I would rather sell
the farms than grant them, because that would do away with
a great deal of difficulty. There are so many appHcations
already that you would not be able to find lialf room enough
in that country for the applicants, and you would disappomt
many if you granted some and refused others, instead of
putting the farms up to auction.

9. Mr. De Roubaix.] Do you not think this country
could be appropriated for the payment of the claims for com-
pensation ? —No ; I would not devote a farthing of it for that
purpose. I am myself a severe sufferer by all the wars, but
I would not use it in that way, because 1 think it could be
emplo}ed for better purposes. I think what I have sug-
gested is the safer plan, and a less difficult plan.

10. Chairman.] But do you think that these parties
would be ready to buy the farms ? — I think the whole of
these applicants are ready to buy. I do not say the farms
would fetch much, perhaps they may fetch £5, perhaps
they may fetch £50 ; but it would prevent the idea that
some of the applicants had been purposely thrown out and
others taken in.

11. Mr. Tne/ie7\] Would you not rather be in favour of



SELECT COMMITTEE ON ANNEXATION. 3

the farms beinnj sold oa quitrent, — not so much cash down, Sir w. Cume.
but so much annually ? — No. July loTisei.

12. Would that not be a permanent source of income;
and would it not allow of a poor man becoming a purchaser?
— I think that plan is open to objections, because selling for
a quitrent is a deceitful thing. When a man gives £5 or
£l-J per annum as quitrent, you may really find a lot of
ignorant people who do not understand it ; and perhaps
even £2 or £3 per annum for a farm in tliis way would be
dear, and cause after discontent.

13. Then you prefer selling absolutely ? — I prefer selling, so
as to prevent disappointments, which might otherwise take place.

14. Chairman.^ What number of applicants do you cal-
culate upon ? — I know that above 1500 have gone in; and
that is without any from the Western Province ; all from the
Eastern divisions ; from all the districts in the East, I have
seen applications.

i^. Mr, Wicht]. And are those from persons able to
provide the military service required ? — I think so. la
fact the condition of the grant would be that they could
provide such service ; and I do not think that anyone would
purchase a farm if he v^ere not prepared, because it would
be subject to be confiscated immediately.

16. Do you not think that under such a system many
land speculators would have an opportunity of buying farms
and putting in nominal parties as occupiers? — They could
not do so if you make personal occupation a condition.
That stops any practice of that kind, for the party is bound
by the grant to go there himself; he is not allowed to
provide a substitute, and besides he cannot either have two
farms in one name.

17. Chairman.'] Then if authority suflticient is given, Sir
Walter, that country could be at once occupied to the best
of your judgment, in the manner you have described, and
you believe such occupation necessary for the future safety
of the country ? — I do.

18. Is there any port on the sea-board, which would
enable supplies to be sent in to the country ? — There are two
ports which small vessels have already entered, and where
they have discharged their cargoes, but of course only small
vessels ; and there is a very good, I will not say road,
although wagons travel it, but a good track from Butterworth
to either, which can be travelled without any difficulty.



4 MINUTES OF EVIDENCE TAKEN BEFORE THE

Sir fr. Currie. iQ g^ t}j^|- \j^ ^asG of any disturbance taking place
July 20, 1861. inland, supplies could easily be poured in ? — Yes ; and to

save expense of overland carriage it would be necessary to

do so.

20. In your opinion would 1200 or 1400 settlers, aided
by the present available force of police, suffice for keeping the
country quiet ? — I think less than that. I do not think there
would be land enough for so many, after deducting the pro-
portion to which the natives would be entitled. I should
think there would only be room for about 800 ; that is, giving
each a small farm ; though there might be more afterwards,
when towns and villages are established ; the country is capa-
ble of supporting at least 1 00,000 people.

21. Is it desirable that some such plan of occupation
should be at once adopted, or may that country remain as it
is now without any danger to the colony ? — It cannot remain
as it is now without danger. I am perfectly surprised that it
has remained quiet so long, for I never expected to have
been able to hold it up to this time with 100 men. It has
been entirely owing to the force of circumstances, and to the
internal dissensions amongst the natives themselves that there
has been quiet so long ; but if we had occupied it at the
time we first took it, it would be so strong now that there
would be no fear to be apprehended in any shape. But now
it will not admit of much delay,

22. Will you show us where Kreli is ? — He now occupies
the spot I point out on the map. He has collected his forces
there, and in conjunction with several small tribes holds that
country.

23. Is he at war with any of his neighbours at present ? —
When I was there he was not at war with anybody ; but he
is now, with the Tambookies. If the committee has no
objection, I will show what my mission was to Kreli, and my
instructions to him, and how the governor wished to place
him in a better position than he is at the present moment,
which he refused. This is a memorandum on the subject : —

Memorandum.

Sir Walter Currie is requested if any opportunity oj0fers of
communicating with Kreli, to converse with him as follows, and
if possible, to conclude the arrangement detailed in this paper.
Any steps for carrying it out may be made with Dumas, Faku,
and Umditsha.

1. The Governor will consent upon the following conditions, to



SELECT COMMITTEE ON ANNEXATION. 5

Kreli and his people being located in the vacant territory beyond sir w. Currie.
the Umtata River, and will, if Kreli desires such an arrangement, — —
endeavour to procure the assent of any native Chiefs, who may ^ ^ '
have claims to this Territory, to its being carried out.

2. Kreli's people to be located in such villages as may be deci-
ded upon througliout the above named country in numbers of
from 100 to loO men in each village.

3. Each village to be under a headman, assisted by two or
more assistants, or second class men.

4. The whole to be under the control of Kreli,

5. Kreli assisted by a European jSIagistrate, to hear all such
cases as are usually brought before a principal chief.

6. Kreli to be paid a salary, of £10 per month, for performing
these duties.

7. The headman of each village to receive a salary of £l per
month, for his duties.

8. The assistants in each village to receive 10s. per month for
performing their duties.

9. All persons inhabiting this territory to pay 10s. per annum
hut tax, to defray the expenses of the territory, and a tax of
2s. 6d., per horse for each horse.

10. All fines to go to defray the expenses of the administration
of justice.

11. The revenue will be collected by the headman, acting
under the direction of the Magistrate.

12. Kreli's children may, for such number as is arran2;ed by Sir
Walter Currie, have a farm each allotted to them, on this side of
the Kei, and a farm in the same district may be given to Kreli
himself. Such farms can only be occupied by such persons as the
Government may permit to live there ; they may, with the assent
of tlie Government, be let to Europeans, and the rents applied for
the benefit of the owners of the farms in the same manner as has
been done for the other Kafir Chiefs and their families.

G. GREY-

King William's Town, 1st February, 1861.

And here is a scale of what the expense would be for 5000
men, in fifty villages of 100 men in each : —

Scale.

5,000 men in 50 villages of 100 men each.

One 1st class and two 3rd class men to each village.

Estimate op Cost.

1 Chief £100 per annum

50 1st class men at £12 each 600 „ „

100 3rd class men at £6 600 „ „

^£1,300



MINUTES OF EVIDENCE TAKEN BEFORE THE



Sir W. Currie. PoLICE {receiving HO rations').

July 20, 1861. 2 Mounted men at Is. each per diem £36 10

1 Foot Sergeant at £15 per annum 15

9 Privates at £12 each per annum 108



Total Police £159 10

Total chief class men, and police,. £1,459 10

Revenue :

Hut tax, on 5,000 huts at 10s. each

per annum £2,500

Horse tax on 400 horses, at 2s 50



£2,550

24. Then the Government of the country would be self'
supporting ? — Yes ; it must be so, unless something happens
that I do not foresee. I saw Kreli and communicated the
whole of the governor's proposal to him ; but he objected to go
further eastward, and so the meeting dissolved, and 1 came
away, and have not seen him since. He did not communicate
with me again, but he did so through another channel, and
was told that he could not come back to his own country ex-
cept on the terms offered him in the paper which I have read.

25. Are the Tarn bookies, located before in the country
where Kreli now is, wholly dispersed ? — No ; they have
been fighting with Kreli but not dispersed. They are a
portion of the tribe who live in the colony at Queen's Town,
under Nonesi, or Mr. Warner. One half of the tribe is
within the colony, and the remainder are here beyond the
boundary under Joey. At present they are requesting the
Governor to send them a magistrate and to protect them.

26. Then you think it would be desirable to keep the
country quiet by settling Europeans amongst the natives?
— That is my idea of the plan which ought to be followed
throughout the country. If you want to keep peace perma-
nently you must get a European population there strong
enough to protect itself ; and by that means I really believe
you would prevent any further wars. Then there is another
independent tribe formerly living under Faku, but they
quarrelled, and he drove them out, and they then got per-
mission to come here in the Tambookie country. The Tam-
bookies claim all this country, both what Kreli occupies and
what the Amapondamesi have. He was driven out, at the
time when the missionary Thomas was killed in a night affray,



SELECT COMMITTEE ON ANNEXATION. 7

and he was never allowed to return since. He then took up Sir w. Currie.
the country near the Tambookies, but has since quarrelled, juiyloTisei.
and is now fighting not only with the Araapondas but the
Tambookies, and is holding his ground between the two. He
has also formed a friendship with Kreli, and is safe on that
side. I saw a fight between him and another tribe, before I
came here, in which one of them lost about 100 men. I also
heard a report there, Avhich I did not at first believe, but
which I afterwards found was true, that they killed some
children on the very morning of the fight. Tliey got a Zulu
doctor from Natal, to give them " medicine " to strengthen
them in war, which is their custom ; and he gave them also
orders to go back to their old practice of extermination, only
to bring away the young women and cattle. They did so ;
but Umdwichwa was so quickly after them, and hunted them
so sharp across the unoccupied country, that the young things
could not keep pace with the retreating army, and so they
stabbed them. One of the young women they did not stab,
but cut her ear off. This was owing to that Zulu doctor ; and
I understand they are going to carry on that practice exten-
sively ; and if one tribe does it the others will also. I spoke
to Faku myself and asked him if it was the custom to kill
women and children, but he did not answer. He said, " I
don't know that it is so," and would not go into the question.

27. Then a war of extermination has commenced ? — -It has
not now been commenced, but has always been so, evidently,
more or less. Most of the tribes there are fighting among
themselves ; and if one carries on this practice the others are
sure to retaliate.

28. Did you see Faku? — Yes; I went to him. Faku
claims the whole country between the Umzimkulu and
Umtata Rivers, Faku's idea is that the Enghsh spoil every
thing from the hurry they are always in — consequently I
had to wait at the Rev. Mr. Jenkin's House for eight days,
before Faku had collected sufficient councillors, and influential
men to give me an interview, — and then he would only
consent, provided, " his missionary," Mr. Jenkins, accom-
panied me. On the 18th March, accompanied by Mr.
Jenkins, and three of my officers, I rode to his kraal, some
eight miles distant, and after the customary salutation, I spoke
to him of the unoccupied country within his territory, and
asked if he had any grievances ; he made no special grievance
but from the conversation we had, it was evident he was



8 MINUTES OF EVIDENCE TAKEN BEFORE THE

Sir w. Currie. alarmed at encroachments from the north, — the Basutus,
July "ioTi 861. and perhaps the Free State, as he said, who gave Nehemiah
permission to cross the mountains. And once the Boers
from Natal drove him back to the Umzimvubo and the
Enghsh Government, placed him again in his present posi-
tion. Faku said to his councillors, withdraw and go and
settle amongst yourselves a boundary hne for the nation.
They did so, and in about half-an-hour returned to their chief
The chief then in council said this, " describing certain
rivers and mountains," is the country, we wish to keep for
ourselves. The remainder we will given over to the British
Government to do with as they may think right and best.
As I had not then been over the country described, I
requested the Rev. Mr. Jenkins to draw me a plan, as he
was present and understood the country described, and
which he kindly did ; the same as marked off in the map
before you.

29. What sort of a country is this unoccupied country ;
fertile? — A very fine country indeed, and it has never had
any population. I went all over the country and could not
find any trace of its ever having been occupied ; not a sign
of an old kraal.

30. Is it well watered? — It is well watered and wooded.


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