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MAIN LIBRARY AGRIC. DEPT.




BACTERIOLOGY



AND



INFECTIVE DISEASES



A TEXT-BOOK



OP



BACTERIOLOGY



INCLUDING THE



ETIOLOGY AND PREVENTION



OF



INFECTIVE DISEASES



AND A SHORT ACCOUNT OF



YEASTS AND MOULDS, H^EMATOZOA, AND
PSOROSPERMS



BY

EDGAR M. CROOKSHANK, M.B.



PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY, AND FELLOW OF KING




FOURTH EDITION
RECONSTRUCTED, REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED



LONDON
H. K. LEWIS, 136, GOWER STREET, W.C.

1896




\ ^ r i b



B10LOSY

LIBRARY

G



LONDON :
U. K. LEWIS. 136, GOWER STREET. W.C.



SIR JOSEPH LISTER, BART., M.B., P.R.S.,

WHO HAS CREATED A NEW EPOCH IN

MEDICINE AND SURGERY.

BY APPLYING A KNOWLEDGE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS
TO THE TREATMENT OF DISEASE,

This eHork is, toith permission, ^pebicatcb
BY THE AUTHOR
AS A

TOKEN OF ADMIRATION AM. RESPECT



PREFACE



TO THE



FOURTH EDITION.



THIS book, though nominally a fourth edition, is practically
speaking a new work. The progress of Bacteriology has been
very rapid, and many new investigations have been made in
connection with the etiology, prevention and treatment of
communicable diseases. It has been necessary to reconstruct,
enlarge and thoroughly revise the text of the third edition,
and I have added twenty-six chapters.

The most important researches conducted in bacteriological
laboratories are those relating to the contagia. In many
diseases of man and animals it has not been possible to
identify the contagium with a bacterium, or indeed with any
micro-organism ; but when the virus is chemically examined,
or investigated with a view to protective inoculation, or utilised
for experiments in serum-therapeutics, such researches are
within the province of the bacteriologist.

The recognition of the fact that in so many diseases the
nature of the contagium has not yet been determined will
have the effect of encouraging continued activity in this
important Hi-Id of scientific investigation.

I hope that this work will continue to be of use as a text-
book for the bacteriological laboratory, and that the chapters
on the etiology and prevention of the communicable diseases



viii PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

of man and animals will be not only of scientific interest,
but of practical value to Medical Officers of Health and
Veterinary Inspectors.

I have divided the book into three parts. Part I. is
mainlv technical, and includes the most recent methods
employed in studying bacteria and investigating the etiology
of disease. Part II. deals with infective diseases and the
bacteria associated with them. Any clinical or pathological
evidence which may help to throw light on the nature and
origin of the contagia is taken into account. The most
effectual measures for stamping out these diseases are
referred to, as they are intimately connected with a
knowledge of the life-history of micro-organisms. Part III.
contains descriptions of about five hundred bacteria. Many
are of no practical importance and of very little scientific
interest, but a text-book for the laboratory cannot be con-
sidered complete unless an account is given of all bacteria
which have been more or less completely investigated. I
have endeavoured to refer to the original descriptions and
to verify them by comparison with actual cultivations, but
in a very great number of instances this has been quite
impossible, and I desire to acknowledge the assistance I have
received from the works of several authors, especially those
of Fltigge, Frankel, Eisenberg, Baumgarten, Frankland,
Sternbenr, Lehmanu and Neumann.

I have rearranged the bibliography according to the
chapters, and the names of authors are given in alphabetical
order. With the aid of the current numbers of the Annales
</, rinxtitut Pasteur, the Zeitschrift far Hygiene, the
Centralblatt fur Bakterioloyie und r<u-(tsitenkunde, and the
Journal of Comparative Pathology and Bacteriology, it is
possible to become acquainted witli the most recent litera-
ture of the subject.

Many of the coloured plates illustrating the last edition
have not been reproduced. Those substituted for them have
been drawn from my own preparations, and most of them



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION. IX

have already appeared in my Reports to the Board of
Agriculture and in other publications.

One hundred and thirty-three woodcuts and photographs
have been added in the text, and I have reverted to the plan
which I adopted in the second edition, of having many of
them printed in colours.

I take this opportunity of thanking Professor Frankel for
kindly permitting me to reproduce some of the photographs
in his excellent Atlas.

1 am particularly indebted to Professor Hamilton for
the use of c//W//.v of figures in his classical treatise on
Pathology, and to the New Syclenham Society for several
from the English translation of Professor Fliigge's well-
known work on micro-organisms.

To my Demonstrator, Dr. George Xewman, D.P.H., I am
indebted for much assistance in correcting the proof-sheets,
and for the preparation of an index.

EDGAR M. CROOKSHAXK.

SAINT HILL, EAST (THIN-STEAD. Srssj-jx.
August 1st, 1896.

P.S. Since this work was finally passed for press the con-
clusions of the Royal Vaccination Commissioners have been
published. I have at the last moment added extracts in the
form of a supplementary Appendix. E. M. C.



CONTENTS.



PAKT I.

THEORETICAL AND TECHNICAL.

PAGE

CHAPTER I.
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER II.

MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BACTERIA . . .11

CHAPTER III.
EFFECT OF ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS ON BACTERIA . 30

CHAPTER IV.

CHEMICAL PRODUCTS OF BACTERIA . . . . .39

CHAPTER V.
IMMUNITY .......... 49

CHAPTER VI.

ANTITOXINS AND SERUM THERAPY ..... 56

CHAPTER VII.

THE BACTERIOLOGICAL MICROSCOPE 65.

CHAPTER VIII.

MICROSCOPICAL EXAMINATION OF BACTERIA . . 83

CHAPTER IX

PREPARATION OF NUTRIENT MEDIA AM> METHODS OF CULTIVA-
TION . 99



Xii CONTENTS.

PAGE

CHAPTER X.

EXPERIMENTS UPON THE LIVING ANIMAL . .134

CHAPTER XI.

EXAMINATION OF AIR, SOIL, AND WATER . . .140

CHAPTER XII.

PHOTOGRAPHY OF BACTERIA . . . . .150



PAKT II.

ETIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF INFECTIVE
DISEASES.

CHAPTER XIII.
SUPPURATION, PYAEMIA, SEPTICAEMIA, ERYSIPELAS . .173

CHAPTER XIV.
ANTHRAX .191

CHAPTER XV.

QUARTER-EVIL. MALIGNANT CEDEMA. RAG-PICKERS' SEPTI-
CAEMIA. SEPTICAEMIA OF GUINEA-PIGS. SEPTICAEMIA OF
MICE. . . .217

CHAPTER XVI.

SEFIICjEMIA OF BUFFALOES.- SEPTIC PLEURO-PNEUMONIA OF
CALVES. SWINE FEVER. SEPTICAEMIA OF DEER. SEPTI-
CAEMIA OF RABBITS. FOWL CHOLERA. FOWL ENTERITIS.
DUCK CHOLERA. GROUSE DISEASE . . . 226

CHAPTER XVII.

I'M. r.MONIA. INFECTIOUS PLEURO-PNEUMONIA OF CATTLE.

INFLUEN/A . . . .233

CHAPTER XVIII.

ORIENTAL PLAGUE. RELAPSING FEVER. TYPHUS FEVER.

YELLOW FKVKU . .250



CONTENTS. XI 11

PAC.K

CHAPTER XIX.

SCARLKT FEVER. MEASLES 261

CHAPTER XX.

SMALL-POX. CATTLE PLAGUE 284

CHAPTER XXI.
SHEEP-POX. FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE . . . 297

CHAPTER XXII.
HORSE-POX. COW-POX 303

CHAPTER XXIII.
DIPHTHERIA 330

CHAPTER XXIV.

TYPHOID FEVER ......... 340

CHAPTER XXV.

SWINE FEVER . . . . . . . . .347

CHAPTER XXVI.

>WINE MEASLES. DISTEMPER IN DOGS. EPIDEMIC DISEASE OF

FERRETS. EPIDEMIC DISEASE OF MICE . . . .355

CHAPTER XXVII.

ASIATIC CHOLERA. CHOLERA NOSTRAS. CHOLERAIC DIARRHCEA
FROM MEAT POISONING. DYSENTERY. CHOLERAIC DIAR-
RHCEA IN FOWLS . 360

CHAPTER XXVIII.

TUBERCULOSIS 375

CHAPTER XXIX.
LEPROSY. SYPHILIS. RHINOSCLEROMA. TRACHOMA . . 406

CHAPTER XXX.

ACTINOMYCOSIS. MADURA DISEASE . . . .413

CHAPTER XXXI.

(.LANDERS . -451



xiv CONTENTS.

I'AGE

CHAPTER XXXII.

TETANUS. RABIES. LOUPING-ILL . 457

CHAPTER XXXIII.
FOOT-ROT 464

CHAPTER XXXIV.

FOUL-BROOD. INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF BEES IN ITALY.
P^BRINE. FLACHERIE. INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF CATER-
PILLARS .469



PAET III.

SYSTEMATIC AND DESCRIPTIVE

CHAPTER XXXV.

CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES . . .475



APPENDICES.

APPENDIX I.

YEASTS AND MOULDS . 577

APPENDIX II.

ILEMATOZOA IN MAN, BIRDS, AND TURTLES. ILEMATOZOA IN

EQUINES, CAMELS AND FISH. ILEMATOZOA IN FROGS . 589

APPENDIX III.

PSOROSPERMS OR COCCIDIA. AMCEBA COLI .... 609

APPENDIX IV.

APPARATUS, MATERIAL AND REAGENTS EMPLOYED IN A BAC-
TERIOLOGICAL LABORATORY . . . . . .612

APPENDIX V.
I'-IULIOGRAPHY . . 639

SUPPLEMENTARY APPENDIX.

EXTRACTS FROM THE FINAL REPORT OF THE ROYAL VACCINA-
TION COMMISSION . 667



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



WOOD ENGRAVINGS AND PHOTOGRAPHS.

FIG. PAGE

1. Ascococcus Billrothii, x 65 (Cobn) . . . . .14

_'. Spirochseta from Sewage Water, x 1200 (E.M.C.) . . 15

a. Flagella (Koch, Brefeld, Warming, Zopf) . .16

4. Bacillus Megatherium (De Bary) . . . . .17

.">. riostridium Butyricum, x 1020 (Prazmowski) . . . .18

6. Leuconostoc Meseuteroides ; Cocci-chains with Arthrospores (Van

Tieghem and Cienkowski) . . . . . .19

7. >\ (ore-bearing Threads of Bacillus Anthracis, double-stained with

Fucbsine and Methylene Blue, x 1200 (E.M.C.) . . 20

>. I'.acilli of Tubercle in Sputum, x 2500 (E.M.C.) . . 21

'.'. Comma Bacilli in Sewage Water, stained with Gentian Violet, x 1200

(E.M.C.) 22

10. Vibrios in Water contaminated with Sewage, x 1200 (E.M.C.) . 22

11. Refraction of Light (Carpenter) . . . . . .66

12. Spherical Aberration (Carpenter) . . . .67

13. Combination of Lenses in Abbe's Homogeneous Immersion (Car-

penter) ......... 67

14. Chromatic Aberration (Carpenter) . . . . .68
1.",. Objective with Collar Correction (Zeiss) . . .69
!'.. Microscope English Model (Swift) . . 71
17. Removable Mechanical Stage (Swift) . ... 72
1*. Microscope Continental Model (Zeiss) . . . . 73
1!. Iris Diaphragm (Zeiss) . . .71
L'II. A t.be's Condenser (Zeiss) . . . . . . .75

21. Microscope Lamp (Baker) ...... 6

22. I. nine Microscope Lamp (Swift) . , . . . .77

rangement of Powell and Lealand's Microscope in working directly
on the Edge of the Flame, with Stand for Micrometer Eye-piece to
secure Steadiness and Accuracy of Measurement (Carpenter after
Nelson) ......... 79

24. Ramsden Micrometer Eye-piece (Swift) . . . 80

2.">. Micrometer Eye-piece (Zeiss) . . . SI

2;. Inoculating Needles (E.M.C.) . . 84

27. Freezing Microtome (Swift) . . . . . .04

2 s . Microtome (Jung) . . . . . . .95

29. Wire-cage for Teat-tubes (Mnencke) . ... 100

::<J. Hot-air Steriliser (E.M.C.) . . 101



Xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FK;.



A(,K



31. Hot-water Filtering Apparatus (Muencke) . .102

32. Method of making a Folded Filter (E.M.C.) . 103

33. Steam Steriliser (Baird and Tatlock) . ... 103

34. Incubator (Muencke) . ... 104

35. Method of Inoculating a Test-tube containing Sterile Nutrient Jelly

(E.M.C.) 105

36. Levelling Apparatus (E.M.C) . ... 107

37. Iron box for Glass Plates (Muencke) . . . . .108

38. Method of Inoculating Test-tubes in the Preparation of Plate-cultiva-

tions (E.M.C.) .... .108

39. Damp-chamber containing Plate-cultivations (E.M.C) . .110

40. Pasteur's Large Incubator (Becker) . . . . .111

41. Petri's Dish (Becker) . . . . . . .112

42. Glass Benches and Slides (Becker) . . . . .112

43. Koch's Serum Steriliser (Muencke) . . . . .114

44. Hueppe's Serum Inspissator (Baird and Tatlock) . . .115

45. Box for Sterilising Instruments (Becker) .... 116

46. Damp Chamber for Potato-cultivations (E.M.C.) . . .117

47. Apparatus for Sterilisation by Steam under pressure (Baird and

Tatlock) ........ 119

48. Drop Cultivation (Fliigge) . . . . . .121

49. Simple Method of forming a Moist Cell (Schafer) . . .122

50. Warm Stage (Schafer) . . . . . . .123

51. Warm Stage shown in Operation (Schafer) .... 123

52. Warming Apparatus in Operation (Israel) . . . -.124

53. Section of Warming Apparatus and Drop-culture Slide (Israel) 125

54. Israel's Warming Apparatus . . . . . .125

55. Gas Chamber in use with Apparatus ior generating Carbonic Acid

(Schafer) . . ... 126

56. Gas Chamber (Schafer) . . ... 126
">7. Moist Cell adapted for Transmission of Electricity (Schafer) . .127
58. Apparatus arranged for Transmitting Electricity (Schafer) . . 127
r><). Slide with Gold-leaf Electrodes (Schafer) . . . . " 128
tin. List f-r's Flask (Becker) . .128
r,l. Sternberg's Bulb (Becker) . . 128
(\-2. Aitken's Tube (Becker) . . . 129
I',:;. Miquel's Bulb (Becker) . 129

64. Pasteur's Flask (Baird and Tatlock) . . . 130

65. Pasii-ur's Double Tube (Baird and Tatlock) . . 130

66. F ranker's Anaerobic Tube-culture (Frankland) . . .131

67. Anaerobic Culture Tube (Liborius) . . . 132

68. Apparatus for Anaerobic Cultures (Roscoe and Lunt) . . 133
<;'.. Korir.< Swinge (Baird and Tatlock) . . . 135
7(>. Syringe with Asbestos Plug (Baird and Tatlock) . 135

71. Hesse's Apparatus (Muencke) . . . . .142

72. Sedgwick and Tucker's Tube (Baird and Tatlock) . . 143

73. Pouchet's Aeroscope (Hamilton) . . . . .143

74. Apparatus for Estimating the number -!' Colonies in a Plate-cultiva-

tion (Muencke) ....... 14(5

7.". K>ni;i)-cli's Roll-culture (Frankland) . . . 147

76. Apparatus for Counting Colonies in a Roll-culture (Becker) . . 148

77. Horizontal Micro-photographic Apparatus (Swift) . . 150



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XV11

EAGE

78. Reversible Micro-photographic Apparatus (E.M.C.) . . . 157

79. Reversible Micro-photographic Apparatus arranged in the Vertical

Position (E.M.C.) . . .158

80. Large Micro-photographic Apparatus (Swift) .... 160
*1. Photograph of an Impression Preparation (E.M.C.) . . . 162
Bft Photograph of a Cultivation of Bacillus anthracls (E.M.C.) . . 168

^uppuration of Subcutaneous Tissue (Cornil and Ranvier) . . 174
-4. I'us with Staphylococci, x 800 (Fliigge) . . . .177
So. Subcutaneous Tissue of a Rabbit forty-eight hours after an Injection

of Staphylococci, x 950 (Baumgarten) .... 177
9ft Ulcerative Endocarditis : Section of Cardiac Muscle, x 700 (Koch) 183
X 7. Pure-cultures of Streptococcus Pyogenes (E.M.C.) . . . 184
B8 ^-ct ion of Skin in Erysipelas .(Cornil and Ranvier) . . . 185
-reptococcus Pyogenes Hominis ; Pure-cultures on Nutrient Gela-
tine (E.M.C.) 1*7

- 1 reptococcus Pyogenes Bovis ; Pure-cultures on Nutrient Gelatine.

(E.M.C.) .... . 188

11. Gonococcns, x 800 (Bumm) ... . . 190

92. Bacillus Anthracis, x 1200. Blood Corpuscles and Bacilli unstained ;

. from an Inoculated Mouse (Frankel and Pfeiffer) . . . 192

93. Pure-cultivation of Bacillus anthracis in Nutrient Gelatine (E.M.C.) 193

94. Colonies of Bacillus ant /tracts, x 8<> (Flttgge) . . . 194

95. Impression-preparation of a Colon}', x 70 (E.M.C.) . . . 194

.;. Margin of a Colony, x 250 (E.M.C.) 195

97. Filaments with Oval and Irregular Elements, x 800 (E.M.C.) . 195

-pores of BacUlu* ant/iracis stained with Gentian Violet, x 1500

(E.M.C.) 197

'.''.i. Anthrax in Swine (E.M.C.) . . . . . .203

100. Anthrax in Swine (E.M.C.) ...... 205

101. Bacilli of Quarter-evil, x 1000 (Frankel and Pfeiffer) . . 218
1<2. Pure-culture of Bacilli of Quarter-evil in Grape-sugar Gelatine

(Frankel and Pfeiffer) . . . . . . .218

K>3. Bacilli of Malignant (Edema, x 9CO (Baumgarten) . . . 221

lo4. Pure-culture of Bacillus of Malignant (Edema in Grape-Sugar

Gelatine (Frankel and Pfeiffer) . . . . .222

In5. Bacilli of Malignant (Edema, x 1000 (Frankel and Pfeiffer) - . 223

lor,. Pure-cultivation of the Bacillus of Septicaemia of Mice in Nutrient

Gelatine (E.M.C.) .... . 225

lo7. Bacterium of Rabbit Septicaemia ; Blood of Sparrow, x 700 (Koch) 228
lo-. Bacterium of Fowl-cholera, x 1200 (E.M.C.) . . . . 22S

IM'.I. Bacterium of Fowl-cholera, x 2500 (E.M.C.) . . . .228

110. Bacterium of Fowl-cholera; Section from Liver of Fowl, x 700

(Fliigge) .... . 229

111. Bacillus of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, x 950 (Baumgarten) . . 231

112. Bacillus of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia: Pure-culture in Gelatine

(Baumgarten) . . . . . . . .231

113. Bacterium Pneumoniae Crouposae from Pleural Cavity of a Mouse,

x l.VK)(Zopf) .... .234

114. Friedliinders Pneumococcus ; Pure-culture in Nutrient Gelatine

(Baumgarten) .... ... 234

115. < ; q,suk- < <><-<-i from Pneumonia, x 1500 (Baumgarten) . 235
11G. Microcoecus of Sputum Septicaemia, -x 10CO (Frankel and Pfeiffer) . 23*5

b



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG. PAGE

117. Colonies of Steinberg's Micrococcus, x 100 (Frankel and PfeifEer) . 237

118. Acute Catarrhal Pneumonia, x 480 (Hamilton) . . . 239

119. Infectious Pleuro-pneumonia of Cattle (Hamilton) . . . 240

120. Infectious Pleuro-pneumonia of Cattle (Hamilton) . . . 241

121. Bacillus of Influenza, x 1000 (Itzerott and Niemann) . . 248

122. Bacillus of Influenza, x 1200 (E.M.C) .... 249

123. Bacilli of Plague and Phagocytes, x 800 (Aoyama) . . . 253

124. Spirillum Obermeieri in Blood of Monkey inoculated with Spirilla

after Removal of the Spleen (Soudakewitch) . . . 258

125. Pure-cultivations of Streptococcus Pyogenes (E.M.C.) . . 263

126. Free Surface of Diphtheritic Larynx, x 350 (Hamilton) . . 331

127. Bacillus of Diphtheria ; from a Cultivation on Blood Serum, x 1000

(Frankel and Pfeiffer) ....... 332

128. Pure-cultures of Bacillus Diphtheria? on Glycerine- Gelatine (E.M.C.) 333

129. Typhoid Fever. Ileum of Adult, showing Sloughy and Infiltrated

Patches (Hamilton) . . . . . . .341

130. Typhoid Bacilli from a Colony on Nutrient Gelatine, x 1000

(Frankel and Pfeiffer) . ... . . . .342

131. Typhoid Bacilli, x 950 (Baumgarten) . . . . .342

132. Flagella of Typhoid Bacilli, x 1000 (Frankel and Pfeiffer) . . 343

133. Colonies of the Typhoid Bacillus (Frankel and Pfeiffer) . . 344

134. Pure-culture of Typhoid Bacilli inoculated in the Depth of Nutrient

Gelatine (Baumgarten) ....... 344

135. Typhoid Bacilli in a Section of Spleen, x 800 (Flugge) . . 345

136. Typhoid Bacilli in a Section of Intestine invading the Submucous

and Muscular Layers, x 950 (Baumgarten) .... 346

137. Ulceration of the Intestine in a Typical Case of Swine-fever (E.M.C.) 348

138. Klein's Bacillus of Swine-fever (No. .1) .... 349

139. From a Preparation of Bronchial Mucus of Klein's Swine-fever

Bacillus (No. 2) 349

140. Bacilli from an Artificial Culture with Spores, Bacillus No. 2 (Klein) 349

141. Blood of Fresh Spleen of a Mouse after Inoculation with Swine-fever

Bacillus No. 2 (Klein) 350

142. Bacilli of Swine Erysipelas (Baumgarten) .... 356

143. Blood of Pigeon inoculated with Bacilli of Swine Erysipelas, x 600

(fcchiitz) 356

144. Pure-culture in Nutrient Gelatine of Bacilli from Swine Erysipelas

(Baumgarten) ... 357

145. Cover-glass Preparation of a Drop of Meat Infusion containing a

Pure-cultivatipn of Comma-bacilli (Koch) . . . .361

146. Arthrospores of Comma-bacilli (Hueppe) .... 361

147. Flagella of Comma-bacilli ; stained by Loffler's Method (Franfcel

and Pfeiffer) 3 62

148. Involution Forms of Comma-bacilli, x 700 (Van Ermengem) . 362

149. Colonies of Comma- bacilli on Nutrient Gelatine ; natural size (Koch) 362

150. Colonies of Koch's Comma-bacilli, x 60 (E.M.C.) . . . 363

151. Cover-glass Preparation from the Contents of a Cholera Intestine,

x 600 (Koch) ........ ^63

152. Cover-glass Preparation of Cholera Dejecta on Damp Linen, x 600

(Koch) . . .... 363

-Action of the Mucous Membrane of a Cholera Intestine, x 600

... ,364



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



I'll. 1 'ure-cultivations; in Nutrient Gelatine of Koch's and of Tinkler's

Comma-bacilli (E.M.C.) ...... 365

15.5. Comma-shaped Organisms with other Bacteria in Sewage-con-

taminated Water, x . 1200 . . . . . 366

156. Comma-bacilli of the Mouth, x 700 (Van Ermengem) . . 367

157. Tinkler's Comma-bacilli, from Cholera nostras, x 700 (Fliigge) . 367
l.>. Deneke's Comma-bacilli, from Cheese, x 700 (Fliigge) . . 367
159. Pure-cultivation of the Spirillum Finkler- Prior, in Nutrient Gelatine

(E.M.C.) ........ 370

1 50. Tropical Dysentery ; Mucous Membrane of Large Intestine (Hamilton) 372

161. Tubercle of the Lung in a very Early Stage, x 400 (Hamilton) . 376

162. Primary Tubercle of Lung two to three weeks old, x 50 (Hamilton) 377

163. Large Oval Giant Cell from Tubercle of Lung, x 300 (Hamilton) . 377

164. Bacillus Tuberculosis, from Tubercular Sputum, x 2500 (E.M.C.) . 379

165. Pure-cultivation of the Tubercle Bacillus on Glycerine Agar-agar

(E.M.C.) . ..... 380

166. Pure-cultivation in Glycerine Agar-agar after ten months' growth

(E.M.C.) ..." ....... 381

167. Pure-cultivations of Tubercle Bacillus in Glycerine Agar-agar ; a sub-

culture from a Pure-culture in Glycerine Milk (E.M.C.) . . 381

16H. Section through a Lupus Nodule of the Nose (Hamilton) . . 387

169. Tubercular Ulceration of Mucosa of Ileum (Hamilton) . . 388

170. Section of Lupus of the Skin ; Giant Cell containing Tubercle

Bacillus (Fliigge) . ... . . . .389

171. Tuberculosis of Pleura; "Grape-disease" (E.M.C.) . . . 390

172. Tubercular Ulceration of the Intestine of a Cow (E.M.C.) . . 393

173. Tubercular Ulceration of the Intestine of a Rabbit (E.M.C.) . . 395

174. Tubercular Lungs of Rabbit (E.M.C.) ..... 396

175. Cover-glass Preparation of Pus from a Chancre, x 1050 (Lustgarten) 410
lit). Wandering Cell containing Bacilli (Lustgarten) . . . 410
177. Section of Liver from a Case of Actinomycosis in Man (E.M.C.) . 417
17*. Actinomycotic Tumour in the Throat of a Steer (E.M.C) . . 424

179. Actinomycotic Tumour of the Cheek (E.M.C.) . . . . 424

180. Steer with Emaciation the Result of Actinomycosis (E.M.C.) .. 425

181. Actinomycotic Growths from the Pleura resembling * Grape-

Disease" (E.M.C.) ....... 425

1 >2. Actinomycosis of the Skin (E.M.C.) . . . . .430

!*.">. Part of Human Foot with Madura Disease (E.M.C.) . . . 448
1*4. Bacilli of Glanders, x 700 (Flugge) . . . . .452

\^~>. Section of a Branch of the Pulmonary Artery showing Glanders

Bacilli penetrating the Wall (Hamilton) .... 453
1 *6. Pure-culture of the Tetanus Bacillus in Grape-sugar Gelatine (Frankel

and Pfeiffer) . . . . . . . .458

1 S 7. Foot of Sheep showing Disease of Horn (Brown) . . . 465
"ction through the Foot showing a Crack extending through the

Wall ........ .465

l^'.i. s, c-ret inir Membrane covered with Fungoid Growths (Brown) . 466

1W. Advanced Form of Disease of Skin between the Claws (Brown) . 466

191. Distortion of Hoof in an Advanced Form of Foot-rot (Brown) . 467
I'.'L'. Diseased Comb (Cowan) . . . . . .469

I!*: 1 ,. Spores of Bacillus Alvei (E.M.C.) . . . . .470

191. Pure-culture in Nutrient Gelatine (Cheshire and Cheyne) . . 470



XX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FH;. PAGE

195. Cultivation on the Surface of Gelatine (Cheshire and Cheyne) . 471

1%. Cladothrix Dichotoma (Zopf) ... . . . . 479

197. Friedlander's Pneumococcus, x 1500 (Zopf) . . . .483

19S. Ascococcus Billrothii (Cohn) . . . . . 498

199. Clostridium Butyricum (Prazmowski) ..... 503

200. Bacillus Cyanogenus, x 650 (Neelsen) .... 507

201. Pure -cultivation of Bacillus figurans on the Surface of Nutrient

Agar-agar (E.M.C.) ....... 509

202. Photograph of Part .of an Impression Preparation of. Bacillus

figurans on Nutrient Gelatine, x 50 (E.M.C.) . . . 510

203. Part of the same Specimen, x 200 . . . .510

204. Bacillus Indicus : Colonies in Agar, x 60 . . . 518

205. Bacillus Neapolitans, x 700 (Emmerich) .... .522

206. Bacillus Megatherium (De Bary) ..... 524

207. Pure-culture of Bacillus Megatherium in Gelatine (E.M.C.) . . 524

208. Bacillus Putrificus Coli, x 1000 (Bienstock) ... . .529

209. Bacillus Pyogenes Fcetidus, x 790 (Passet) .... 530

210. Bacillus Saprogenes, No. 1 (R,osenbach) . . . . . 531

211. Bacillus Subtilis with Spores (Baumgarten) .... 535

212. Pure-culture of Bacillus Subtilis in Nutrient Gelatine (Baumgarten) . 535

213. Pure-culture of Bacillus Subtilis on the Surface of Nutrient Agar

(E.M.C) 53(5

214. Bacterium Zopfii (Kurth) . . . . . . 542

215. Beggiatoa Alba (Zopf). . ..... . . .543

216. Phase-forms of . Beggiatoa Persicina (Warming) . . . 544

217. Cladothrix Dichotoma (Zopf) ...... 545

21 s. Crenothrix Kiihniana (Zopf) ...... 546

219. Leuconostoc Mesenteroides (Van Tieghem and Cienkowski) . . 550

220. Micrococcus in Pyaemia in Rabbits (Koch) .... 556

221. Proteus Mirabilis ; Swarming Islands on the Surface of Gelatine,

x 285 (Hauser) ....... 561

222. Proteus Mirabilis ; Involution Forms, x 524 (Hauser) . 561

223. Proteus Vulgaris, x 285 (Hauser) ... 5(52

224. Sarrina. x 60O (Fliigge) ... '. 5(53

225. Spirochjeta Plicatile (E.M.C.) . . [ 5<j6

226. Comma : bacilli. in Water contaminated with. Sewage . . . 567

227. Comma : bacilli of the Mouth, x 700 (Van Ermengem) . . 568



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