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THE HYDROGENATION
OF OILS

CATALYZERS AND CATALYSIS

AND

THE GENERATION OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN



BY

CARLETON ELLIS, S. B.

CO-AUTHC?R OF

"ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT: ITS APPLICATION IN CHEMICAL ARTS"

Member of American Chemical Society, American Institute Chemical Engineers,

American Electrochemical Society, Franklin Institute, New Jersey Chemical

Society, Inventors' Guild, Society of Chemical Industry (London) ,

Fellow of Chemical Society and President of

New Jersey Chemical Society



SECOND EDITION
Thoroughly Revised and Enlarged



240 Illustrations




NEW YORK
D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY

25 PARK PLACE
1919



COPYRIGHT, 1914, 1919

BY

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION



SINCE the first edition of this volume was published in 1914, the
strides made in the oil-hardening industry have surpassed all expec-
tations. The advances effected by inventors in simplifying old methods
and creating new ones and the wider adaptation of the process in the
hands of skillful factory operators have led to many changes and
betterments. The present edition endeavors to bring the develop-
ments in this field down to date, and to offer suggestions of future
possibilities. Unexpected uses for hydrogenated oils have been and
continue to be discovered, hence the market for these fats is constantly
broadening. After finding a secure place for the production of edible fats
in this country, the hydrogenation process has also been taken up more
seriously by the soap-maker, and with the scarcity of natural tallow
due to war conditions, has enabled the soap manufacturer to produce
an artificial tallow from relatively cheap oils. During the past two
years this has been accomplished on a large scale.

Much of historical and general interest will be found in the records
of patent litigation in this country, appearing in the appendix. The
details of the beginning of oil hardening in the United States, which
hitherto seemingly have been surrounded by a veil of mystery, are
now accessible to the reader.

Owing to certain difficulties of classification, an unusually com-
plete index is appended.

C. E.

92 GREENWOOD AVENUE,

MONTCLAIR, N. J.

Dec. 1, 1918.

in



405706



vi PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

so later, Sabatier and Senderens reversed this procedure and made
such nickel carry hydrogen to unsaturated organic compounds of a
character which could be vaporized readily. Then in 1903 came Nor-
mann who disclosed the application of nickel catalyzer to the hydro-
genation of fixed or fatty oils or the production of stearin from olein.
But it was years afterwards before the idiosyncrasies of catalytic
nickel were fully understood and the technical difficulties of hydro-
genation were surmounted so as to afford eminently practical results.

To-day this branch of the oil industry is growing by leaps and
bounds and its advent into the field has brought a flood of congratu-
lations, protests and criticisms, market disturbances, and great activity
among chemists to improve the catalytic materials and processes of
treatment involved.

The present book it is hoped will be of assistance to the practical
worker as well as to the student of oils and fats. It has been the out-
growth of a number of years of observation and experience involving
the collection of a considerable amount of data from many sources.
An attempt was made by the author to present the matter in brief form
before the Society of Chemical Industry in 1912 and the present
volume is based on the general plan or arrangement of material adopted
in that paper.

Heretofore, the literature on hydrogenation has been scattered
through many periodicals and no effort has been made to collect this
material and arrange it in book form, although the treatises of Hefter
and Ubbelohde and Goldschmidt include a few pages on the conversion
of soft fats by various methods to stearic acid or stearin; but such
reviews have been too brief to afford the practical operator sufficient
working material.

A considerable mass of data including practically all that has been
advanced on the subject of hydrogenation of fatty oils has been col-
lected and arranged in this volume. The observations and opinions
of many minds have been brought together. Some of these views
obviously are sound, others are open to grave doubt and still others
are of a contradictory or polemical nature. Whether or not in the
treatment of this material to carry through a vein of critical comment
was a problem which confronted the author and the conclusion was
reached that at this stage of a young art, it would be inadvisable in
general to do more than array the multitude of processes, formulae,
proposals and opinions, leaving to the reader the selection of that
which should prove of greatest utility.

A few years hence when oil hydrogenation will have found its
measure and the more important points concerning it have reached



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION vii

definite settlement, the allotment of space to a number of the discus-
sions appearing on the following pages would hardly be warranted, but
at the present time when many are desirous of having at hand a treatise
which comprises all or nearly all the published work to date, containing
though it does a considerable divergency of opinion, there appears
ample justification for the inclusion of material which later may be
considered superfluous.

Frequent reference has been made to the material scattered through
the literature and acknowledgment is rendered to these sources of
information, especially to the Journal of the Society of Chemical
Industry and the Seifenseider Zeitung.

C. E.

MONTCLAIR, N. J.

June 15, 1914.



CONTENTS



PAGES
CHAPTER I. METHODS OF HYDROGENATION 1-32

Attempts to Hydrogenate Oleic Acid A Review of the Art
Work of Lewkowitsch Goldschmidt de Wilde and Reychler
Chlorination of Oils Imbert, Ziirrer Tissier Freundlich and
Rosauer Varentrapp Reaction Schmidt Zinc Chloride Process
Processes Involving the Aid of Electricity Magnier, Bragnier and
Tissier, Hemptinne, Petersen, Bohringer and Bruno Waser Hydro-
genation by Catalytic Action Kolbe, Sayteff, Sabatier and Senderens
Nickel Catalyzer Leprince and Siveke and the Normann Patent
Hydrocarbon Oils Day Oleic Acid Treated in the Form of Vapor
Schwoerer, Bedford Erdmann System Vereinigte Chemische Werke
A.G. Kayser Apparatus-^-Testrup and Wilbuschewitsch Bedford
and Williams Nickel Oxide Nickel Carbonyl Shukoff Day,
Phillips and Bulteel Schlinck Centrifugal Apparatus Ellis System
Speed of Catalytic Action The Treatment of Oleic Acid Connstein
and von Schonthan, Pfeilring Reagent De Hemptinne.

CHAPTER II. METHODS OF HYDROGENATION (Continued) 33-49

Utescher Action of Light Walter's Method Birkeland and
Devik Brochet de Kadt Markel and Crosfield Temperature of
Hydrogenation Caro Fuchs Nickel Carbonyl, Lessing Kamps
Bremen-Besigheimer Olfabriken Scherieble The Calvert System
Wilbuschewitsch Apparatus Wimmer and Higgins Ellis Bock.

CHAPTER III. METHODS OF HYDROGENATION (Continued) 50-107

Early Work of Bedford Erdmann and Bedford Badische Co.
Voswinckel Laboratory Apparatus Laboratory Type of Hydro-
genator Dewar and Liebmann Chisholm Process Kimura
Rather and Reid Hydrogenation of Ethylene Asp Bock David
Process Adam Griiner Rontgen Rays Wielgolaski Experi-
ments by Custis Method of Charlton Apparatus of Verona-Rinati
Colletas Ellis Humphreys' Process Method of Mandelstam
Moore Process Hendricks Ney's System Maryott De Jahn
Methods Employed by Calvert Walter's Magnetic Method Pictet
Birkeland Devik Utescher Walker Process McElroy Ellis
Reid Laboratory Apparatus Higgins Kalnin and Bergius Barbe
and DePaoli Laboratory Method of Dubovitz Normann's Criti-
cism Robson Method of Arnold Hoehn Process Lane System
Further Details of De Hemptinne's Process Solomonoff Hardening
by Means of Ammonia and Amines Herzmann De Conno
Hydrazine Hydrate Faciola Mannino Elaidin Brochet's Obser-
vations Morrill Shuck Deodorization Method Schrauth Hig-

ix



x CONTENTS

PAGES

gins' Electrolytic Process van Leent Schicht A.G. and Grim
Synthetic Esters Bedford Morrell Investigations by Author
Dreymann's Esterification Method Use of Glycerine Sugita
Ittner's Process Feld Whitaker's Method for Removing Catalyzer
Hagemann and Baskerville Maxted and Risdale Higgins' Cup
Agitator Hydrogenation of Resins Moore, Richter and Van Arsdel
Hydrogenation Curves Effect of Temperature and Pressure
Percentage of Catalyzer Effect of Agitation Changes in Physical
and Chemical Constants Melting Point Titre Halphen Test
Miscellaneous Publications on Hydrogenation Lessing Rivals
Jaubert Ueno Wilbuschewitsch Schicht Sjoquist Siegmund
Hertzog Fahrion Redgrove Klimont Jobling Bremen-
Besigheimer Olfabriken Bergius Ellis Fabris Shaw Anderson
Robson Schicht A.G. and Griin Kayser Boehringer Hydroil
Co., Ltd. Schmidt and Blankenhorn Barnitz Amburger Uchida
Mock and Blum Walker Process.

CHAPTER IV. CATALYZERS AND THEIR ROLE IN HYDROGENATION

PROCESSES. THE BASE METALS AS CATALYZERS 108-117

Nickel Catalyzers Preparation Bodies Acting as Poisons for
Catalytic Nickel Use of Nickel by Mond Sabatier and Senderens
Behavior of Catalytic Nickel Senderens and Aboulenc Nickel
Obtained by Reducing Various Oxides Classification of Catalyzers.

CHAPTER V. THE BASE METALS AS CATALYZERS. 118-145

Nickel Oxide Bedford and Williams Erdmann Sabatier
and Espil Relative Efficiency of Nickel and its Oxide Meigen and
Bartels Kast de Kadt Nickel Soaps Hausmann Wimmer and
Higgins Nickel Formate Crosfield Kayser Wilbuschewitsch
Frank Eldred Miiller Nickel (Hypophosphite Bremen-Besighei-
mer Olfabriken Flaky Nickel Hagemann and Baskerville Boberg
Boron as a Catalyzer Hildesheimer Continuous Process for the
Reduction of Nickel Oxide.

CHAPTER VI. THE BASE METALS AS CATALYZERS (Continued) 146-171

Dewar and Liebmann Catalyzer from Nickel Hydrate Kayser
Lubeck and Payet Silicon Monoxide Valuable Qualities of Char-
coal Fresenius Author's Process Ellis and McElroy Ittner's
Charcoal Catalyzer Tamari Valpy and Lucas Effect of Promoters
Badische Co. Crossley Hehner Bosch, Mittasch and Schneider
Kayser's Reduction Apparatus Morey and Craine Reducer
Morey's Process Burchenal Catalyzer Pyrophoric Catalyzers
Oswald and Doering Colloidal Nickel Sulzburger Catalyzer Poi-
sons Sabatier and Espil Effect of Sulphur and Chlorine Potas-
sium Cyanide Peters Author's Process for Removing Catalyzer
Poisons Ellis and Wells Treatment of Fish Oils Effect of Sul-
phates Arsenic Crossley Hehner Kelber Carbon Bisulphide
Moore, Richter and Van Arsdel Bancroft Carbon Monoxide
Maxted Pierron Catalyzer Hagemann and Baskerville Nickel



CONTENTS



XI



Sheet Catalyzer Elworthy Karplus Nitrogen Ges. m.b. H.
Hamburger's Experiments Reduction of Nitro Compounds Mag-
netic Separation Walter's Process Reynolds' Method Ellis Pro-
cess Leimdorfer Ipatiew and Zvjagin Rolla Naamlooze Ven-
nootschap Soc. Industrielle Lane's Reduction Apparatus Edison
Reduction Process.

CHAPTER VII. THE BASE METALS AS CATALYZERS (Continued)..
Wesson's Catalyzer Making Nickel Hydrate Woodruff
Badische Co. Permutit Richardson Electrical Method Author's
Methods Olverwertung G. m. b. H. Electrolytic Deposition of
Catalytic Nickel Use of Silicon Tetrafluoride Sabatier and Espil
Bacon and Nicolet Catalyzer Wells Catalytic Material Sulzburger
Method of Using Nickel Carbonyl Nickel Silicate Byrom
Sulzburger's Silica Catalyzer Nickel Borate Schoenfeld Criti-
cisms of Erdmann and Rack Normann on Nickel Borate C. and G.
Muller Speisefettfabrik Bremen-Besigheimer Olfabriken Nickel
Benzoate Nickel Boride and Carbide Use of Paraffin Wax Reduc-
tion of Nickel Hydrate Kelber Fuchs Nickel Carbonate Morri-
son's Method of Recovering Catalyzer Haas Filtration of Colloidal
Nickel Proposed Use of Hydrated Silicic Acid Bosch, Mittasch and
Schneider Organic Salts of Nickel Snelling Copper Formate
Spieler Nickel Formate Decomposition of Nickel Formate Use of
Formic Acid Higgins' Process Valpy and Lucas Nickel Acetate,
Oxalate and Tartrate Copper Catalyzer for Reducing Nitro Com-
pounds Nickel Oleate Richardson Process Hausmann Thieme
and Geitel Author's Method of Using Nickel Oleate Thermal
Decomposition Colloidal Nickel Wimmer and Higgins Reduction
in Oil Nickel Acetate Soc. de. Stearinerie et Savonnerie.

CHAPTER VIII. THE BASE METALS AS CATALYZERS (Continued)

Notes on Nickel Oxide Catalyzers Bedford and Erdmann
Normann on the Production of Metallic Nickel Criticism by Nor-
mann and Pungs Determination of Electrical Conductivity
Analytical Determination of Free Nickel Nickel Carbonyl Test
Metallic Nickel vs. Nickel Oxide Controversy between Erdmann and
Normann Olwerke Germania Hoyer Paal and Brunjes Robson
Catalyzer Employed by Suzuki-Shoten Co. Bedford, Williams,
Erdmann and Hydroil Company, Ltd., Ellis Semi-Reduced Hydro-
genation Catalyzer Boyce's Nickel Black Boehringer Meigen
Assertions Frerichs' Criticism of Erdmann's Observations Further
Work of Normann Lever Bros. Erdmann and Bedford Hydro-
genation by Means of Nickel Oxide and Metallic Nickel Agde
Experiments in Support of Erdmann's Contentions Effect of Mois-
ture in Catalyzer Reduction of Nickel Compounds in Saturated
Bodies Effect of Sulphuric Acid Siegmund and Suida Experi-
ments with Nickel Oxide and Linseed Oil Sesame and Cottonseed
Oil Nickel Formate Character of the Nickel Catalyzer Obtained
from Different Sources.



PAGES



172-198



199-228



xii CONTENTS

PAGES
CHAPTER IX. NICKEL CARBONYL 229-241

Discovery of Nickel Carbonyl by Mond (Properties) Martha
Berthelot Manufacture on the Large Scale Fierz Langer Dewar
Catalytic Action of Nickel Derived from Nickel Carbonyl
Author's Method Lessing Process George Schicht, A.G. Coleman.

CHAPTER X. THE RARE METALS AS CATALYZERS 242-264

Palladium Fokin's Experiments The Work of Paal Colloidal
Palladium Platinum and Palladium Chloride Skita Protective
Colloids Bredig Meyer on the Use of Palladium Compounds
Karl Paal and Windisch Stark Osmium Oxides Lehmann
Paal and Hartmann Thron Porter de Montlaur Schick Perl
Efrem Munroe Oil Colloids, Paal and Amberger Hydrogena-
tion of Olive Oil Cerium Catalyst Osmium and Ruthenium Com-
pounds on Carriers Use of Coloidal Palladium by Albright
Badische Co. Fahrion Cost of Palladium Catalyzer Skita's
Observations on the Rate of Hydrogenation Sabatier Mailhe
Neumann Niedenfuhr Fokin's Claims Classen Groh Zelinsky
Dehydrogenation Normann and Schick on Osmium Platinum
on Charcoal Mannich Platinum on Coke Verona-Rinati Author's
Use of Charcoal and Other Forms of Carbon Mannich and Thiele
Hydrogenation of Peanut Oil Propylene Heinemann Boseken and
Hofstede Mittasch, Schneider and Morawitz Amburger's Organo
Salts Zeolites Silicic Acid Schwerin Schwarcman Catalyzer
Palladium Catalyzer of Sulzburger Killing.

CHAPTER XI. THE OCCLUSION OF HYDROGEN AND THE MECHANISM

OF HYDROGEN ADDITION 265-280

Absorption of Hydrogen by Various Metals Sieverts and
Krumhaar Dehydrogenation Padoa and Fabris Palladium
Hydrides Wieland Nickel Hydrides Sabatier Mayer and Alt-
mayer Phenomena of Adsorption McBain Reducing Power of
Hydrogen Tomassi Occlusion of Hydrogen by Charcoal Titoff
Firth Electrolytic Hydrogen Fokin Sieverts, Jurisch and Metz
Smith and Martin Jurisch Joukoff Korevaar Pomilio Elec-
trolytic Reduction of Unsaturated Acids Comparative Ease of
Hydrogenation Erucic, Ricinoleic and Linolenic Acids Boseken
and Bilheimer.

CHAPTER XII. THE ANALYTICAL CONSTANTS OF HYDROCIZNATED

OILS 281-318

Changes in Specific Gravity, Melting Point and Iodine Number
Normann and Hugel Index of Refraction Saponification Value
Cholesterol and Phytosterol Bomer Willstatter and Mayer The
Unsaponifiable Constituents of Hydrogenated Oils Marcusson and
Meyerheim Hardened Castor Oil Garth Boudouin Reaction,
Halphen and Becchi Tests Erucic Acids Lewkowitsch Majima
and Okada Hardened Peanut Oil Kreiss and Roth Observations
of Knapp The Investigations of Bomer Leimdorfer Color Reac-



CONTENTS xiii

PAGES

tions of Hydrogenated Fish Oils Grimme Codex Alimentarius
Austriacus Aufrecht Tests for Nickel Dimethylglyoxime
Tchugaeff Fortini Benzildioxime Atack Colorimetric Met-
hod Lindt The " Hydrogen Value " Fokin Seidenberg Method
of Detecting Hardened Oil in Butter Researches of Twitchell
Fatty Acids in Fish Oil Crossley Passmore Hydrogenation of
Fatty Acids Tortelli and Joffe Reaction Davidsohn Tsujimoto
Fryer and Weston Detection of Hydrogenated Oils Pickering's
Method Sandelin Constants of Whale Oil Halphen Test Leh-
mann Peanut, Sesame and Cottonseed Oil Kelber and Rhein-
heimer Iodine Numbers Nickel Content of Hardened Oil
Lehmann's Methods Frail's Test Ash of Hardened Oil Schoen-
feld Effect of Hydrogen on Oil Containing Dissolved Nickel
Albright's Method for Determining the Hydrogen Number Hyland
and Lloyd Partially Hydrogenated Oils Detection of Phytosterol
Kerr Prescher Detection of Hardened Oil in Lard Sprinkmeyer
and Diedrichs Mannich and Thiele Completely Hydrogenated
Fats Marcusson and Meyerheim Effect of Hydrogenation on
Cholesterol and Phytosterol Marcusson and Huber Octodecyl
Alcohol Chrysalis Oil Tsujimoto Spinacene Chapman
Normann and Hugel Glycerine Content of Hardened Fats Jurgens
and Meigen Hydroxy Fatty Acid Svendsen Hardened Whale Oil
Bosshard and Fischli Anderson and Katz Use of Sodium Oleate
Biazzo and Vigdorcik Determination of Rape Oil Kelber Removal
of Halogen Lowenstein Halphen Test Amberger's Method of
Detecting Hydrogenated Oils Knorr Testing for Sulphur.

CHAPTER XIII. EDIBLE HYDROGENATED OILS 319-337

Lard Compound Manufacture Advantages in the Use of Hydro-
genated Oil Apparatus Employed in Mixing Hydrogenated Oil with
Other Oils- -Joslin Lecithin Riedel Brebesol Edibility of Hydro-
genated Oils Bomer Effect of Nickel in the Hardened Product
Normann and Hugel Meyerheim Hardened Whale Oil in Fats
Intended for Edible Purposes Bohm Lieber and Keutgen Offer-
dahl Miscellaneous Hardened Oil Products Oleomargarine
Deveaux Hydrogenated Soya Bean Oil Ellis-Boyce Process Palm
Oil Wilbuschewitsch Erlandsen Fridricia Elgstrom Diges-
tibility of Hydrogenated Whale Oil.

CHAPTER XIV. EDIBLE HYDROGENATED OILS (Continued) 338-357

Wesson's Observations Gill Klimont and Mayer Bontoux
Bergius Pekelharing and Schut Feeding Experiments with Hydro-
genated Oils Thorns and Muller Holmes and Lang Estabrook's
Product Kohman, Godfrey and Ashe, and the Use of Hardened Oil
in Bread Making Powdered Hydrogenated Oil Atkinson Hoi-
brook Baking Powder Containing Hardened Oil Burchenal's
Method of Producing Lard-like Fats Walker Method Lehmann
Further Notes on the Presence of Nickel in Hardened Oil Vuk
Gheorghiu Nickel Free Fat Increasing the Glycerine Content of



xiv CONTENTS

PAGES

Oils Schweitzer Corn Oil Sayre Crisco Plant Joslin Purifica-
tion Method Wilbuschewitsch Thompson on Linseed, Soya Bean,
Peanut, Cottonseed and Fish Oils Salad Oil Lowenstein Water-
holding Capacity of Hydrogenated Oils Brauer Nutritive Value
of Butter Substitute Containing Hydrogenated Oil Halliburton and
Drummond Clayton Pickard on Oleomargarine Keebler Koh-
man, Godfrey & Asche Vegetole Armour Bernegau Freres
Lecithin Daughters.

CHAPTER XV. USES OF HYDROGENATED OILS AND THEIR UTILIZA-
TION IN SOAP MAKING 358-389

Applications of Hardened Oils Fish Oils Tsujimoto Whale
Oil Garth Products of the Germania Olwerke The Investi-
gations of Schaal on the Uses of Hydrogenated Oils in the Manu-
facture of Soap Bergo Limitations on the Uses of Hydrogenated
Oil Hauser Ribot Weber Muller Fatty Acids of Hydro-
genated Oils Hajek Garth Tariff Ratings Bohm Cru-
tolin Soaps Hydrogenated Linseed Oil and Soaps Made from It
Linolith.

CHAPTER XVI. USES OF HYDROGENATED OILS AND PROPERTIES OF

CERTAIN HARDENED PRODUCTS . 390-411

Ittner Fish and Whale Oil Hydrogenated Torpedo Liver Oil
White Tsujimoto Shark Liver Oil Calamary Oil Ueno Schuck
Knorre Results of Using Fish Oil in Making Soap Properties of
Fatty Acids of Hardened Fish and Whale Oil Polymerized and
Hydrogenated Oils Dubovitz Production of Stearine Bontoux
Fat Splitting Soap Formulas Schaal Davidsohn Demand for
Hardened Oil Schrauth Schrapinger Hardened Chinese Wood
Oil Levinstein Sulphonated Oils Karite Butter Aoura sHeim
Hebert Padoa and Dalla Schmitz Lubricants Containing
Hardened Oil Krist Brooks' Process of Hydrogenating Rosin
Reuter Hardened Oil in Paints Cordes Electrical Condensers
Hardened Oil in Pharmacy Lackey and Sayre Hardened Corn Oil
Fox Mixtures of Hardened Oil and Non-fatty Material Ellis
Sadtler.

CHAPTER XVII. HYDROGENATION PRACTICE 412-417

Catalyzer Apparatus Hydrogenation Plant Precautions to be
Observed Simple Type of Converter Temperature Control
Filtration.

CHAPTER XVIII. THE HYDROGENATION OF PETROLEUM 418-438

Experiments of Winckler California Petroleum Nickel Oxide
and Other Catalyzers Snelling Colloidal Carbon and Nickel
Other Methods of Using Nickel Catalyzer Planes, Ltd. White
Evans Porges and Stransky Oxides of Lead and Nickel Chichi-
babin Heyl and Baker Sobering Franke Iron, Nickel, Chro-
mium and Platinum Holcgreber Ellis and Wells Deodorizing



CONTENTS xv

PAGES

Gasoline by Hydrogenation Tinkler and Challenger Danckwardt
Testelin and Renard Moeller and Woltereck Process of Badische
Co. Brooks, Bacon, Padget and Humphrey Reduction in Olefine
Content of Cracked Gasoline Humphreys Process of Porges,
Stransky and Strache Continental Caoutchouc and Gutta Percha
Co. Ultraviolet Rays Experiments of Brooks Valpy and Lucas
Process Catalyst for Cracking Petroleum Oil Sabatier and Mailhe
Treatment of Gasoline with Nickel The Hall Process Use of
Nickel Rods Water as a Hydrogenating Agent Lamplough Process
Higgins and Preston Automobile Engine Fuel Method of Low
Wells Process Using Molten Lead Nickel Plated Metal Con-
clusions of Whitaker and Leslie Bergius High-pressure Process
Billwiller Standard Oil Company Use of Metal Plates as Catalytic
Surfaces Day's Sulphur Process Rostin and Forwood Method
Use of Hydrogen Sulphate Simplex Refining Company Brown's
Apparatus Downing and Pohlman Davidson and Ford Cherry's
Electric Process Hirt Coast Thompson's Catalyzer Organic
Salts of Nickel Experiments of Cross Rittman and Jolicard
Zerning Cracking Tars and Oils.

CHAPTER XIX. THE HYDROGEN PROBLEM IN OIL-HARDENING 440-443

Hydrogen Requirements of Oils Sources of Hydrogen ^By-
Product Hydrogen Water Gas Coke Oven Gas Walter's Con-
clusions.

CHAPTER XX. WATER GAS AS A SOURCE OF HYDROGEN AND THE

REPLACEMENT OP CARBON MONOXIDE BY HYDROGEN 444-459

Reaction of Carbon Monoxide with Lime in the Presence of
Steam Engles Tessie du Motay Chem. Fabrik Griesheim
Elektron Merz and Weith Jermanowski Hembert and Henry
Process Mond and Langer Elworthy Ellis and Eldred Dief-
fenbach and Moldenhauer Naher and Miiller Pullman Miscel-
laneous Processes Involving Interaction between Carbon Monoxide
and Steam Bosch and Wild Use of Nickel or Cobalt Catalyzer-
Other Methods Employed by Badische Co. Ellis Process Griesheim
Elektron Vignon Method Buchanan and Maxted Use of Alkali
Ferrite Siedler and Henke Process.

CHAPTER XXI. LIQUEFACTION AND OTHER METHODS FOR THE

REMOVAL OF CARBON MONOXIDE 460-470

Principle of Liquefaction by Compression Hildebrandt Linde
System Liquefaction Apparatus Claude Jouve and Gautier
Vignon Absorption of Carbon Monoxide by Chemical Agents
Frank Process Claude Apparatus Method of Separating Hydro-
gen Badische Co. Mewes.

CHAPTER XXII. HYDROGEN BY THE DECOMPOSITION OP HYDRO-
CARBONS 471-484

Effect of Heat on Hydrocarbons Acetylene Pictet Car-
bonium Company Wachtolf Geisenberger Decomposition of Oils



xvi CONTENTS

*

PAGES

Rincker and Wolter System Oechclhauser Pictet's Oil Process
Decomposition of Natural Gas Frank's Process Rose Herman
Mittasch and Schneider Use of Nickel Brownlee and Uhlinger
Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Black Bacon, Brooks and
Clark Ellis Process Modified Rincker- Wolter Process Barth
System Snelling Method Brunner's Apparatus.

CHAPTER XXIII. HYDROGEN BY THE ACTION OF STEAM ON HEATED

METALS 485-514

Reaction of Steam with Iron Giffard Lewes Process Dellwik-
Fleischer System Lane Process Processes Devised by Messer-
schmitt Elworthy Internationale Wasserstoff-Aktien-Gesellschaft
Strache System Dieffenbach and Moldenhauer Badische Co.
Belou Vignon's Apparatus Effect of Passing Steam through
Molten Metal Gerhartz Jaubert Method Acceleration of the
Reaction by Catalytic Agents Saubermann Gautier and Claus-
mann Messerschmitt Process and Improved Types of Apparatus
Naher and Noding Spitzer Generator Schaefer Producer - The



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