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NG DA'



University of California Berkeley

THE PETER AND ROSELL HARVEY

MEMORIAL FUND




THE AUTHORS AND DO&A MARIANA DE CORONEL

Carlyle Channing Davis (left) and William A. Alderson, the
authors, listening to Dona Mariana de Coroncl reciting her asso-
ciations with Helen Hunt Jackson and facts attending the origin
of " Kamona."



THE TRUE STORY OF

" R A M O N A "

ITS FACTS AND FICTIONS, INSPIRATION AND PURPOSE

BY
CARLYLE CHANNING DAVIS

Formerly Editor "Rocky Mountain News"
and ''Denver Times*' and Proprietor
and Editor of Leadville "Evening
Chronicle'* and ''Herald Democrat,' 1

AND

WILLIAM A. ALDERSON

Of the Los Angeles Bar, Author of Legal
Treatises on "Receivers" and "judicial
Writs," and " Her e's t o You," a Book of Sentiments



NEW YORK
DODGE PUBLISHING COMPANY

220 East 23d Street



Copyright, 1914, by Doooc PUBLISHING Co.



CREDITS

The statements in this volume attributed to Susan
Coolidge and Henry Sandham are from their contribu-
tions to Little, Brown & Co.'s illustrated edition of
" Ramona," 1900.

" Glimpses of California and the Missions," from which
extracts are used, was published in 1902 by Little, Brown
& Co., and is beautifully illustrated by Mr. Henry Sand-
ham.



AUTHORS' STATEMENT

i

IN this volume is related for the first time
the true story of Helen Hunt Jackson's
great American novel, " Ramona." The
facts and fictions of the romance are dis-
tinctively designated, and its inspiration and
purpose disclosed.

The originals of the characters of the novel
are identified, and their true names given.

Innumerable fictions concerning the story
that have gained currency, some having been
commercialized by unscrupulous persons, are
dispelled.

Many thrilling and heretofore unpublished
facts pertinent to the romance and its author
are here recited; some surpassing in tragedy
the facts and fictions of the novel itself.

The illustrations have been carefully selected,
and present scenes and persons inseparably as-
sociated with " Ramona," many having been
especially produced for this volume, and others
never before having been given to the public.

The contents of this book have been so pre-
pared as to be interesting and intelligent to
those who are not familiar with " Ramona," as



> STORY OF RAMONA *

well as to those who know the thrilling and
pathetic California story.

Here are recited facts which constitute a
complete story in themselves, and are, indeed,
more thrilling and tragic than the fiction of
the prevailing imaginary novelist.

Especially do we hope to create new interest
in the greatest of American novels, " Ramona,"
and give tribute to its author, Helen Hunt
Jackson.

CARLYLE CHANNING DAVIS
WILLIAM A. ALDERSON

Los Angeles.







TO

THE MEMORY OF

HELEN HUNT JACKSON

The Most Brilliant, Impetuous

and Thoroughly Individual Woman of

American Literature.



" What songs found voice upon those lips,

What magic dwelt within the pen,
Whose music into silence slips,

Whose spell lives not again!
O, sunset land! O, land of vine,

And rose, and bay ! In silence here
Let fall one little leaf of thine,

With love, upon her bier."






CONTENTS



PAGE

Authors' Statement xi

A Tribute to Helen Hunt Jackson, Carlyle

Channing Davis ...... i



CHAPTER I
Inspiration of " Ramona " The Coronels . . 15

CHAPTER II

Meeting the Coronels Bishop Mora Mrs. Jack-
son's Affection for the Coronels ... 20

CHAPTER III

First Meeting with Mission Indians Preparations
to Visit Indian Settlements Camulos Ranch
Home of Ramona 27

CHAPTER IV

The Real Ramona and Other Characters Ales-
sandro Guadalupe The Ramona Jewels Kill-
ing of Alessandro The Alessandro-Ramona

Romance 33

[vii]



>> CONTENTS *

CHAPTER V

PAGE

Where " Ramona " was Written The Name " Ra-
mona " Helping the Mission Indians Mrs.
Jackson's Death Love of the Indians for Her . 46



CHAPTER VI
Don Antonio Francisco de Coronel . . -55

CHAPTER VII

Mrs. Jackson's Home at Colorado Springs Indian
Environments The Utes and Other Tribes A
Festival in Her Honor 63

CHAPTER VIII

Investigating the Mission Indians The Meeker
Tragedy " Ramona " and " Uncle Tom's
Cabin" .74

CHAPTER IX

Publication of Report upon the Indians An Indian
School Mrs. Jackson's Burial Place Personal
Interview Preparing for " Ramona " .82

CHAPTER X

The Coronels The " Real " Ramona and Her
Baskets The Inspiration of " Ramona " Ca-
mulos Ranch and Its Customs The Ramona
Jewels 89

[viii]



CONTENTS



CHAPTER XI

PAGE

Hon. Reginald F. del Valle The Character of
Felipe The Mission Play Lucretia Louise del
Valle The " Ramona " Story and the del Valle
Family Offensive Tourists . . . .102



CHAPTER XII

Dona Ysabel del Valle The Mistress of Camulos

Ranch Sefiora Moreno of " Ramona " 108



CHAPTER XIII
The Originals of the Characters of "Ramona" . 117

CHAPTER XIV

Dona Mariana de Coronel The Coronel Collec-
tion Bishop Amat Saint Vibiana's Cathedral
Don Antonio and General Kearney Letters
of Mrs. Jackson to the Coronels . . .164

CHAPTER XV

Contributed by Dofia Mariana de Coronel Her
Association with Mrs. Jackson . . . 185

CHAPTER XVI

The Home of Ramona, July, 1913, William A.
Alderson ....... 197

[ix]



* >

CHAPTER XVII

PAGE

Abbot Kinney, Co-Commissioner with Mrs. Jack-
son N. H. Mitchell 215

CHAPTER XVIII

Henry Sandham, the Artist of " Ramona " . . 234

CHAPTER XIX

The Dramatization of " Ramona" Helen Hunt

Jackson, Ina Coolbrith 256



M



ILLUSTRATIONS

The illustrations are made a special feature of this
volume. Many of the photographs from which they
were produced were taken expressly for the authors, and
others have never before been given to the public. The
publication of " Ramona " excited great interest in Cali-
fornia, and several of the old photographers in the south-
ern part of the State soon afterward visited and photo-
graphed many of the scenes mentioned and described
in the story. These old plates were long since laid aside,
and it was with great effort that they were discovered.
As an incident to this labor, one photographer handled
approximately four thousand plates in assisting the
authors to select photographs for illustrating the text.

Where it is not otherwise stated, each illustration
shows its particular scene as it appeared at the time
" Ramona " was written. The two beautiful pictures of
Don Antonio and Mariana de Coronel together, in Spanish
apparel, show this couple to be just as Mrs. Jackson
knew and described them. The posing was done under
the supervision of Miss Annie B. Picher, Pasadena, Cali-
fornia, soon after the publication of " Ramona," and the
authors are indebted to her for the use of the plates.



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Alderson, William A. Frontispiece

Altar Cloth, the Torn

on the altar in Camulos Chapel 240

showing the rent 29
Arbor at Camulos

as it appeared in 1883 254

as it appeared in 1913 202
Arcade to Chapel, Camulos

front view 81
side view 113
Aunt Ri 158
Balcony Scene, Camulos 93
Baldwin's Ranch, bell taken from San Gabriel Mis-
sion 224
Bells-
Mission at Camulos, 1913 208
bells and priest at Camulos 51
bells and chapel as they appeared in 1913 199
San Gabriel bell on Baldwin's ranch 224
" Death Bell " at Santa Barbara Mission 255
Blanca Yndart 35
Brook at Camulos 97
Cahuilla Graveyard 125
Cahuilla Ramona 49, 50, 126
Camulos

altar cloth, torn, on altar 240

altar cloth, torn, showing rent 29

balcony scene 93
[xiii]



* INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS *

PAGE

Camulos

brook, the 97
chapel, fence, cross and bells, as they ap-
peared in 1913 199
chapel, see title, " Chapel at Camulos "
cross near chapel 199
cross on north hill 199
dogs 209
dwelling, showing south veranda 38
English walnut tree 213
fence on which altar cloth was hung 199
fountain, the 124
grape arbor, as it appeared in 1883 2 54
grape arbor, as it appeared in 1913 202
graveyard 96
guitar player on veranda 46
inner court, as it appeared at time of Mrs.

Jackson's visit 42

inner court, as it appeared in 1913 203

Mission bells, as they appeared in 1913 208

Mission bells and priest 51

north side of kitchen, as it appeared in 1913 209

old winery 203
olive mill and tank, as they appeared at time

of Mrs. Jackson's visit 89

olive mill and tank, as they appeared in 1913 202

pomegranate trees, as they appeared in 1913 112

public road 209

raised part of south veranda 47

Ramona's bedroom 80

ranch and hills to the north 88

ranch and hills to the south 92

south side of kitchen 43

[xiv]



* INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS *

PAGE

Camulos

south veranda, as it appeared in 1913 198

south veranda 38

veranda on inner court, as it appeared in 1913 213

west veranda, as it appeared in 1913 208

willows, the 39, 198

window with woman 104

Cannon, first in California 169

Carriage used by Helen Hunt Jackson in Southern

California 34

Chapel at Camulos

exterior view, taken in 1913 199

arcade to, front view 81

arcade to, side view 113

interior of 212

interior, showing tear in altar cloth 240

Chart, Made on Sheep-Skin, Showing Deposit of

Gold Plate of San Fernando Mission 121

Church of the Angels, Los Angeles 241

Cloth, the torn altar 29

as it appears on the altar at Camulos 240

Coronel

bust of Don Antonio 16

bust of Mariana 17

Don Antonio and Mariana with guitar 53

Dona Mariana as photographed in 1913 188
Dona Mariana with the authors Frontispiece

Don Antonio on horseback 15

Don Antonio in his oratory 65

Don Antonio and first cannon in California 169

Dona Mariana in her new home 48

Don Antonio with guitar singing to Mariana 61

Don Antonio and Mariana 53, 168

[XV]



* INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS *

PAGE

Coronel

model of San Luis Rey Mission 172

statuary work 165

Coronel Home 25

Crosses

near the chapel at Camulos 51

on north hill, Camulos 199

Davis, Carlyle Channing Frontispiece

Del Valle

family rosary 115

Hon. Reginald F. 105

Lucretia Louise 107

Sefiora Dona Ysabel 106

Dogs at Camulos 209

El Recreo 25

Farrar, Jim I59 l6 4

Fathers at Santa Barbara Mission 141

Fountain at Camulos 124

Gaspara, Father

in vestments 155

his home at San Diego Mission 136

Gateway, Garden of the Gods 73

Grape Arbor

as it appeared in 1913 202
as it appeared at time of Mrs. Jackson's visit 254

Grave of Helen Hunt Jackson 14

Graveyard

at Camulos 9 6

at Cahuilla 125

at Santa Barbara Mission 151

Guitar of Don Antonio de Coronel 255

Hansel's Store 152

Home of Father Gaspara

[XTi]



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS >

PAGE



Indians

band of sheep-shearers 243

Cahuilla Indian 49
Chief Jose Pachito and his captains at Pala 60

Grevoja Pa, old Temecula woman 243

home of, at Pachanga 249
meeting of, at Pala 28, 52

meeting with Don Antonio de Coronel 28

Padro Pablo and his wife at Pauma 72
Ramona Lubo 49, 50, 126

Ramona Lubo kneeling at grave 50

Ramona Lubo with star basket 126

Indian Mission School, San Diego 225
Inner Court at Camulos

as it appeared at time of Mrs. Jackson's visit 42

as it appeared in 1913 203
Jackson, Helen Hunt

full figure 2

bust 3

grave of 14

Joaquin, Father 180

Kinney, Abbot 216

Kitchen at Camulos

north side, as it appeared in 1913 209

south side 43
Lubo, Ramona 49, 50, 126

McGuire, Mrs. James 35

Major Domo, Glen Eyrie 73

Mitchell, N. H. 230

Mora, Bishop Francisco 24

Mrs. Jordan 158

Office of Judge Wells 164

[xvii]









INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS *

PAGE



Olive Mill and Tank at Camulos

as it appeared at time of Mrs. Jackson's visit 89

as it appeared in 1913 202

Pachanga Indian Abode 249
Pachito, Chief Jose 52, 60

Pablo, Padro, and Other Indians 72
Pala Mission

exterior view 153

interior view 154

Pomegranate Trees 112

Rainbow Falls 64

" Ramona "

copy presented by Mrs. Jackson to Senora

de Coronel 194
inscription in copy presented by Mrs. Jack-

son to Senora de Coronel 195

first copy of Spanish translation of 189

Ramona's Bedroom, Camulos 80

Ramona Falls 64

Ramona Lubo

standing at her husband's grave 49

weeping at her husband's grave 50

with her star basket 126

Road Behind Camulos Dwelling 209

Roc ha, Rojerio 120

Rosary of del Valle Family 115

Saint Vibiana's Cathedral-

front view 173

interior view 177

the altar 176

Salvierderra, Father 133

portrait by Henry Sandhaxn 248

San Antonio de Pala Mission 153, 154

[XTiii]



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS >

PAGE



San Buenaventura Mission

exterior view 128

interior view 132

San Diego Mission

brick walls of Father Ga span's proposed

church 146

chapel 249

old Mission building 221

Father Gaspara's home 136

San Fernando Mission 181

San Gabriel Mission

priest in pulpit 180

exterior view 217

interior view 220

page of old record 224

missing bell 224

San Juan Capistrano Mission 231

San Luis Rey Mission

model of 172

general view of 235

Sanchez, Father Francisco de Jesus 133

Sandham, Henry

as he appeared when in California with Mrs.

Jackson 234

taken a short time prior to his death 242

Santa Barbara Mission

corridor 147

" Death Bell " 255

door leading to graveyard 150

Fathers and lay brothers 141

Graveyard 151

Mission building, front view 127

Mission building, side view 129
[*]



* INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS *

PAGE

Santa Barbara Mission

priests* garden 137

view from Mission tower 140

Seven Falls 64

Sheep-Shearers 243

Sheep-Skin Chart Showing Deposit of Gold Plate

of San Fernando Mission 121

Shepherd Dogs 209

Statuary Work of Seiiora de Coronel 165
Table Used by Mrs. Jackson when in Los Angeles 194

Temple, Sam 159, 164

Tripp, Justice of the Peace 164

Ubach, Father Anthony 155
Verandas at Camulos

south, as it appeared in 1913 198

west, as it appeared in 1913 208

on inner court, as it appeared in 1913 203

south 38

raised part of south 47

guitar player on 46

Walnut tree 213

Wells, Justice of the Peace 164

Willows at Camulos

as they appeared at time of Mrs. Jackson's

visit 39

as they appeared in 1913 198

Window with Woman, Camulos 104

Winery at Camulos 203

Yndart, Blanca 35

Yute Pass 73



HELEN HUNT JACKSON

(H. H.)

A TRIBUTE
CARLYLE CHANNING DAVIS

THE life of the author of "Ramona"
might easily have been one long, glad-
some summer day, the opposite of what
to the world it ever seemed to be. Her earlier
verse, as well as prose, may have reflected the
sadness of younger years, but her Christian
spirit and her artistic temperament finally en-
abled her to overcome a quite natural tendency
to grieve over a fate none too kind, enabling her
to enjoy to the full God's manifold blessings.

Left an orphan at twelve, bereft of her first
husband after a decade of perfect wedded bliss,
her only child taken from her two years later,
and in the last fifteen months of her own life
an almost helpless cripple, it is scarcely less
than marvelous that she should ever wear that
sweetest smile, that her eyes ever again should
twinkle with the merriment they bespoke.

" I am astonished when I review my mercies,



Jt STORY OF RAMONA *

and really feel as if all must have been ar-
ranged for my comfortable and respectable
dying." Thus she wrote on her death-bed,
from which also emanated some of the most
cheerful verses ever credited to her pen.

The personality of Helen Hunt Jackson was
unique and fascinating. She was born and
reared within the town of Amherst, Massachu-
setts. Her parents were Calvinistic, possessed
of but a narrow vision of the world and un-
alterable standards of right and wrong; of that
old class of religionists who commence on Satur-
day to prepare a sour and serious mien for
Sunday.

Her father was Nathan Wiley Fiske, pro-
fessor of philosophy at Amherst College.

Helen was born with an irresistible and irre-
pressible passion for nature. From her earli-
est childhood she was wont to steal away to
the silence and solitude of the woods and fields.
She yielded to the call of the wild. She was
adventurous and prone to exploration. Her
sentiments were vivacious and enlivening. Her
nature was sympathetic and pliable. She loved
ardently, but she could hate with satanic ear-
nestness.

She displayed a keen sense of humor. She
was brilliantly witty. She was an iconoclast:

[a]




HELEN HUNT JACKSON
Taken in Los Angeles, 1884, a few months prior to her death.




HELEN HUNT JACKSON
From painting by A. F. Harmer, Los Angeles, 1883.



> THE TRUE STORY OF RAMONA *

forms, ceremonies and customs were not laws
to her.

From her first husband she bore the name
of Hunt. Her early nom de plume was " H.
H." Helen Hunt. Then from her second mar-
riage came the added name of Jackson.

She was of the blonde type. Her eyes were
gray. In stature she was small, gaining flesh
in later years.

Her personality was irresistibly charming.
She dressed daintily and neatly. Her attire,
like her manners, had its individuality.

Colonel Higginson wrote of her: "To those
who knew her best she was a person quite
unique and utterly inexhaustible. She did not
belong to a class, she left behind her no second,
and neither memory nor fancy can restore her
as she was, or fully reproduce, even for those
who knew her best, that ardent and joyous
personality."

At forty-two, after a decade of widowhood,
she was driven to Colorado for relief from
throat trouble, and took up her residence at
Colorado Springs "City of Eternal Sun-
shine" destined to be her home to the end
of her days. Colorado was good to her in
every way. It gave to her renewed health.
It provided a climate exactly adjusted to her

[3]



>. STORY OF RAMONA &

requirements. It furnished an environment of
mountain and plain and canon that to her was
a perennial delight. And it gave to her a hus-
band, in the person of William Sharpless Jack-
son, ever congenial and worshipful, of whom
any woman in the land might well feel proud.
It also gave to her a home of inviting ease
and luxury, the first real home the devoted
woman ever had possessed.

Unfortunately these well-earned blessings
came all too late. Mr. Jackson was a banker,
financier, promoter, railway manager and man
of affairs generally, with abundant longing for
domestic enjoyment, yet with little leisure for
its indulgence, while at the same time his
talented consort, her soul stirred to its pro-
foundest depths in the pursuit of a life's mis-
sion, was too much engrossed with its exactions
to enjoy to the full, as otherwise she would
have done, the comforts and the luxuries un-
limited wealth provided in such lavishness.

Never before had Mrs. Jackson been free to
spend money without considering the effect
upon the domestic exchequer. Now her great-
est enjoyment was in ministering to the sick
and the afflicted, in providing for the wants of
the needy, in relieving the ills of the unfortu-
nate. This labor of love, together with her



>. THE TRUE STORY OF RAMONA >,

pen work, almost completely monopolized her
time, and left little leisure for what are known
distinctively as social duties and pleasures.

Her most prized diversion consisted of walks
and rides through the near-by canons and over
the mountains; Cheyenne Mountain ever pre-
ferred; it was a trifle more remote, not nearly
so accessible, hence much more exclusive, than
other local attractions, albeit less frequented;
circumstances that doubtless lent added zest to
her ofttimes solitary excursions.

It was to Cheyenne Mountain that Mrs.
Jackson wrote this apotheosis:

" By easy slope to west as if it had
No thought, when first its soaring was begun,
Except to look devoutly to the sun.
It rises and has risen, until glad,
With light as with a garment, it is clad,
Each dawn, before the tardy plains have won
One ray; and after day has long been done
For us, the light doth cling reluctant,
Sad to leave its brow.

Beloved mountain, I

Thy worshiper as thou the sun's, each morn
My dawn, before the dawn, receive from thee;
And think, as thy rose-tinted peaks I see,

[si



>. THE TRUE STORY OF RAMONA *

That thou wcrt great when Homer was not

born.
And ere thou change all human song shall die! "

A ranchman at the foot of the mountain,
near Seven Falls, cared for a burro belonging
to Mrs. Jackson, and one of the greatest of her
privileges consisted in riding this sure-footed,
faithful beast up and down the canon upon a
summer afternoon.

" Mrs. Jackson's Garden " is a name that yet
attaches to a particular nook in Cheyenne
Canon, conspicuous for its wealth of wild
flowers, which were especially dear to her.

Writing of Mrs. Jackson's domestic life at
Colorado Springs, Susan Coolidge says: "It
is not speaking too strongly to say that she
reveled in it. Such a housekeeper as she grew to
be is rarely seen. The spell of her enthusiasm
affected her very servants. They were as much
interested in her experiments and devices as her-
self, and even prouder of her successes. Colo-
rado is a paradise for flower-lovers. From
earliest spring to late autumn the ravines, the
mountain sides and the mesas furnish a succes-
sion of delights. . The wide-eyed anemones, fair
as those which star the Boboli Gardens, give
place in turn to the stately pentstemons, purple,

[6J



> THE TRUE STORY OF RAMONA &

pink and scarlet, royal yuccas, and yellow
columbines with spikes seven feet high, thickets
of white and crimson roses, Mariposa lilies,
painter's brush, its lips dyed with fire. There
is no interval. It is like a procession from fairy-
land. Colonel Higginson, in his interesting
paper on Mrs. Jackson, speaks of her as once
welcoming a friend with more than twenty dif-
ferent vases of magnificent wild flowers, each
vase filled with a great sheaf of a single species.
I can well believe it. Her writing-desk and her
picture frames were always wreathed with the
kinnikinnick vine, of which she was so fond,
and which in leaf and fruitage is like a glori-
fied cranberry. Add a snapping fire of pifion
logs for cold days, wolf and fox skins on the
polished floors all the gatherings of her life
little treasures brought from foreign countries,
curious china, plaster casts, sketches and water-
colors, many of them the gift of their artists,
books innumerable, all combined and arranged
with her inimitable gift of taste, and it is easy
to imagine the charm of the effect. It was
truly a delightful home. Her little dinners were
particularly pleasant, and her devices for adorn-
ing her table as inexhaustible as original. I
remember a wreath of pansies of all colors ar-
ranged in narrow tins half an inch high and

[7]



>. THE TRUE STORY OF RAMONA *

curving in shape, so as to form a garland around
the whole table, and her saying that it took
exactly four hundred and sixty-three pansies
to fill them."

I enjoyed the acquaintance of Mrs. Jackson
during almost the entire period of her resi-
dence at Colorado Springs, though never a
house guest, nor did I ever enjoy the privilege
of protracted companionship with her. So
highly prized was the privilege of acquaintance
that no business or other consideration was ever
permitted to interfere when opportunity of-
fered for meeting her at her home or else-
where; and such opportunities were quite
frequent.

The acquaintance began in Colorado before
her marriage to Mr. Jackson, and continued to
the end. I met her at various times in Denver,
Manitou and Colorado Springs, and at her ideal
home in the latter city was a frequent visitor
from about 1876 to the date of her death, al-
though much of the time she was absent in
New York, Washington and in Southern Cali-
fornia, in pursuit of a mission that obsessed
her.

The Indian question was ever uppermost in
her mind, and it is questionable if any other
topic introduced, upon the occasion of those

[81



>, THE TRUE STORY OF RAMONA &

visits to her home, engaged her serious thought
or attention.

Local conditions seemed to conspire against
her, and in view of them it is not re-
markable that Mrs. Jackson should have been
deprived of the sympathy and support of her
friends and neighbors. She was scarcely lo-
cated in Colorado when the citizen soldiery of
the capital was called out to defend it from
anticipated attacks by the Arapahoes and Chey-
ennes. In 1879 occurred the Thornberg mas-
sacre, the murder of Agent Meeker and the
capture of his wife and daughter by Chief
Ouray's band of Utes, events that agitated the
Territory and the State as nothing before or
since has done.

Sympathy with her at the time was not to


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