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THE following pages give in detail a plan for an exchange of teachers be-
tween Prussia and the United States, proposed by the Ministry of Instruction
of that country and modeled after the system of exchanges now in opera-
tion between Prussia on the one hand and France and England on the other.
The attention of American teachers and of presidents of colleges, universities,
normal schools, superintendents of schools, and the heads of high schools is
invited to the plan here presented for gaining an exchange of educational ideas
in a most effective way.

The following American scholars have kindly consented to act with the
president of the Foundation as a committee to consider the applications of
such teachers or the recommendations of such heads of institutions as wish to
take part in this exchange:

Professor Julius Sachs, Professor of Secondary Education, Teachers Col-
lege, Columbia University;

Professor Calvin Thomas, Professor of the Germanic Languages and Lit-
eratures, Columbia University;

Head Master James G. Croswell, Brearley School, New York.

In order that the details may be arranged with convenient despatch, it is
earnestly requested that American institutions and American teachers who de-
sire to cooperate in this exchange make known their wishes to the President
of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching at the earliest
possible date.

March, 1908.




On behalf of the Department of Ecclesiastical Affairs, Instruction, and
Medical Affairs of Prussia, Geheimer Ober-Regierungsrat, Dr. Karl Reinhardt,
addressed the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in the
summer of 1907 and laid before it a plan for an exchange of teachers between
Prussia and the United States. An exchange similar to the one proposed
is now in effect between Prussia on the one side, and France and England on
the other; and in view of the usefulness of this work, not only in the school
systems pf the respective countries, but also in furthering the better feeling
and understanding of the countries, Dr. Reinhardt urged the extension of the
plan to America. He requested that the Foundation act in an official capacity
with the royal government of Prussia and that it arrange all details of the
exchange for this side of the ocean.

Upon receipt of the communication from the Prussian Minister, the Presi-
dent of the Carnegie Foundation brought the matter to the attention of the
Trustees, and at the meeting of the Trustees in November, 1907, it was voted
that the President of the Foundation should undertake the supervision, on the
American side, of the exchange with Prussia. This Bulletin is prepared, there-
fore, in order, first, to suggest the general nature and value of the system, and,
second, to give the details by which it is to be put into operation. It is ad-
dressed especially to presidents of colleges, universities, and normal schools,
to superintendents of schools and members of school boards, and to teachers
who may wish to consider spending a year or a half year in Prussia under
the conditions offered by the Prussian government.


The plan for this exchange of teachers is to effect a permanent arrange-
ment by which teachers of the United States shall be assigned for a year or half
year to schools in Prussia and vice versa. The instruction to be given in
Prussia will be the teaching of English in a conversational way. It is not,
however, necessary that the teacher should be a teacher of language in this
country, but that he should be a cultured man able to conduct such exercises
in an interesting manner.

The significance of the interchange of teachers between countries in Europe
has greatly increased during the last two years. The immediate end gained
by the exchange of teachers of language is the vitalizing of the instruc-
tion in foreign languages and the correction of defects in the system of in-
struction in one country or the other. But the indirect products of the exchange

are far more important. A teacher transplanted for a year to a school in a
foreign country has the opportunity to improve his whole view of educational
methods. He returns to his regular work with increased efficiency and with
freshened ability to teach.

By such an exchange students at an impressionable age learn of the social
customs and gain the point of view of the people of the other country, and
this under an arrangement which is stimulating and interesting in comparison
with formal language study.

The exchange is therefore one that ministers not only to the improvement
of the teaching of modern languages, but to general educational efficiency, to
a broader understanding of other countries and a betterment of international

From the point of view of the young, ambitious American teacher, the
opportunity to spend a year in Prussia is attractive and should be con-
sidered in about the same way as a fellowship in a good American univer-
sity. In either case the remuneration is slight. The American teacher who
goes to Prussia for a year will receive from the Prussian government from
one hundred to one hundred and ten marks a month ($25 to $27.50). It is
estimated that this is equivalent to about $40 to $45 a month in a small town
in the United States, and that it will meet the actual living expenses of the
teacher during the year.

The remuneration is a secondary consideration. Teachers, especially those
who are now serving their apprenticeships as scholars or fellows in colleges
and universities, preparing themselves for the profession of teaching, will
recognize the benefit which a year of study and conversational teaching in
Prussia would bring them. The opportunity is virtually that of a travelling
fellowship. The teachers have the right to attend instruction in all classes
of the institution so far as it is beneficial to their work. Many teachers in
the United States who consider the plan may not welcome the idea that they
are to remain at one particular institution during their official connection with
the school system in Prussia; and that, further, they are under the direct
guidance of the director of the institution to which they are assigned. These
restrictions, however, have their advantages. The privilege of becoming ac-
quainted with the school system of Germany in all its working details and
the fact that this privilege is accorded the visiting teachers under most digni-
fied and agreeable circumstances are worthy of emphasis. The director of an
institution to which a teacher is assigned will, with his colleagues, take a per-
sonal interest in introducing the teacher into the social life of the community.
Good fellowship is extended to him, and with this the opportunity to gain
an intimate knowledge of German ideals in teaching and to observe German
methods in practice. In the United States such an opportunity is usually
accorded a visitor who gives evidence of sincerity in his desire for the privilege,
but in Prussia the privilege is rarely granted to any one except through formal
application to the Royal Minister of Instruction.

In no case are teachers to take part in the formal instruction of the insti-
tution which they visit. They do not do the work, or even part of the work,


of a regular teacher. This would impose too heavy a burden upon the visitors
and would render their relationship with the students too didactic. The plan
is for the visiting teacher to teach conversation in his own language in an
informal manner for not more than two hours each day, his classes being
small groups of upper classmen who wish to perfect themselves in the lan-
guage of the teacher. The students and the teacher discuss the manners and
customs of the teacher's home, the school arrangements, the family life, the
conditions of public life, the social usages, etc. Work of this nature will not
interfere with the teacher's leisure for study and observation, and for short
trips to communities other than his own.


All matters of business connected with the exchange of teachers are trans-
acted either through the Prussian Minister, whose address is Berlin W, 64,
Wilhelmstrasse 68, or through the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement
of Teachmg, 576 Fifth Avenue, New York City. All communications from
those interested in the matter in the United States should be addressed to the
President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

All applications from institutions for teachers from Prussia and for
appointments of individuals to go to Prussia should be filed at the office of
the Foundation not later than June 15, to go into effect in October. In making
application a teacher should give his full name, address, date and place of
birth, citizenship, religious faith, academic preparation for teaching and in-
formation concerning his fitness for the work, and preference in regard to
situation in Prussia. Formal application blanks for this purpose may be had
upon request from the offices of the Foundation.

The candidate for appointment to a position in Prussia should be a grad-
uate of a college which requires for admission the usual four-year high school
course. He must have been for at least one year a teacher, though not neces-
sarily a teacher of languages, and must have reasonable facility in the German
language. The teacher who goes to Prussia will enter a gymnasium or a real-
gymnasium. His work will be the informal teaching of the English language
by means of conversation. As stated in the general discussion, the remunera-
tion is one hundred to one hundred and ten marks a month paid by the Prussian
government in monthly installments.

A teacher coming to the United States from Prussia may enter a college
or a high school of good standing. His work, similar to that of the American
teacher assigned to a post in Prussia, will be the teaching of the German
language by means of conversation. The Prussian teacher for appointment
in the United States must be a graduate of a German university and must
have served for at least a year as a probationary teacher under the director
of a gymnasium.

Any educational institution or city school board which makes application
for a Prussian teacher must agree to pay the visiting teacher a sufficient sum
to meet modest living expenses such as board, room, laundry, etc. In no case


should this amount be less than the monthly allowance which the Prussian
government pays to an American teacher in Prussia. An amount of approx-
imately fifty dollars a month for a period of eight months will usually meet
the requirement. The amount will vary according to location.

Many colleges, universities and normal schools which have departments
of German will probably be glad not only to select a representative to go to
Prussia, but also to receive in return a Prussian teacher who would doubtless
stimulate a new interest in the work of the department. It is not necessary,
however, that an institution which receives a Prussian teacher should also
nominate a teacher to go to Prussia; nor that if an institution sends a teacher
to Prussia, it receive a foreign teacher in return.

The Prussian government pays all the necessary travelling expenses of
the teachers selected to come to America. While many of the American teachers
will probably be willing to pay their own travelling expenses to Prussia, it is
hoped that institutions which nominate the individual teacher will also pay
the transportation to Prussia, thus making the appointment one of distinc-
tion and honor as well as an educational opportunity.

All appointments are made either for one academic year or for one-half
of the academic year. The year begins at Easter and is divided into two
terms, the second term beginning about October 1. There are generally two
weeks vacation at Easter, two weeks at Christmas, one week at Whitsuntide,
and about four weeks in July or August according to the arrangement of
the Ministry.

In accepting an appointment from either country, teachers pledge them-
selves not to publish anything concerning the institutions with which they
are connected except with the permission of the proper authorities. This
restriction is a nominal one. It is understood that there will be no objection
to any serious and well-informed publication on the part of the visiting teacher.

At the present time, women are not eligible to appointments as exchange
teachers with Prussia.

American teachers who take these appointments are expected to render a
report at the end of their service to the President of the Carnegie Foundation
concerning such matters as seem to them important or to have educational

The Carnegie Foundation assumes no financial responsibility in acting as
an agent in this exchange of teachers.

or THE




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Online LibraryCarnegie Foundation for the Advancement of TeachinA plan for an exchange of teachers between Prussia and the United States .. → online text (page 1 of 1)