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to mastery over it. That these six faculties should be thus



^ K. omits puggalo, given in the printed text. The
latter omits it in the corresponding answer, § 1347.

2 This is a passage naturally calling for psychological
qualification from the Commentator (Asl. 399, 400). * "Eye "
stands here for the total efiicient cause (karana-vasena),
namely, for that visual cognition which is the generally
accepted form-seeing capacity. As the Ancients have said :
The eye does not see form, not being of the nature of
intellect (cittam); the intellect, not being of the nature of
eye, does not see form (the Cy. has here been wrongly
punctuated). One sees with the sense-embodied mind im-
pingeing on the * door-object ' (dvararammane sam-
ghattanena pasadavatthukena cittena passati),
that is, with the aggregate organism, or apparatus, as
when we say, " he shoots with the bow." '

^ On nimittagahl and anuvyaiijanagahi, see notes
relating precisely to this passage in D. i. 70, in ' Dialogues
of the Buddha,' i. 80. The former term is, in the Attha-
salinT, defined as the act of one who, not content with
simply beholding what is attractive and so forth, or what
is characteristically female or male, grasps at it with
passionate desire.



352

unguarded, untended, unwatched over, unrestrained, is
what is called having the door of the faculties unguarded.

[1346] What is immoderation in diet?^

When anyone, through carelessness and without judg-
ment, takes food^ for purposes of sport,^ sensual excess,
personal charm and adornment, his insatiableness, im-
moderation, and want of judgment are what is called im-
moderation in diet.

[1347] What is it to have the doors of the faculties
guarded ?

When a certain individual sees an object with the eye
he is not entranced with the general appearance or the
details of it. He sets himself to restrain that which might
give occasion for wicked states, covetous, dejected, to flow
in over him, were he to dwell unrestrained as to the
sense of sight. He keeps watch over this faculty of sight,
and attains to mastery over it. And so in like manner,
when he hears a sound with the ear . . . smells an odour
with the nose . . . tastes a sapid with the tongue . . .
feels a tangible with the body . . . recognises an idea with
the mind, he is not entranced with the general appearance
and the details of it. He sets himself to restrain that
which might give occasion for wicked states, covetous,
dejected, to flow in over him, were he to dwell unrestrained
as to the mental faculty. He keeps watch over the mental
faculty, and attains to mastery over it. That these six
faculties should be thus guarded, tended, watched over,



^Bhojane amattanfiuta = a sustained indulging
without reflection . . . the ignoring of measure or bounds
therein. Asl. 402.

2 Aharam 'both edible and potable.' Asl. 401.

^ Davaya, etc. That is to say, that he may be able to
dance or do acrobatic feats, etc. Or like kings and
courtiers who feed to swell their ' pride of life ' and man-
hood, etc. Asl. 402, 403.



353



restrained, is what is called having the doors of the faculties
guarded.

[1348] What is moderation in diet ?

When anyone takes food with reflection and judgment,
not for purposes of sport, excess, personal charm and
attractions, but so as to suffice for the sustenance and
preservation of the body, for allaying the pangs [of hunger]^
and for aiding the practice of the higher life,^ and thinking
the while, ' I shall subdue that which I have been feeling
and shall cause no new feeling to arise,^ and maintenance
shall be mine, blamelessness also and comfort ' — this con-
tent, moderation, judgment in diet is what is called modera-
tion in diet.

[1349] What is forgetfulness ?^

^ Vihimsuparatiya. Vihimsa = abhutta-paccaya
uppaj janaka-khuda. Asl. 403.

2 Brahmacariyanuggahaya.

^ This formula (as Trenckner terms it, *Pali Misc.,' 74)
of abstemious living occurs M. i. 355 ; S. iv. 104, 176, etc. ;
also Mil. 367. The comments in the Asl. reveal a more
specific and less sublime interpretation of the vedana in
question than is taken by the translator of the last-named
passage (Khys Davids, ' Questions of King Milinda,' ii. 231).
According to the former, puranaii ca vedanam is
simply that due to one's not having dined, and navaii ca
vedanam to one's having dined too much, or to one's
having dined. Asl. 403, 404. Psychologically then, the
ideal state of one relieved of the craving of appetite would
seem to be, not the positive sensations of surfeit or of
having well dined, but the relatively negative state of not-
hungry, not-thirsty. Under 'comfort' (phasuviharo =
bhojanisamso) gourmands, who fail to acquire the same,
are described, with some gusto, under five current sobriquets
— 'Hold, waistcoat!' 'Gyrator' (because unable to rise
after eating), etc. Abstemious procedure is also categorized
otherwise and in detail. Asl. 404.

^ In this answer (describing mutthasaccam) the text
requires some emendation. Anussati should be asati,
and the privative a should of course be dropped in a-
pilapanata, a-sammussanata. K. reads (here only)

23



354

Unmindfulness, lapse of memory, non-recollection, non-
remembrance, not bearing in mind, superficiality, oblivion.
[1350] What is lack of intelligence ?
Answer as for * ignorance ' or ' dulness,' § 1311, etc.

[1351] What is mindfulness ?

Answer as in § 14, omitting * on that occasion.'^

[1352] What is intelligence?

Answer as for ' wisdom ' or ' science,' § 16. And see § 53.

[1353] What is the power of computation ?^

Answer as for 'wisdom,' § 16.

[1354] What is the power of cultivation ?

That which is the pursuing, the cultivating, the multiply-
ing of good states.

Moreover, the seven factors in the Great Awakening'^ are
the power of cultivation.

[1355] What is composure ?

Ansicer as for * quiet,' §§ 11, 54.*

[1356] What is insight ?

Answer as for ' insight ' and * wisdom,' §§ 55, 16.



pamussanata — not so the Cy. — and repeats asati after
appatissati. See § 14 and footnote.

1 K. reads for asammussanata, appamussanata.
Cf. preceding note.

2 Patisankhanabalam. This is not included in any
set of ' powers ' enumerated in the present work {cf. § 1,
etc.), nor does it form part ofpannabalani(§ 29). How-
ever, it is included in the eight very different kinds of
powers given in A. iv. 223, ranking as the specific balam
of the erudite or bahussuto. Cf the use of pati-
sankha in Vin. i. 213. In the present connexion it seems
as a correlative term to have superseded dassanam (in-
sight) ; see above, §§ 1002-1012, 1254-1267.

'' See §§ 285, 287, etc.

* In this and the following references the phrase * on that
occasion ' must be understood to be omitted.



355

[1357] What is * the mark of composure '?i
Answer as for * quiet,' § 1357.
[1358] What is * the mark of grasp '?
Ansiver as for 'grasp ' and 'energy,' §§ 56, 13.

[1359] What is grasp?

Answer as for * the mark of grasp,' § 1358.

[1360] What is balance ?

Answer as for 'balance,' § 57.

[1361] What is moral failure ?2

Excess in deed, excess in word, excess in both together.
Moreover, all immorality is moral failure.

[1362] What is theoretic fallacy ?•'

* There is no such thing as alms, or sacrifice, or offering;
there is neither fruit, nor result of good or evil deeds ;
there is no such thing as this world or the next ; there is
no such thing as mother, or father, or beings springing
into birth without them ; there are in the world no recluses
or brahmins who have reached the highest point, who have
attained the height, who, having understood and realized
by themselves alone both this world and the next, make
known the same ' — all this sort of speculation . . . this is
what is called theoretic fallacy. Moreover, all wrong views
are theoretic fallacies.

[1363] What is moral progress ?

Absence of excess in deed, in word, and in deed and word
together.'*

[1364] What is progress in theory ?

' There is such a thing as alms, sacrifice, and offering ;
. . . fruit, and the result of good and evil deeds ; . . . this

^ Samatha-nimittam. Explained by Tarn akaram
gahetva puna pavattetabbassa samathassa ni-
mitta-vasena. Asl. 53.

2 Silavipatt-i. Cf §§ 1363, 1342.

^Ditthivipatti. Cf § 1215.

*Sila-sampada. Cf § 1342.

23—2



355

world and the next ; mother, father and beings springing
into birth without them ; . . . recluses and brahmins who
have reached the highest, who have attained the height,
who having understood and realized by themselves alone
both this world and the other world, make known the
same ' — all this sort of science, understanding, etc.^ . . .
this is what is called progress in theory. Moreover, all
right views are progress in theory. •

[1365] What is purity in morals ?

Absence of excess in deed, in word, and in deed and word
together.^

[1366] What is purity in theory ?

Knowledge of the specific nature of Karma ;^ knowledge



^ Continue as in § 16.

2 Cf. § 1363. Purity in theory would seem to indicate
perfection relative to progress in theory, while in moral
matters a similar distinction does not apparently hold.
The Cy. only explains this want of distinction by saying
that in § 1363 the si la of restraint of the Patimokkha is
alluded to, while in § 1365 visuddhi-sila is spoken of .

^ K. reads here kammassakatam iianam — a curious
phrase. Buddhaghosa, to judge by his exposition, reads
kamma-ssakata-nanam (Asl. 406, 407) or -ssakata-,
or -ssakata m fianam (Asl. 406). The corresponding
adjective to this sakata or sakatarn occurs in the
passage quoted from the Sutta Pitaka by Nagasena (Mil. i.
45; cf. Khys Davids' trans., i. 101, n. 1; also Asl. 66),
namely, kammassaka (satta); i.e., according to the
translator's view, ' having each their own karma.' As this
passage occurs in the yet inedited 135th Sutta of the Maj-
jhima N., the Papanca Sudani may prove to have a more lucid
commentary on it than that given in the Atthasalini. The
latter is to this effect : [This phrase means] the science of
knowing that this karma (or action) is sakam, that karma is
not sakam. In this connexion all bad karma, whether it be
done by one's self or by another, is not sakam. How so?
Because it destroys utility and creates disutility. But good
karma, which has the reverse effect, is named sakam.
Just as a man with a full purse in the course of a journey



S57

of the Truths in their due order ; the knowledge of him who
holds the Path ; the knowledge of him who holds the Fruit
of the Path.

(i.)^ The phrase ' Now purity of theory ' is equivalent to
that science, understanding . . . right theory (views) [de-
scribed above, § 16].

(ii*) In the phrase ' And as the struggle of him who holds
certain views, '^ ' struggle ' means that inception of energy
etc. [described above, § 13].

may stop at various cities where festivals are going on and,
determining what votive outlay he will make, takes part
accordingly in those festivals as his inclination prompts,
and safely emerges from the jungle, even so do beings who
are established in this knowledge of the sakatam of
karma, when they have heaped up much karma making for
transmigration, safely and at ease attain arahatship, even
to the extent of numbers innumerable.

Now if sakam mean here, as it usually does, ' one's
own,' that still seems no explanation of the assertion that
one's bad actions are not one's own. And how does the
parable bear out the assertion ?

^ With the foregoing question and answer the catechism
proper of the ' Dhamma Sangani ' comes to an end.
There follow eleven sundry phrases or terms, not made
the subject of any part of the catechism, and appended
here in the phraseology of a commentary. They are
severally either referred to some reply in the catechism, or
briefly expounded, and are probably all culled from the
Sutta Pitaka as technicisms of Buddhist ethics. Very
possibly they form one connected sentence, giving an
eloquent and concise description of the nature of Wisdom
and Emancipation. Buddhaghosa has nothing very en-
lightening on this fraction of ancient commentary included
in the text, but promises an explanation of at least the
division of the subject of ' agitation ' in the Commentary
on the ' Vibhanga.'

■^Yatha ditthissa ca padhanam. It is just possible
one should read Yathaditthissa ; K., however, divides
the two words. The Cy. merely remarks that the energy
put forth is intelligent or scientific, and can be applied either
to worldly or to higher things.



358

(iii.) The phrase * agitation ' implies dread of birth, dread
of old age, dread of sickness, dread of death.

(iv.) The phrase ' occasion of agitation ' means birth, old
age, sickness, death.

(v.) The phrase * And the earnest struggle of him who is
agitated ' refers to [the four Eight Struggles] : — When a
bhikkhu brings forth the desire (a) that bad and wicked
states which have not arisen should not arise, (6) that bad
and wicked states which have arisen should be put away,

(c) that good states which have not arisen should arise,

(d) that good states which have arisen should stand firm,
should not get confused, should be frequently practised,
made to abound, cultivated, and perfected — then he uses
endeavour, sets energy a-going, reaches forward in thought
and struggles.^

(vi.) The phrase ' And discontent in good states ' means
the longing for higher achievement in one who is dis-
satisfied over the cultivation of good states.^

(vii.) The phrase * And the not shrinking back in the
struggle ' means the thorough and persevering and unrest-
ing performance, the absence of stagnation, the unfaltering
volition, the unflinching endurance,^ the assiduous pursuit,
exercise and repetition which attend the cultivation of good
states.

^ See A. ii. 15, 16, 74. It will be seen that the four
modes of will-culture described on p. 15 of A. ii. as the
Sammapadhanani (and quoted in the Dh. S.) are, on
p. 74, termed respectively the Struggles for Self-control,
for Eenunciation, for Cultivation (or Development) and for
Preservation. Yet on p. 16 a different connotation is given
to each of these four terms.

^ This and the next phrase (vii.) occur consecutively in
A. i. 50. The progress of sublime discontent in a pious
individual from giving small donations to the Order, then
greater gifts till he personally enters the Order and finally
wins the goal of Arahatship, is briefly described, Asl. 407.
The last attainment gives the winner the title of the
Greatly Content.

« C/. § 13.



359

(viii.) The phrase 'Wisdom' means the threefold wisdom,
namely (a) reminiscent knowledge of one's former births,
(h) knowledge of the relapse and renascence of beings,
(c) the knowledge that makes an end of the Intoxicants.

(ix.) The phrase * Emancipation ' means the twofold
emancipation, namely, (a) detachment of thought,^ and
(h) Nirvana.^

(x.) The phrase ' knowledge in making an end ' means
the knowledge he has who holds the Path.

(xi.) The phrase ' knowledge in origins ' means the know-
ledge he has who holds the Fruit of the Path.

End of the Division entitled 'Elimination.'

^ Cittassa ca adhimutti = vimutti (emancipation).
D. i. 174.

^ This is, I believe, the only passage in the original
Manual where the word occurs. This is interesting in
view of the fact that it occurs in what appears to be an
appendix of original Commentary, and also that the term
occurs so frequently in the old digest which follows in the
text. See Appendix I.



APPENDIX I.

The Digest, or Condensed Paraphrase of Book III.
(§§ 981-1295), entitled Division of Exposition, or the
Elucidation (a 1 1 h u d d h a r o).

Immediately following the text of the Dhammasangani
itself is a supplement of some 230 questions and answers.
The questions are verbatim those of the ' Elimination '
Division, or Book III., taken in order, but without the
cross-questioning on the details of the various lists of
ethical factors or defects, such as the varieties of cause
(hetu), or of the * Intoxicants,' etc. The answers are for
the most part more tersely worded than those in Book III.,
and couched in language more or less different, including
several terms that came into technical use after the earliest
ages of Buddhism.

No distinctive title is assigned to this supplement in the
Manual itself. It is probable that the final announcement
*Dhamma- sangani- ppakarani samatta'
refers, not to it, but to the entire work. In the ' Atthasa-
linl,' however (p. 409 et seq.), this section is pronounced to
be commentary, not text, and is termed the Atthakatha-
k a n cl a m, or expositional division ; and in an earlier
passage it was termed the fourth Vibhatti comprising
the atthuddharo (Asl. 6). The tradition is related that
it is the work of Sariputta, and was compiled by him with
the object of making clearer the contents of the ' N i k-
khepa-kandam' (Book III., i.e., virtually the whole
Manual) to a pupil who could not otherwise understand it.

This being so, and the answers throwing no new light on



361

to the subjects discussed, I have not thought it worth
while to translate them. At the same time, it seemed
advisable to sort out the specific, if not the individual,
diiferences in diction, so that the reader may lose nothing
that may prove of any value for the history either of the
terms or of the concepts of Buddhism. I have also given
translations of a few answers where the very difference in
the terms used to obtain a virtually equivalent statement
may prove helpful towards understanding the language of
the Manual itself.

In respect of Pali terms used, when there is need of re-
ferring collectively to the three modes, or worlds of all
rebirth, as well as to that higher life of saintly aspiration,
which is not concerned with rebirth, these four are no
longer distinctively spoken of as the avacaram of this
or that and the Unincluded, but are simply classed together
as * the four bhumis.'

Again, ' Nirvana ' (n i b b a n a m) invariably replaces the
term ' uncompounded element.' See Appendix II.

'Form' replaces * all form' (see § 983 passim), and
* fruits of the life of the recluse ' the word ' fruits of the
Paths.' (See § 992 passim}) The latter variation occurs
but once in the Manual itself, viz., at § 1016. ^

Frequent allusion is now made to those * types ' of good
and bad thoughts distinguished and analyzed by Book I.
They are spoken of, not as c i 1 1 a n i, but as cittuppada,
or genesis of thought, a term occurring only once in the
Manual, viz., as a title. (See above, p. 164.)

The skandhas, so frequently adduced in Book III., are
never mentioned.

The term ' co-Intoxicant ' (s a s a v o), is no longer used
except in the analysis of the Intoxicant Group.

The very frequent use of the ablative in -t o (when the

^ By an error presumably in the MSS., the printed text
has, in § 1597, jhanabalani for samannaphalani.
C/.K.

^ Printed above by an error as [1015].



362

Manual would use a substantival adjective — for instance,
kamavacara-kusalato instead of kamavacaram
k u s a 1 a m — betrays the later idiom. The Manual itself
uses this ablative, I believe, but twice, viz., in §§ 1062,
1071 : V i p a k a 1 = as, or by way of, result.

The term k i r i y a , so seldom used in the Manual, is
now used extremely often.

>k ^A' ♦ ^; * >;j

Taking now the three questions respecting {a) good,
{h) bad, and (c) indeterminate states, with which Book III.
(§§ 981-983, and for that matter the Manual itself) opens,
we read the following concise replies, taken in order : —
/ ' {a) Good in the four planes (b h u m m i s u).
{h) The twelve geneses of bad thought.
(c) Eesult in the four planes ; completed indeter-
minates^ in the three planes ;2 form also and
Nirvana.'

Now, on referring to the analysis of the twelve Types of
bad states (Book I., Part I., ch. ii.), it will be seen that
these cover the whole question, inasmuch as only one
* plane ' — that of sensuous existence— is involved. Good
and indeterminate dhammas, on the other hand, involve
all four planes, and cannot be answered simply in terms of
the eight types of good thoughts (ch. i.) in the one case,
nor of thought genesis in the other.

The next triad of questions (Book III., §§ 984-986) is
answered in language which occurs at only one other
passage in the whole work (§ 1268 et seq,), and which is of
a vagueness that makes any equivalent rendering welcome.

* States associated with easeful feeling ' : —

* The four geneses of thought accompanied by happiness,
which belong to good (karma) in the sensuous universe.
The four, which belong to bad (karma). The six, which

^ Kiriyavyakatam. See Introduction viii.
^ I.e., excluding that of sense (see Book 1., Part III.,
ch. ii.).



363

belong to the results of good (karma) in the sensuous
universe, as well as the five belonging to completed
thought.^ The threefold and fourfold^ Jhana relating to
the heavens of Form whether it arise as good (karma),
result (of good karma), or as a completed state. The
threefold and fourfold Jhana relating to the Higher Ideal,
whether it arise as good (karma) or as result. The easeful
feeling herewith arisen is not reckoned in.'
' States associated with distressful feeling '; —
' The two geneses of thought which are accompanied by
melancholy. Cognition of body, which is accompanied by
distress. The distressful feeling herewith arisen is not
reckoned in.'

* States associated with neutral feeling ': —

* The four geneses of thought accompanied by dis-
interestedness, which belong to good (karma) in the
sensuous universe. The six, which belong to bad (karma).
The ten, which belong to the results of good (karma) in
the sensuous universe.^ The six, which belong to the
results of bad (karma). ^ The six, which belong to com-
pleted thought.^ The fourth Jhana, relating to the heavens
of Form, whether it arise as good (karma), result (of good
karma), or as a completed state. The four Jhanas con-
nected with Formless Existence,^ whether they arise as good
(karma), result (of good karma), or as completed states.
The Fourth Jhana relating to the Higher Ideal, whether it
arise as good (karma), or as result (of good karma). The
neutral feeling herewith arisen is not reckoned in.

* It is not proper to say that these three modes of feeling

^ K. reads kamavacara - kusalassa vipakato ca
kiriyato ca panca. But reference to §§ 469 and 568
shows that the analysis gives six and five respectively.

2 Excluding the highest Jhana, as incompatible with
'easeful feeling.'

^ Eead kamavacara-kusalassa.

^ Four in § 556, one in § 562, one in § 564.

5 Five in § 566, one in § 574.

^ For artipavacara read aruppa. V. 71 etseq.



364

are associated either with themselves, or with form, or with
Nirvana.'

* -^ * -x- -x- *

The answers to questions §§ 1007-1012 are (with the excep-
tion of that to 1009) more precise than those there given : —

* States which may be put away by insight ': —

' The four geneses of thought which are associated with
views and opinions, the genesis of thought which is accom-
panied by perplexity.'

* States which may be put away by culture [1007 J ': —

* The genesis of thought which is accompanied by excite-
ment.

' The four geneses of thought which are accompanied by
lust, but disconnected with views and opinions, also the
two geneses of thought which are accompanied by melan-
choly : — these states may be put away either by insight or
by culture.'

' States which may be put away neither by insight nor
by culture ': —

* Good in the four planes ; result in the four planes ;
completed indeterminates in three planes ; form also, and
Nirvana.'

States the causes of which may be put away by insight,
by culture, or by neither are described in the same terms.
Moho (dulness), however, is inexplicitly named as some-
thing the cause of which can be put away by neither.

* * ^ * * *■
Questions 1022-1024 are answered in quite other terms

than those there used : —

(a) ' States having limited objects of thought ': —
' All result of sensuous existence ; ideation that is com-
pleted action; representative cognition that is completed
action but not free of causes,^ and is accompanied by happi-
ness.'

(h) * States having objects of thought of wider scope ': —

* The sphere of infinite intellect ; the sphere where there



^ Kiriya-hetuka manoviniianadhatu.



365

is neither perception nor non-perception.' {Cf. §§ 267,
268.)

(c) * States having infinite objects of thought :' —



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