Caroline Fox.

Memories of old friends : being extracts from the journals of Caroline Fox of Penjerrick, Cornwall from 1835 to 1871 (Volume 2) online

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MEMORIES OF OLD FRIENDS.



" / warvied both hands before the fire of life ;
It sitiks, and I am ready to depart."

W. S. Landor.



flDemovies of ®lb Jfvienbs



BEING EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNALS
AND LETTERS



CAROLINE FOX

'OF PENJERRICK, CORNWALL

3fcom IS35 to 1871

EDITED BY HORACE N. PYM

€TjirD CDttiou



To WHICH ARE ADDED FOURTEEN ORIGINAL LETTERS FROM J. S. MiLL
NEVER BEFORE PUBLISHED



VOL. II.



LONDON
SMITH, ELDER, & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE

1882



TSaEant^e ■presB

EALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO.
EUINUURGH AND LONDON



M705



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.



CHAPTER IX.

1S43.

Letter from Carlyle — Michael Verran — Stran,£;e story of a
Friend — Visit from Sir Edward Belcher — Mill's "Logic"
published — King of Prussia and Tieck — Caroline Fox
breaks small blood-vessel — Sterling leaves Falmouth —
Caroline Fox's opinions on Emerson, Carlyle, and
Schleiermacher — Espartero in Cornwall — Trebah — Visit
from W. E. Forster — at Norwich — Meets Bishop Stanley
— Sir T. Fowell Buxton — Story of Admiral Fitz-Roy —
George Borrow — Amelia Opie — Dinner at the Bishop's
— A morning with Mrs. Carlyle — Professor Owen at
home .......



CHAPTER X.

1844.

News of Verran — Letter from Carlyle — Dr. Arnold — Lon-
don — Meets Mill — Visit to Carlyle — Andrew Brandram
— Hartley Coleridge — Windermere — Hartley Coleridge's
conversation — A morning with Wordsworth — His
opinions .......



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XI.

1845-



PAGE



S. Rigaud and Louis Philippe—" Eothen " — Sir G. B. Airy

at Falmouth— "Serena," a Poem by Sterling . . 45



CHAPTER XII.

1846.

Mrs. Barnicoat's bread-and-butter — Infant School! experi-
ences — Samuel Laurence — London — Meets Dean Trench
— Evening with F. D. Maurice — Professor Owen at the
College of Surgeons — Dean Milman — Visit to the Mills
— Carlyle's conversation — Geneva — Meets Merle d'Au-
bigne — Story of Longfellow — Returns to London —
Visits Sir Edwin Landseer — Ernest de Bunsen — Fal-
mouth — Professor Lloyd and Dr. Ball — Archbishop
Whately — Anecdotes of him — Humboldt — Carclew —
Sir Roderick Murchison — Herman Merivale . . $2

CHAPTER XIII.

1847.

James Spedding — Dublin — Morning with Robert Ball —
Meets Dr. Anster — Sir Arthur Helps — Story of Sir
William Hamilton — Bristol — Mrs. Schimmelpenninck—
London — Archdeacon Hare — Meets Baron Bunsen —
George Richmond — Mrs. Carlyle — Her conversation —
Geraldlne Jewsbury — Thomas Erskine — -A Carlyle
Monologue — Francis Newman — Hope's Gallery — Dr.
Southwood Smith — At Westminster Abbey with Dean
Buckland— Story of Napoleon I. — Anecdote of Mrs.
Carlyle — Burnardthe Sculptor — Meets Professor Adams
at Carclew — Chantrey and Lord Melbourne . . 69



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XIV.
1848.

PAGE

Hare's "Life of Sterling" issued — Abdication of Louis
Philippe — J. A. Froude — French Politics — Samuel
Rundell — Guizot — Arthur Stanley — Professor Lloyd at
Penjerrick — Captain Ross — ^Jenny Lind — Fichte . 96

CHAPTER XV.

1849.

Death of Hartley Coleridge — George Wightwick's Lecture —
Letter to Carlyle — "Nemesis of Faith"- — Rush's Trial
— J. M. W. Turner — Visit to the German Hospital —
F. D, Maurice — His conversation — Lady Franklin —
Guizot — Story of his escape — His opinions — Samuel
Rogers — Hears Cobden's speech — Visit to Mrs. Carlyle
—Meets Elihu Burritt— S. T. Coleridge— At British
Museum — Professor Owen — Visit to Flaxman's studio
— Henry Hallam — Louis Blanc and Carlyle — Tennyson
— Clara Balfour's Lectures — Alexander Scott . . 106

CHAPTER XVL

1850.

George Dawson — His Lecture— Dr. Caspary — Account of
Humboldt — Clara Balfour — Lord Byron and Mary
Chaworth — Laundry School specimen — Mezzofanti —
General Haynau — Carclew — Professor Playfair . 153

CHAPTER XVII.

1851.

Abbey Lodge — Chevalier Neukomm — Captain Barclay of
Ury — John Bright — Wordsworth — Story of F. Cunning-



CONTENTS.



ham — Ragged School Meeting — Dr. Cumming — Meets
Kestner — Dr. Pauli — Evening at Baron Bunsen's —
F. D. Maurice at St. Martin's Hall — Thackeray's Lec-
ture — Faraday on " Ozone " — Macready — Paris troubles
— Story of Sir John Franklin .... 159

CHAPTER XVII I.

1852.

Letters to E. T. Carne — Dublin — Laying foundation-stone
of Professor Lloyd's new home — Chevalier Neukomm
— Talleyrand — Visit to Lord Rosse — Account of his
telescopes — Sir David Brewster — Anecdote of Lord
Rosse — General Sabine — British Association Meeting
at Belfast — Discussion on the search for FrankUn — Fal-
mouth — Letters — Elihu Burritt . . -175

CHAPTER XIX.

1853.

Letters — Story of Humboldt — Mazzini — -Attacked by a bull
— Account of Emperor Napoleon and Deputation of
London Merchants — Dr. Cumming — Dr. Binney — Kos-
suth and Douglas Jerrold — Courtney Boyle — Death of
Amelia Opie ...... 198

CHAPTER XX.

1854.

Meets Charles Kingsley — Deputation to the Czar — Letter to
E. T. Carne— Death of Talfourd— Madame de Wette—
Story of her husband — Dean Milman — His opinion of
S. T. Coleridge— Letters— "Te Deum," by R. Barclay
Fox ....... 221



CONTENTS. ^i



CHAPTER XXI.

1855.

Letters to E. T. Carne — News of Barclay Fox at the Pyra-
mids — Letters — His death ....



PAGE



CHAPTER XXn.

1856.

Sir Charles Lemon— Lord Macaulay — Stories of the Cholera
— Martin F. Tupper at Bury Hill — Letters— Death of
Mrs. Schimmelpenninck — Gavazzi . . . 243

CHAPTER XXin.

1857.

George Smith — Ernest de Bunsen at Penjerrick — Professor
Nichol — His Lecture — Florence Nightingale — Dublin —
British Association Meeting — Paper read by R. W. Fox
— Story of Lord Carlisle— Dr. Earth- De I'Abbadie—
Dr. Livingstone — At the Vice-Regal Lodge — Falmouth
— Mendelssohn — Dr. Arnold and the Duchess of Suther-
land ....... 249

CHAPTER XXIV.

1858.

On Buckle's work — News of the Carlyles — Kingsley — Ary

Scheffer — Thomas Cooper's Lecture . . . 260

CHAPTER XXV.

1859.

Penjerrick — Meets Dr. Whewell at Carclew — His conversa-
tion — Tidings of Sir John Franklin's death — Letters . 264



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXVI.
i860.



PAGE



Ary Scheffer — Visit from Tennyson — Francis P.ilgrave —
Their conversation — Ilolman Hunt at Falmouth — Val
Prinsep — Miss Macaulay — Robertson — Lord Macaulay
— Death of Bunsen ..... 272

CHAPTER XXVII.

1861-71.

Meets John Bright — Letters — Buckle — Duke of Montpensier
at Falmouth — Charles Kean — Meets Garibaldi — Visits
Professor Adams at Cambridge — Popular Fallacies — ■
Illness — Mentone — Visits Carlyle — His talk — Lady Ash-
burton — Her care of Carlyle — End of Journals . . 2S0



appendix-
Original Letters from John Stuart Mill to

Robert Barclay Fox . . . .311

INDEX 343



MEMORIES OF OLD FRIENDS,



CHAPTER IX.

1843.

" Dreams, books, are each a world ; and books, we know.
Are a substantial world, both pure and good :
Round these, with tendrils strong as flesh and blood,
Our pastime and our happiness will grow." — Wordsworth.

Falmouth, January 6. — I was made somewhat
conceited this morning by a kind note from Thomas
Carlyle. He makes amusing reference to my saying
" thou " to him, and threatens to say " thou " to me
too, but must not venture at present. Speaking of
Verran, he says, "We are not to neglect such when
they offer themselves among the half or wholly use-
less things so enormously copious among us."

January 9. — Another characteristic note from
Carlyle : —

"Dear Caroline, — Thanks for your excellent

news. We will not scold the poor fellow much, at
VOL. IL a



2 JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 1843.

least not till he get fully well again. As to the
Hero Verran, I wish you to understand that, at
such a distance, and with such friends' eyes close
on the very scene, I cannot presume to form any
further judgment of his interests, but will leave
them altogether to the eyes and hearts of said
friends. Do, therefore, what seems to you wisest.
Perhaps if there be, as it seems there is, in Verran's
personal neighbourhood a good discerning man who
will take charge of this j^ao, to do his best there-
with for the poor miner's behoof, it will be wiser in
several ways to give it up to that man at once and
for altogether ; saying merely, ' Do thy best with it
for him.' Verran may thus gain another friend and
occasional guide and patron, which may be worth
more to him than several guineas. 'Twenty,' I
think, is no bad result. To find twenty persons, in
any locality, who reverence worth to the extent of
paying one pound sterling to it, is verily something
in these days. Days (as I sometimes feel, when I
reflect sorrowfully on them) altogether unexampled
since the creation of the world in that respect !
Even the fickle Athenians did at least put Socrates
to death, had at least the grace to hate him, did
not merely seek to amuse themselves with him !



^TAT. 24. yOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 3

It is unutterable^ and will lead to conclusions by
and by.

" Meanwhile^ what the good Caroline has to do is
' happily utterable enough ; not abstruse or fearful at
all ! What I have to do is also, alas ! too plain :
namely, to go about my business, and, with many
wishes and salutations, vanish, as one in haste
and double haste, — subscribing myself cordially
once more, Caroline's friend, T. Carlyle."

January 21. — Fanny Allen sends a very interest-
ing account of a visit she and her father paid to
Michael Verran. He is a thorough Methodist, who
sometimes feels so full of joy that his skin seems too
small for him, and he is obliged to lie down and
pray that he may be enlarged, to make room for
his bursting happiness. He gave a simple, quiet
account of the Caradon affair, during which, it
seems, his mind was so full of the prospect of being
so soon with his Saviour, that the idea of death and
its suffering hardly occurred to him ; and on coming
to the surface, he fell down on his knees in the shed
and " gave glory." He is not getting on very bril-
liantly at school, but is steady and persevering, and
means to be a dairyman or an ore-dresser.



4 JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 1843.

February 3. — Aunt Charles Fox told us of an
American Friend who once felt a concern to go
somewhere^ he knew not where. He ordered his
gig, his servant asking where he was to drive.
" Up and down the road," said his master. At last
they met a funeral. " Follow this funeral," said the
master. They followed in the procession until they
came to the churchyard. Whilst the service was
being performed the Friend sat in his gig ; at its
conclusion he walked to the grave, and exclaimed
solemnly, " The person now buried is innocent of
the crime laid to her charge ! " and then returned to
his gig. An elderly gentleman in deep mourning
came up to him in great agitation, and said, "Sir,
what you said has surprised me very much." " I
can't help it, I can't help it," replied the other ; " I
only said what I was obliged to say." " Well," said
the mourner, "the person just buried is my wife,
who for some years has lain under the suspicion of
infidelity to me. No one else knew of it, and on
her deathbed she again protested her innocence,
and said that if I would not believe her then, a
witness to it would be raised up even at her grave-
side ! "

February 9. — Sir Edward Belcher dined with us



^TAT. 24. JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 5

to-day, and sailed when the post came in. He has
a high appreciation of Papa's Dipping Needle.
He talked of the Pacific Islanders he has visited :
they all appear to have a common origin, and their
languages to be derived from, and very analogous
to, Hebrew. A gentleman who understood Hebrew
well, had first a Tahitean, then a New Zealander,
then some other Islander brought to him, and
understood perfectly what each said. Their gram-
mar is most simple, all their words being deduced
from the nouns and verbs. The inhabitants of
Raratonga are innocent and incorruptible beyond
all others. The Chinese never take an oath, but
their most solemn promise is " can secure." They
keep their right hands as "gentlemen," to do no
work, but grow long nails and write, and their
left hands as " scrubs," to do all the dirty work and
shake hands with ignorant Englishmen. The ladies
steep their nails in hot water at night, and then
twist them round their wrists, and they wear little
silver shields to preserve them. Sir Edward has
been rather tried at having to publish his book so
hastily, when it was only a log and needed much
revision ; but he was sent forth again on active
service and had to leave it in charge of a com-



6 JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 1843.

mittee. He gave us some miserable details of his
observations of the Chinese War.

February 11. — Strong Methodist letter from
Michael Verran — very grateful to God and man.
Three years ago he found peace, a month later he
received the second blessing, and the day follow-
ing the third ; his path is now like that of the Just,
shining brighter and brighter to the perfect Day.
He finds spelling " asier than at first, and has got
to the Rule of Three in refimatic."

February 20, — John Sterling has been reading
some of Boswell, and is interested to see the vague
distinction which Johnson makes between what he
calls physical and moral truths, being a dim attempt
at a classification which the moderns have much
more happily denominated objective and subjective.
But even this is very loose when applied to in-
dividual character ; the most you can say is, that
objectivity or subjectivity is the predominating
element. Men are not generalisations, and resist
generalising as the eel writhes during a flaying
operation, on which the operator remarked, " Hang
it ! why can't you keep quiet ? " Talked on early
histories : it is so interesting to compare ' Genesis
and Herodotus as two infantile histories ; in the



/ETAT. 24. yOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 7

former the prophetic element vastly predominant,
in the latter the imaginative. He says that Car-
lyle is bringing out a thirty-pounder of a book on
the Northern troubles.^

February 26. — Letter from Carlyle. His present
work is one that makes him sad and sickly ; it is
likely to be ready in about three weeks, and then
he expects to be ready for the hospital. He says
that John Sterling was the first to tell him that
his tendencies were political, a prophecy which he
feels is now being strangely verified. Terrible as
it is to him to pronounce the words which he does,
he feels that those and no others are given him to
speak ; he sees some twenty thousand in pauper-
Bastilles looking for a Voice, inarticulately beseech-
ing, " Speak for us ! " and can he be silent ? His
book is on the sorrows in the North, and will
probably consist of the Facts of the French Re-
volution connected with his theory of the present
misgovernment of England.

March 2. — Sterling thinks of writing an Essay
on Shakespeare as the Son of his Time, which
would develop a great deal of curious matter con-

^ " Past and Present " was published by Carlyle in this year.



8 yOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 1843.

cerning the actual life around him which may be
gathered from his Plays. Shakespeare played the
Ghost in "Hamlet" and the Shepherd in the
"Winter's Tale" himself. He thinks Tieck the
purest poet of the present day, with the subtlest
discrimination of the delicacies in women's char-
acters — a rare achievement. Lessing was no poet,
almost anti-poetical ; the plot of Nathan the Wise,
revolting.

He grieves over the temporal aim of the masses,
" their desires are the measure of their powers,"
and of few unattainable desires are they conscious,
except the realising quite as much money as they
wish.

March 9. — J. S. Mill's book arrived yesterday —
"A System of Logic." I read the chapter on
Liberty and Necessity. Sterling spoke of the
gradual development which he had watched in
him. He has made the sacrifice of being the un-
doubted leader of a powerful party for the higher
glory of being a private in the army of Truth, ready
to storm any of the strong places of Falsehood, even
if defended by his late adherents. He was brought
up in the belief that Politics and Social Institutions
were everything, but he has been gradually delivered



^TAT. 24- yOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 9

from this outwardness^ and feels now clearly that
individual reform must be the groundwork of social
progress. Sterling thinks that Mill's book wdll in-
duce some to believe in the existence of certain
elements in human nature^ such as Reverence, to
w^hich they have nothing answering in their own
consciousness.

March 24. — Sterling talked about the men he
has seen in his visit to London. — Carl vie very un-
happy about the times, thinking everything as bad
as ever, and conducted on the least happiness for
the greatest number principle ; the only thing good
is, that people are made to feel unhappy, and so
prove that enjoyment is not the object of life. His
book is now being copied, and is to be printed
simultaneously in England and America, so that he,
being the Prophet to both lands, may receive the
Profits from both. With Julius Hare he had unit-
ing intercourse, and it was particularly interesting
after their long separation to see how much common
ground they still had to walk and love upon. He
gave him Tieck's last book, which he thinks shows
more genius than anything lately published. Mau-
rice finds fault with Mill's book as only attempting
a Logic of Propositions, leaving the higher Logic of



lo JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 1843.

Ideas to the Ontologists: this Sterling does not
think a fair criticism^ as none of these worthy On-
tologists have given the least sketch of such a Logic.
Hegel's book is directed to this end. Tieck told
Julius Hare that he admired the scene with Wrangel
more than any part of Wallenstein, Schiller having
there succeeded in representing a concrete reality.

March 29. — The Rabbi's wife told me that all
her uncles and aunts are deaf; they may scream as
loud as they like in their Uncle Jacob's ear to no
purpose, but, by addressing his nose, he becomes
quite accessible ; an aunt's mode of approach is her
teeth.

March 31. — Sterling talked this morning about
the Apocalypse, which he believes refers principally
to Pagan Rome, and the actual life which the
Apostle saw around him, and which he felt must be
denounced and punished by a God of holiness and
truth. This he believes to be the feeling of all the
prophecies.

u^pril 13. — Julius Hare writes that the King of
Prussia has feeling enough to be delighted with
Tieck's last book. He got him to Berlin some time

1 This appears to be now well known, and is commonly prac-
tised by the use of the " Audiphone."



^TAT. 24. yOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 11

since, and on occasion of a Court picnic at a certain
mill, there were only two chairs to be had; the King
placed his Queen on one, and invited Tieck to the
other, throwing himself on the grass at the Queen's
feet.

May 3. — After dinner I was writing to Aunt
Charles, and on running upstairs for more paper, I
was startled to find myself spitting blood. It proved
to be only from the throat, but I, for half an hour,
took it entirely as a signal of death, and shall, I
believe, often look back with satisfaction to the
solemn quietness which I felt at that time. I
finished Aunt Charles's note, and then lay down
alone, and felt altogether rather idle about life, and
much disposed to be thankful, or at any rate entirely
submissive, whatever might be the result.

May 6. — Called on the W. Molesworths. He is
threatened with total blindness, and his excellent
wife is learning to work in the dark in preparation
for a darkened chamber. What things w ives are !
What a spirit of joyous suffering, confidence, and
love was incarnated in Eve! 'Tis a pity they should
eat apples.

May 10, — Sterling has been reading Niebuhr
lately with great interest, and comparing him anti-



12 JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 1843.

thetically with Gibbon : their different modes of
estimating Christianity are very remarkable.

May 35. — John Sterling wandered out and dined
with us ; he was calm and sad, and feels the idea of
leaving Falmouth. His London time was an ex-
tremely bustling one. Carlyle does not seem quite
happy ; though he has blown so loud a blast, and
though it has awakened so many deep echoes in the
hearts of thoughtful men, there are other trumpets
yet to sound before Truth can get itself fully recog-
nised, even by those who have gone far. Sterling
gives a very bright description of their Isle of Wight
habitation ; I wish it may prove the land of promise
to them.

May 2,6. — Enjoyed writing to L. Crouch, and
got into some abstractions, the result of which was
that every man is his own devil, i.e., a rebellious
will is the principle of evil in each of us, and the
anarchy produced by this false dominance is the
cause of all that falseness which we call Sin.

May 29. — Sterling dwelt with delight on Mrs.
Carlyle's character — such hearty sympathy in the
background, and such brilliant talent in front ; if
it were merely "eternal smart ^' with her, it would
be very tiresome, but she is a woman as well as a



^TAT. 24. JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 13

clever person. She and her husband, though ad-
miring each other very much, do not in all things
thoroughly sympathise ; he does not pay that atten-
tion to little thinofs on which so much of a woman's
comfort depends.

May 30. — Sterling dined here, and gave an in-
teresting critique on Goethe's " Elective Affinities,"
which is little understood by general readers, but
has a deep moral significance. He went off in the
rain, looking quite like his old self.

June 13. — I had the luxury of a solitary evening
at Grove Hill — yet not solitary, I took up Emer-
son again, which I had not read in for many
months, and was quite startled at the deep beauty
and truth that is in him. He evidently writes from
experience, not hearsay, and that gives the earnest
tone which must awaken echoes in every heart
which is not limited to formulas ; even though
much which he says may not be true to you, yet
you feel that to him it is Divine truth.

June 14. — How I like things to be done quietly
and without fuss. It is the fuss and bustle prin-
ciple, which must proclaim itself until it is hoarse,
that wars against Truth and Heroism. Let Truth
be done in silence " till it is forced to speak," and



14 JOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 1843.

then should it only whisper, all those whom it may
concern will hear.

June 18. — No news from Barclay. Well, silence
is doubtless safe, and patience is good for us. I
think Heaven will bless him, but how, it does not
suit me even to wish ; I've no notion of giving
hints to Providence.

August 5. — Finished that wondrous "Past and
Present," and felt a hearty blessing on the gifted
Author spring up in my soul. It is a book which
teaches you that there are other months besides
May, but that with Courage, Faith, Energy, and
Constancy, no December can be "impossible."

August 14. — Schleiermacher is a very fine fellow,
so far as I can yet discern ; a noble, large-hearted,
courageous, clear-sighted, thoughtful, and generous
Christian, in the deepest as well as the popular
sense of the term ; a nourishing writer, whose
whole reasoning and discerning speaks irrefutably
to one's own holiest convictions. Then what
knowledge of human nature he has ! He ferrets
out our high, noble, self-sacrificing sins, and shows
no more mercy to them than to the vulgar fellows
which smell of garlic.

.August 20. — Barclay had a long interview yester-



.CTAT. 24. yOURNALS OF CAROLINE FOX. 15

day with Espartero^ the ex-Regent of Spain. He
has just had to escape from a Rebellion aided by
France, which he could not repress, and now resigns
himself to becoming an Englishman until Spain is
ready for him again.

August 21. — Tea at Trebah. Aunt Charles sends
brilliant accounts of her present environment —
Hartley Coleridge on one side, Wordsworth on
the other. She says the latter is very sensible and
simple about the Laureateship ; he speaks of it
very kindly, but has quite declined doing any work


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