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THE

[AMERICAN
ENCYCLOPEDIA AND DICTIONARY

OF

OPHTHALMOLOGY



EDITED BY

COL. CASEY A. WOOD, M. R. C, U. S. A.. M. D., C M., D. C. L.

Fellow of the American College of Surgeons; Emeritus Professor of Ophthalmology, College of' Medicine,
University of Illinois; Late Piotessor of Ophthalmology and Head of the Department, North-
western University Medical School; Ex-President of the American Academy of Medicine,
of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and of the Chicago Ophthal-
mological Society; Ex-Chaiiman of the Ophthalmic Section of the
American Medical Association; Editor of a "System of
Ophthalmic Therapeutics" and a "System of Oph-
thalmic Operations," etc.; Consulting Ophthalmic
Surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital; Consulting
Ophthalmologist to Cook County
Hospital, Chicago, 111.



ASSISTED BY A LARGE STAFF OF COLLABORATORS



FULLY ILLUSTRATED



Volume XVII
Toxic Amblyopia to Vertige Paralysant



CHICAGO

CLEVELAND PRESS

1921



leRARY

IV6 S\V< OF

AN .TEeo



OOPYBIGHT 1921

BY THE

CLEVELAND PRESS

All Bights Beserved






INITIALS USED IN THIS ENCYCLOPEDIA TO
IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS



A. A.— Adolf Alt, M. D., M. C. P. and S. 0., St. Louis, Mo. (De-
ceased).
A. C. C. — Alfred C. Croftan, Ph. D., M. D., Chicago, III.

Author of Clinical Urinology and of Clinical Therapeutics. Member of the
General Staff of the Michael Eeese Hospital, Chicago. Formerly Physician-in-
chief at St. Mary's Hospital; Physician to St. Elizabeth's Hospital; Physician
to the Chicago Post-Graduate Hospital; Pathologist to St. Luke's Hospital.
A. E. D.— A. Edward Davis, A. M., M. D., New York City, N. Y.

Professor of Oi^htlialmology, New York Post Graduate Medical School and
Hospital ; Attending Ophthalmic Surgeon Babies ' Wards, New York Post
Graduate Hospital; Consulting Ophtlaalmologist Manhattan State Hospital,
Central Islip; United Portchester Hospital and Ossining Hospital; Member
of the New York Academy of Medicine, New York Ophthalmological, and
American Ophthalmological Societies; Author of The Befraction of the Eye;
Co-author with D. B. St. John Eoosa, M. D., Handboolc of the Anatomy and
Diseases of the Eye and Ear; with Beaman Douglass, M. D., Eye, Ear, Nose,
and Throat Nursinq.

A. E. B. — Albert Eugene Bulson, Jr., B. S., M. D., Fort Wayne, Ind.

Professor of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine; Chairman
of the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association; Oph-
thalmologist to St. Joseph 's Hospital, Allen County Orphans ' Home, and the
United States Pension Department; Editor of the Journal of the Indiana State
Medical Association, etc.

A. E. H. — Albert E. Halstead, M. D., Chicago, III.

Professor of Clinical Surgery, Northwestern University Medical School; At-
tending Surgeon, St. Luke's and Cook County Hospitals, Chicago; Consulting
Surgeon, Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary; Fellow American Surgical
Association.

A. N. M. — Alfred Nicholas ]\Iurray, M. D., Chicago, III.

Ophthalmologist, New Lake View Hospital. Formerly Clinical Assistant in
Ophthalmology, and Assistant Secretary of the Faculty, Eush Medical College.
Once Voluntary Assistant in the Universitaets Augenklinik, Breslau. Author
of Minor Ophthalmic and Aural Technique. Secretary, Physicians' Club of
Chicago. Mitglied der Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, Heidelberg.

A. S. R. — Alexander Sands Rochester, M. D., Chicago, III.

M. D. Jefferson Medical College; Ex-Chief, San Lazaro Contagious Hospital,
Manila, P. I.; Adjunct Ophthalmologist to St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.

B. C. — Burton Chance, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Assistant Surgeon, Wills Hospital, Philadelphia.

C. A. 0. — Charles A. Oliver (Deceased).

C. D. C. — Carl Dudley Camp, M. D., Ann Arbor, Mich.

Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System in the Medical Depart-
ment of the University of Michigan. Formerly, Instructor in Neuropathology
in the University of Pennsylvania. Member of the American Neurological
Association, Ame'rican Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists, Amer-
ican Therapeutic Society, American Medical Association, etc. Author of
papers on the Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of the Nervous System.

iii



■• rK



iv INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS

C. E. W. — LiEUT.-CoL. Charles E. Woodruff, M. D., U. S. Army, Re-
tired.
C. F. F. C. — Charles F. F. Campbell, Columbus, Ohio.

Superintendent Ohio State School for the Blind; Secretary Ohio State Com-
mission for the Blind; Secretary, American Association of Workers for the
Blind; Founder and Editor, "Outloolc for the Blind."
C. F. P. — Charles F. Prentice, M. E., New York City, N. Y.

President, New York State Board of Examiners in Optometry ; Special Lecturer
on Theoretic Optometry, Columbia University, New York. Author of A Treatise
on Ophthalmic Lenses (1886) ; Dioptric Formuloe for Combined Cylindrical
Lenses (1888) ; A Metric System of Numbering and Measuring Prisms (the
Prism-dioptry) (1890); The Iris as Diaphragm and Photostat (1895), and
other optical papers.

C. H. B. — Charles Heady Beard, M. D. (Deceased).

C. P. S. — Charles P. Small, A. M., M. D., Chicago, III.

Late Clinical Assistant, Department of Ophthalmology, Rush Medical College,
Author of A Probable Metastatic Hypernephroma of the Choroid.

C. S. — Charles Sheard, A. B., A. M., Ph. D., Southbridge, Mass.

Physiological Optieist, The American Optical Company; formerly Director
and Professor and now Non-resident Professor of Applied Optics, The Ohio
State University. Author of brochure, Dynamic Ocular Tests; Ocular Accom^
modation (in preparation): also articles and researches on "Mathematical
Studies in Optics," "Some Applications of Theoretical to Visual Optics,"
"Dioptric Fonrmlce for Cylindrical Lenses Combined at Oblique Axes," to-
gether with various original researches in physical and physiologic optics, the
electron theory and electric oscillations.

D. C. Mc. — Douglas C. McMurtrie, New York City.

Editor American Journal of Care for Cripples; former Secretary, American
Association for the Conservation of Vision; Author of Education of and Occu-
pations for the Blind in the Beference Handbook of the Medical Sciences.
D. F. H. — Delamere Forest Harbridge, Phoenix, Arizona.

Collaborator Ophthalmic Year Book, section on Tumours and Toxic Amblyopia.
Formerly Instructor in diseases of the eye in the Philadelphia Polyclinic and
College for Graduates in Medicine. Chief of eye service in the Chester Hos-
pital, and first clinical assistant in the Wills Hospital. Member of the Wills
Hospital Ophthalmic Society and other medical societies.

D. H. — D'Orsay Hecht, M. D. (Deceased).

D. T. v.— Derrick T. Vail, M. D., F. A. C. S., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Emeritus Professor of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of
Cincinnati; Consulting Ophthalmologist, Cincinnati General Hospital; Mem-
ber American Ophthalmologieal Society; Ex-president American Academy
of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology; Foundation Member, Oxford (Eng-
land) Ophthalmologieal Congress; Member Chicago Ophthalmologieal Soci-
ety, American Medical Association, etc. Author of A Detailed and Illustrated
Description of Smith's Cataract Operation; Detachment of the Betina and, a
New Theory; Optic Neuritis fnom Intra-Nasal Disease; Squirrel Plague Con-
junctivitis; Newer Principles in Dealing with Uncomplicated Cataract, etc.

D. W. G. — Duff Warren Greene, M. A., M. S., M. D. (Deceased).
D. W. W.— David W. Wells, M. D., F. A. C. S., Boston, Mass.

Professor of Ophthalmology and Chairman of Standing Committee on Post-
Graduate Courses, Boston University School of Medicine; Ophthalmic Surgeon
and Chief of Service, Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, Boston; Oculist,
Newton (Mass.) Hospital; Ex-President American Homeopathic Ophthal-
mologieal, Otological and Laryngological Society; Fellow American Academy
Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology; Fellow New England Ophthalmologieal
Society; Member Section Ophthalmology, A. M. A. Author of "Psychology
Applied to Medicine," 1907 and "The Stereoscope in Ophthalmology," 1912
and 1918.



INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS ' v

E. C. B. — Edward C. Bull, Pasadena, Calif.

E. C. E. — Edward Coleman Ellett, B. A., M. D., Memphis, Tenn.

Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Tennessee, College of Medicine.

E. E. I. — Ernest E. Irons, M. D., Ph. D., Chicago, III.

Assistant Professor of Medicine, Kush Medical College; Assistant Attending
Physician, Presbyterian Hospital; Attending Physician, Cook County Hospital;
Consulting Physician, Durand Hospital of the Memorial Institute for Infec-
tious Diseases, Chicago.
E. H. — Emory Hill, A. B., M. D., Chicago, III,

Late House Surgeon, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia; Assistant in Ophthal-
mology, Kush Medical College (in affiliation with the University of Chicago) ;
Assistant Ophthalmologist to the out-patient department of the Children's
Memorial Hospital, Chicago; Assistant Instructor in Ophthalmology, Chicago
Polyciinic. Member of American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-
Laryngology.

E. J. — Edward Jackson, C. E., M. A., M. D., Denver, Colo.

Professor of Ophthalmology in the University of Colorado; Former Chairman
of the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association; For-
mer President of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngol-
ogy; The American Ophthalmological Society, and The American Academy
of Medicine. Author of Skiascopy and its Practical Application; Manual of
Diseases of the Eye.

E. K. F. — Ephraim Kirkpatrick Findlay, M. D., C. M., Chicago, III.

Assistant Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Medical Department, University
of Illinois; Assistant Surgeon of the Illinois Charitable Eye and Ear Infirm-
ary; Assistant Oculist at the University Hospital.

E. S. T. — Edgar Steiner Thomson, M. D., New York City, N. Y.

Surgeon and Pathologist, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital; Professor
of Ophthalmology, New York Polyclinic Medical School and Hospital; Con-
sulting Ophthalmologist to Perth Amboy and Ossining Hospitals; Member of
the New York Academy of Medicine, New York Ophthalmological, and Ameri-
can Ophthalmological Societies. Author of Electric Appliances and Their Use
in Ophthalmic Surgery, in Wood's System of Ophthalmic Operations, and
various monographs.

F, A. — Frank Allport, M. D., LL. D., Chicago, III.

Ex-Professor, Ophthalmology and Otology, Minnesota State University; Ex-
President, Minnesota State Medical Society; Ex-Chairman and Secretary,
Ophthalmic Section, American Medical Association; Ex-Professor, Ophthal-
mology and Otology, Northwestern University Medical School; Ex-President,
Chicago Ophthalmological Society. Author of The Eye and Its Care; Co-
Author of ^n American Text-Book of Diseases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and
Throat; A System of Ophthalmic Therapeutics, and A System of Ophthalmic
Operations. Eye and Ear Surgeon to the Chicago Board of Education and
to St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.

F. C. T.— Frank C. Todd, D. D. S., M. D., F. A. C. S. (Deceased).

F. E. B.— Frank E. Brawley, Ph. G., M. D., Chicago, III.

Co-Author of Commoner Diseases of the Eye, A System of Ophthalmic Thera-
peutics and A System of Ophthalmic Operations; formerly voluntary assist-
ant in the Universitaets Augenklinik, Breslau, and the Royal London Ophthal-
mic Hospital (Moorfields) ; Oculist and Aurist to St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.

F. P. L. — Francis Park Lewis, M. D., Buffalo, N. Y.

President American Association for the Conservation of Vision; President
Board of Trustees N. Y. State School for the Blind; President N. Y. State
Commissions for the Blind (1903 and 1906); Chairman Committee on Preven-
tion of Blindness, American Medical Association; Ophthalmologist Buffalo
State Hospital and Buffalo Homeopathic Hospital; Consulting Ophthalmologist
J. N, Adam Memorial Hospital; Fellow Academy Ophthalmology and Oto-
Laryngology.



vi • INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS

G. C. C— See G. C. 8.

G. C. S.— G. C. Savage, M. D., Nashville, Tenn.

Professor of Ophthalmology in the Medical Department of Vanderbilt Uni-
versity; Ex-President of the Nashville Academy of Medicine; Ex-President of
the Tennessee State Medical Society. Author of New Truths in Ophthalmology
and Ophthalmic Myology.
G. F. L. — George Franklin Libby, M. D., Oph. D., Denver, Colorado.

Ex-Assistant Surgeon to the Maine Eye and Ear Infirmary; Ophthalmologist
to National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Mercy Hospital, and Children's
Hospital, Denver; and Denver, Laramie and North Western Eailroad; Member
of the American Ophthalmological Society, Academy of Ophthalmology and
Oto-Laryngology, and Colorado Ophthalmological Society (its Secretary for six
years) ; Author of Monocular Blindness of Fifty Years' Duration: Restoration
of Vision Folloiving Hemiplegia; Polyps in the Lower Canaliculus; Silver Salts
in Ocular Therapeutics ; Ocular Disease in Belation to Nasal Obstruction and
Empyema of the Accessory Sinuses (Bibl.) ; A Case of Complete Albinism:
Observations on the Changes in the Diameters of the Lens as Seen through the
Iris; Consanguinity in Belation to Ocular Disease; Heredity in Belation to the
Eye (doctorate thesis, Univ. of Colo., 1913); Acquired Symmetrical Opacities
of the Cornea of Unusual Type; Tuberculosis of the Bulbar Conjunctiva, etc.
G. H. P.— Geo. H. Price, B. E., M. S., M. D., Nashville, Tenn.

Professor Ophthalmology Vanderbilt School of Medicine; Ex-President,
Nashville Academy of Medicine; Ex-President, Middle Tennessee Medical
Society; Ex-Secretary, Tenn. State Medical Association; Ex-Editor, Journal
Tenn. State Medical Association; Member American Medical Association;
Member Southern Medical Association.
H. B. C— H. Beckles Chandler, C. M., M. D., Boston, Mass.

Professor Ophthalmology, Tufts Medical School, Boston; Senior Surgeon
Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary.

H. B. W. — Henry Baldwin Ward, A. B., A. M., Ph. D., Champaign,
III.

Professor of Zoology, University of Illinois; Ex-Dean of the College of Medi-
cine, University of Nebraska. Author of Parasitic Worms of Man and the
Domestic Animals; Data for the Determination of Human Entozoa; Icono-
grophia Parasitorum Hominis; Human Parasites in North America.

H. F. H. — Howard F. Hansell, A. M., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Professor of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical College; Emeritus Professor

Diseases of the Eye, Philadeljjhia Polyclinic Hospital; Ophthalmologist to

Jefferson Medical College Hospital; Ophthalmologist to Philadelphia Hospital.

H. G.— Harold Gifford, B. Sc, Cornell, M. D., M. A. (Hon.), IVIichi-

gan, Omaha, Neb.

Professor of Ophthalmology, Medical Department, University of Nebraska.
H. G. L. — Henry Glover Langworthy, M. D., Dubuque, Iowa.

Surgeon to the Langworthy Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Infirmary, Dubuque,
Iowa; Member American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology; of
the Chicago Ophthalmological Society; of the American Medical Association,
etc. Writer of numerous monographs on the special subjects of eye, ear, nose
and throat.

H. McI. M.— Howard McI. JMorton, M. S., M. D., Minneapolis, Minn.

Senior Surgeon to the Wells Memorial Eye Clinic; Ophthalmic Surgeon to the
Swedish Hospital; Ex-President Minnesota Academy of Ophthalmology and
Oto-Laryngology.

H. S. G.-^Harry Searls Gradle, A. B., M. D., Chicago, III.

Professor of Ophthalmology, Chicago Eye and Ear College; Director of Oph-
thalmic Clinic, West Side Free Dispensary; Member of the Ophthalmologische
Gesellschaft, American Medical Association, American Academy of Ophthal
mology and Oto-Laryngology.



INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS vii

H. V, W. — Harry Vanderbilt Wurdemann, M. D., Seattle, Wash.

Member American Medical Association; Ex-Chairman Section on Oph-
thalmology, American Medical Association; Hon. Member, Sociedad Cientifica,
Mexico; Is. W. Wisconsin Medical Society and Philosophical Society. Fel-
low American Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryngology. Author of
Visual Economics (1901); Injuries to the Eye (1912); Bright's Disease and
the Eye (1912); and numerous monographs on the eye and its diseases. Col-
laborator on many other scientific books.

J. A. McC— John A. McCaw, A.B., M. D., Oph. D., Denver, Colo.

Instructor in Ophthalmology in the University of Colorado and in the sum-
mer school of Ophthalmology of the University of Colorado; Attending Oph-
thalmologist to the Hospital of the City and County of Denver.

J. D. L. — Joseph D. Lewis, A. M., M. D., Minneapolis, Minn.

Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to the Minneapolis City Hospital; Consulting
Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to Hopewell Hospital and Visiting Nurses'
Association ; Member Minnesota Academy of Ophthalmology and Oto-Laryn-
gology; Fellow American College of Surgeons.

J. G., Jr. — John Green, Jr., A. B., M. D., St. Louis, Mo.

Assistant in Ophthalmology, Washington University Medical School; Ophthal-
mic Surgeon to St. Louis Children's Hospital; Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. Louis
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Infirmary; Consulting Ophthalmic Surgeon to St.
Louis Maternity Hospital; Consulting Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. John's Hos-
pital, St. Louis.

J, L. M. — John L. Moffat (Deceased),

J. M. B.— James IMoores Ball, M. D., LL. D., St. Louis, Mo.

Dean and Professor of Ophthalmology, American Medical College of St. Louis,
Medical Department of National University of Arts and Sciences. Author of
Modern Ophthalmology ; Andreas Vesalius the Reformer of Anatomy.

J. R. C— James Raley Cravath, B. S., Chicago, III.

Electrical and Illuminating Engineer, Chicago; Vice-President, Illuminating
Engineering Society; formerly associate editor Electrical World; joint author
Practical Illuviination by Cravath and Lansingh ; joint author Light — Its Use
and Misuse, prepared by committee of the Illuminating Engineering Society;
author of Illumination and Vision; Tests of the Lighting of a Small Boom; and
numerous other monographs.

L. H.— LuciEN Howe, M. A., M. D., Sc. D., Buffalo, N. Y.

Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Buffalo; Member of the Eoyal Col-
lege of Surgeons of England; Fellow of the Eoyal Society of Medicine; Mem-
ber of the Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft and of the Societe Frangaise
d'Ophthahnologie. Author of The Muscles of the Eye.

L. M. — Lloyd Mills, M. D., Los Angeles, Cal.

Late Voluntary Assistant II Eye and I Surgical Services (Abteilung Budinger)
Vienna General Hospital.

M. S.— Myles Standish, A. M., M. D., S. D., Boston, Mass.

Williams Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard University; Consulting Oph-
thalmic Surgeon, Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary and Carney
Hospital, Boston, Mass.

N. M. B.— Nelson M. Black, Ph. G., M. D., Milwaukee, Wis.

Author of The Development of the Fusion Center in the Treatment of Strabis-
mus; Examination of the Eyes of Transportation Employes; Artificial Illumina-
tion a Factor in Ocular Discomfort, and other scientific papers.

p. A. C— Peter A. Callan, M. D., New York City, N. Y.

Surgeon, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary; Ophthalmologist to St. Vin-
cent's Hospital; Columbus Hospital and St. Joseph's Hospital, New York.

P. G. — Paul Guilford, M. D. (Deceased).
R. D. P. — Robert D. Pettet, Chicago, III.

Author of The Mechanics of Fitting Glasses.



viii INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS

S. H. McK. — Samuel Hanford McKee, B. A., M. D., MontrExM., Que.

Lecturer in Pathology and Bacteriology, McGill University; Demonstrator in
Opbthalmology, McGill University; Assistant Oculist and Aurist to the Mont-
real General Hospital; Oculist to the Montreal Maternity Hospital; Oculist to
the Alexandra Hospital; Member of The American Association of Patlwlogista
and Bacteriologists. Author of The Bacteriology of Conjunctivitis ; An Anal-
ysis of Three Uundred Cases of Morax-Axenfeld Conjimctivitis ; Demonstration
of the Spirocfieta Pallida from a Mucous Patch of the Conjunctiva; The Patho-
logical Histology of Trachoma, and numerous other monographs.

T. A. W.— Thomas A. Woodruff, M. D., C. M., L. R. C. P.

Ex-President of Chicago Ophthalmological Society; "Vice-President of the
Illinois Society for the Prevention of Blindness; Fellow of A. M. A.; Fellow
American Academy of Medicine; Fellow of American Academy of Ophthal-
mology; Fellow American College of Surgeons; Fellow of the Institute of
Medicine of Chicago; Member of Chicago Society of Medical History; Chi-
cago Medical Society; Author with Casey A. Wood of Commoner Diseases of
the Eye; Formerly Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital.

T. H. S.— Thomas Hall Shastid, A. B., A. M., M. D., LL. B., F. A. C. S.,
Superior, Wis., and Duluth, jMinn.

Honorary Professor of the History of Medicine in the American Medical Col-
lege, St. Louis, Mo.; Late Editorial Secretary of The Ophthalmic Becord ;
Late Associate Editor of The Michigan Law Review; Collaborator, American
Journal of Ophthalmology; Author of A Country Doctor; Practicing in Pike;
Physical Examination in Personal Injury Cases; Forensic Relations of Op\h-
thalmic Sxirgery (in Wood's System of Ophthalmic Operations); Legal Rela-
tions of Ophthalmology (in Ball's Modern Ophthalmology 3d and 4th eds.) ;
A History of Medi-cal Jurisprudence in America and numerous Biographical
Sketches (in Kelly's Cyclopedia of American Medical Biography, 1st and 2d
eds.) ; Helmliolts's Description of an Ophthalmoscope ; Ophthalmic Juris-
prudence.
William C. Finnoff, M. D., Oph. D., Denver, Colorado.

Assistant Editor of Ophthalmic Literature; Instructor in Ophthalmology, Uni-
versity of Colorado, Medical School ; and in Summer School of Ophthalmologv',
University of Colorado ; 0])lithalniologist to the National Jewish Hospital for
Consimiptives, Mercy Hospital, and Denver City and County Hospital.

W. C. P. — Wm. Campbell Posey, B. A., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Professor of Ophthalmology in the Philadelphia Polyclinic Hospital and
Graduate Medical School; Ophthalmic Surgeon to the Wills, Howard and
Children's Hospitals; Chairman of the Pennsylvania Commission for the
Conservation of Vision; Chairman of Section on Ophthalmology, College of
Physicians, Philadelphia. Editor of American Edition of Nettleship 's Text-
booh of Ophthalmology ; Co-Editor, with Jonathan Wright, of System of Dis-
eases of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat; Co-Editor, with Wm. G. Spiller, of
The Eye and the Nervous System.

W. F. C. — W. Franklin Coleman (Deceased).

W. F. H. — William Frederic Hardy, M. D., St. Louis, Mo.

Assistant in Ophthalmology, Washington University Medical School.

W. H. C— Wm. H. Crisp, M. D., D. Oph. (Colorado), Denver, Colo.

Secretary Colorado Ophthalmological Society; Instructor in Ophthalmology,
University of Colorado Medical School; Ophthalmologist to National Jewish
Hospital for Consumptives.

W. T. S. — William T. Shoemaker, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.

Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Women's Medical College of Pennsylva-
nia; Ophthalmic Surgeon to the Lankenau, Germantown, and Pennsylvania
Hospitals ; Consulting Ophthalmologist to the Pennsylvania Institution for
Deaf and Dumb, Mt. Airy; Southern Home for Destitute Children, and Home
for Training in Speech of Deaf Children, Bala, Pennsylvania. Chairman of
Section on Ophthalmology, College of Physicians, Philadelphia, 1917-18-19.



TOXIC AMBLYOPIA 12801

{Concluded from Preceding Volume)

E serin. Consult p. 4521, Vol. VI of this Encyclopedia.

The Ophthalniic Y ear-Book for 1913 furnishes a number of cases
of amblyojiia due to eserin. For example in a ease of corneal ulcer
recorded by Wessely, instillation of one drop of a 1 per cent, solu-
tion of eserin for a slight intercurrent attack of glaucoma was fol-
lowed within a half hour by severe symptoms of acute glaucoma. The
visual acuity, which had fallen from 0.5 to 0.2 during the disturbance
which preceded the instillation of eserin, was reduced to counting
fingers at 2 to 3 meters, and the tension rose from 35 to 60 mm.
Repeated instillation of homatropin in the course of a few hours led
to disappearance of all glaucomatus symptoms, so that on the same
day the vision had returned to 0.5. That the symptoms had been due
to the eserin was demonstrated three days later, when instillation of



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