Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

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The following is contained in the Fifty- first of Dio's
Borne : —

How Caesar after his victory at Actium settled matters of

immediate concern (chaps. 1-4).
Concerning Antony and Cleopatra and their movements

after their defeat (chaps. 5-8).
How Antony, defeated in Egypt, killed himself (chaps. 9-10).
How Caesar subdued Egypt (chaps. 15-18).
How Caesar came to Kome and celebrated his triumph

(chap. 21).
How the Curia Julia was dedicated (chap. 22).
How Moesia was conquered (chaps. 23-27).

Duration of time, the remainder of the consulship of
Caesar (IH) and M. Valerius Corvinus Messalla, together
with two additional years, in which there were the magis-
trates (consuls) here enumerated : —


30 Caesar (IV), M. Licinius M. F. Crassus.
29 Caesar (V), Sextus Apuleius Sexti F.

Such was the naval battle in which they engaged b.c. si
on the second pf.5epteinber. I do not mention this
date without a particular reason, nor am I, in fact,
accustomed to do so ; but Caesar now for the first
tini6 held all the power alone, and consequently

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the years of his reign are properly reckoned fromi b.c. 8i
that day.^ In honour of the day he dedicated to^
Apollo of Actium from the total number of the cap-
tured vessels a trireme, a quadrireme, and the other
ships in order up to one of ten banks of oars ; and
he built a larger temple. He also instituted a quad-
rennial musical and gymnastic contest, including
horse-racing, — a "sacred" festival, as they call
those in connexion with which there is a distribu-
tion of food, — and entitled it Actia. Furthermore,
he founded a city on the site of his camp by gather-
ing together some of the neighbouring peoples and
dispossessing others, and he named it Nicopolis.^
On the spot where he had had his tent, he laid a
foundation of square stones, adorned it with the
captured beaks, and erected on it, open to the sky,
a shrine of Apollo.

But these things were done later. At the time
he sent a part of the fleet in pursuit of Antony and '
Cleopatra ; these ships, accordingly, followed after
the fugitives, but when it became clear that they
were not going to overtake them, they returned.
With his remaining vessels he captured the enemy's
entrenchments, meeting with no opposition because
of their small numbers, and then overtook and with-
out a battle won over the rest of the army, which
was retreating into Macedonia. There were various
imp>ortant contingents that had already escaped ; of
these the Romans fled to Antony and the allies to
their homes. The latter, however, no longer fought

* Dio is very careful to date each emperor's reign pre-
cisely. Cf. Preface to vol. i. p. xiii.

* ».c. **City of Victorv." The same name had been given
by Pompey to a town founded after his defeat of Mithri-
dates. See xxxvi. 60.

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against Caesar, but both they and all the peoples b.c. si
which had long been subject to Rome remained
quiet and made terms, some at once and others later.
Caesar now punished the cities by levying money
and taking away the renmant of authority over their
citizens that their assemblies still possessed. He
deprived all the princes and kings except Amyntas ;
and Archelaus of the lands which they had received
from Antony, and he also deposed from their thrones
Philopator, the son of Tarcondimotus, Lycomedes, the
king of a part of Cappadocian Pontus, and Alexander,
the brother of lamblichus. The last-named, because
he had secured his realm as a reward for accusing
Caesar, he led in his triumphal procession and after-
wards put to death. He gave the kingdom of Lyco-
medes to one Medeius, because the latter had de-
tached the Mysians in Asia ^ from Antony before the
naval battle and with them had waged war upon those
who were on Antony's side. He gave the people of
Cydonia and Lampe ^ their liberty, because they had
rendered him some assistance ; and in the case of
the Lampaeans he helped them to found anew their
city, which had been destroyed. As for the senators
and knights and the other leaders who had aided
Antony in any way, he imposed fines upon many of
them, slew many others, and some he actually
spared. In this last class Sosius was a conspicuous
example; for though he had often fought against
Caesar and was now hiding in exile and was not
found until later, nevertheless he was saved. Like-
wise one Marcus Scaurus, a half-brother of Sextus on
his mother's side, had been condemned to death,

^ Cf. note on xlix. 36.
' Usually called Lappa.

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but M'as later released for the sake of his mother b.c. si
Mucia. Of those who were punished, the Aquilii
Flori and Curio were most talked about, the latter
because he was a son of that Curio who had once
been of great assistance to the former Caesar, and
the Flori because, when Octavius commanded that
the one of them who should draw the lot should be
slain, they both perished. They were father and son,
and when the son, without waiting for the lot, volun-
tarily offered himself to the executioner, the father
was exceedingly distressed and died upon his son's
body by his own hand.

These men, then, fared in the manner described.
The mass of Antony's soldiers was incorporated in
Caesar's legions, and he later sent back to Italy the
citizens of both forces who were over the military
age, without giving them anything, and scattered
the rest. For they had caused him to fear them in
Sicily after his victory there, and he was afraid they
might create a disturbance again ; hence he made
haste, before they gave the least sign of an uprising,
to discharge some entirely from the service and to
scatter the majority of the others. As he was still
at this time suspicious of the freedmen, he remitted
to them the fourth payment which they still owed of
the money levied upon them.^ So they no longer bore
him any grudge because of what had been taken from
them, but rejoiced as if they had actually received the
amount they had been relieved from contributing.
The men still left in the rank and file also made no
trouble, partly because they were held in check by
their commanders, but chiefly because of their hopes

* i.e. one-quarter of the tax of 12J per cent, levied upon
them a little earlier. See 1. 10. 4.

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of gaining the wealth of Egypt. The men, however, b.c. 31
who had helped Caesar to gain his victory and had
been dismissed from the service were irritated at
having obtained no reward, and not much later they
began to mutiny. But Caesar was suspicious of
them and, since he feared that Maecenas, to whom ^
on this occasion also Rome and the rest of Italy had
been entrusted, would be despised by them inasmuch
as he was only a knight, he sent Agrippa to Italy,
ostensibly on some other mission. He also gave to
Agrippa and to Maecenas so great authority in all
matters that they might even read beforehand the
letters which he wrote to the senate and to others
and then change whatever they wished in them.
To this end they also received "from him a ring,
so that they might be able to seal the letters
again. For he had caused to be made in duplicate
the seal which he used most at that time, the design
being a sphinx, the same on each copy ; since it was
not till later that he had his own likeness engraved
upon his seal and sealed everything with that. It
was this latter that the emperors who succeeded him
employed, except Galba, who adopted a seal which
his ancestors had used, its device being a dog
looking out of a ship's prow. It was the custom of
Caesar in writing to these two ministers and to his
other intimate friends, whenever there was need of
giving them secret information, to substitute in each
case for the appropriate letter in a word the letter
next in order after it.

Now Caesar, believing there would be no further

danger from the veterans, administered affairs in

Greece and took part in the Mysteries of the two

goddesses. 1 He then went over into Asia and

^ Demeter and Kor^.

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settled matters there also, keeping watch meanwhile b.c. si
upon Antony's movements ; for he had not yet
learned anything definite regarding the refuge to
which the other had fled, and so he was making pre-
parations to proceed against him in case he should
receive any precise information. But meanwhile the
veterans made an open demonstration now that he was
gone so far away from them, and he began to fear
that if they found a leader they would cause some mis-
chief. Consequently he assigned to others the task of
seeking Antony, and hurried to Italy himself, in the
middle of the winter of the year in which he was
holding office for the fourth time, along with Marcus b.c. so
Crassus. For Crassus, in spite of having sided with
Sextus and with Antony, was then his fellow-consul
even though he had not held the praetorship.
Caesar, then, came to Brundisium, but proceeded no
farther. For when the senate ascertained that his
ship was nearing Italy, its members went there to
meet him, all except the tribunes and two praetors,
who remained in Rome in pursuance of a decree ;
and the equestrian order as well as the greater
part of the populace and still others, some as envoys
and some of their own accord, came together
there in large numbers, with the result that there
was no further act of rebellion on the part of any
one in view of his arrival and of the enthusiasm of
the majority. For the veterans, too, had come to
Brundisium, some of them induced by fear, some by
hopes, and still others in response to a summons;
and Caesar gave money to some of them, while to
those who had served with him throughout his
campaigns he also made an additional assignment
of land. For by turning out of their homes the


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Brjfiov TOV iv TJ} 'PcoyLt^ viroX€C(f)6€VTa irapifievo^

Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 1 of 35)