Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

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7 6<f>daXfiot<; TO TrXelarov ap^d^v, epydcaivro' ex Se
Stj tov eTeiov^ Kal oKVTjaetav^ av irpoa/epovaaX
Tivt Kal <f>o^r}0etev epp(opAv(o^ ti Trpa^ai, Ttfv re
eavT&v iSiwTeiav Kal Ttfv aWcov^ riv&v Svva-
CTTeiav irpoopdo/ievoi, Kal fiiaOov ye riva <f>€p€-
Toaaav Kal t^9 dcr^'^^f^^ eveKa Kal T?j9 d^idia-ews:,

8 " Tlepl fiev Stf TOVTCDV TavTrfv <toi Ttfv ypayfirjv

^ oSrot M, om. V.

2 irdov Sauppe, kr4pov VM.

* 0Kv4\(ruav Dind., 0Kvii<rai^v VM.

* IkWfav Leuncl., i.\\i/)v VM.


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the families, property, and morals both of the senators b.c.
and of the knights, alike of the men and of their
wives and children. He should personally correct
such behaviour as deserves no punishment, yet if
neglected becomes the cause of many evils; but
about the more important matters of misconduct he
should confer with you. For the officer to whom
these duties are assigned should be a senator, and
in fact the best one after the prefect of the city,
rather than one of the knights. As for the title of
his office, he would naturally receive one derived
from your censorial functions (for it is certainly
appropriate that you should be in charge of the
censuses), and be called sub-censor. ^ Let these two,
the city prefect and the sub-censor, hold office for
life, unless one of them becomes demoralized in
some way or is incapacitated by sickness or old age.
For no harm could result from their holding office
for life, since the one would be entirely without
armed forces and the other would have but few
soldiers and would be acting for the most part under
your eyes ; whereas the effect of the yearly tenure
would be that they would shrink from offending
any one and would be afraid to act with energy, since
they would be looking ahead to their own retirement
to private life and to the exercise of the power of
the office by others. They should also draw a salary,
not only to compensate them for the loss of their
leisure but also to enhance the prestige of their

"This is the opinion I have to give you in regard

* Cf. Suetonius, Atig, 37. In practice there were six of
them— three to nominate senators and three to hold a
review of the knights.


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BiBay/iL, ol he hrj arparn^y^a-avre^; dpX€T(oadv riua
dpxw ^^ '^^^^ V7n)/c6oL<; (irpXv yap arparrjyrjaai
(r(f)a^ ovx ^yoO/Aai Belv tovto yiyvetrdai' iKclvoi
S* vTroarparrjyeircixrav oU &v ecTroD, xal aira^ koX
BeuTCpov), elO^ ovtco? vTrareveraxrav, av ye koX
op6&<; Sidp^axTC, koX fierct ravra rct<; fiei^ov^
22 riye/xovia<; Xafi^avercdaav, &8e yap a-vfifiovXevo)
croi Siard^av, ttjv re ^IraXiav iraaav ttjv virep
irevTrjKovTa fcal eirraKoaiov^ aTro t% TroXect)?
(TTahiov^ oitrav, koX raXKa irdvra rd re ev rals:
vijaoi^ Kal ret ev rah^ fiireipoi^ ofioXoyovvra
rj/Mv, /cardveifiov e/caaraxoOc fcard re yevrj xal
Idvrj, Ta9 re^ 7r6\ei<; dirdaa^;, 6<Ta^ ye fcal
avrapKh ia-rtv u<^* ei/09 dvBpo^ avroreXov^ ^PX^'

2 a-0ac' fcdvravOa arparidora^ eyfcardarrjaov, Kai
apxovra^ Kad^ exda-rov^ eva /lev e/c r&v inra-
revfcortov iirl iraai TrefiTre, Svo Be ifc r&v
iarpartfyrffcorcov,^ rov fih apri e/e rrj^ ttoXcco?
i^LOvra, fcal avr^ rd re IBccorifcct irpdr^ara xal
rj r&v eirLrrjBe icov Trapaa-fcevrf Trpoa-Keiadoi), rov Be
ifc r&v TOVTO ireTroLTjKoroiv, 09 rd re Koivd r&v
TToKeayv BuotKria-et Kal r&v crrparioar&v dp^ei,

3 irXfjv oar a drifiia^ fj davdrov e^^CTat. TavTa yhp
€9 fiovov rov virarevfcora ap^ovra avrfKero), irXrjv
TrepL re r&v etcarovrapx^ov r&v ev to?9 KaraXoyoi^
ovroDV Kal nrepl r&v IBicDr&v r&v trap eKdaroi^
TTpcorcov rovrov^ yap Brj eKarepov^ firjBevl aXXtp

* reus R. Steph. , rots VM. * re supplied by Oddey.

^ iir\ vaffi— iffrpaTrryriKSTcov M, om. V.


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to these officials. As for those who have served as
praetors, let them hold some office among the subject
nations (before they have been praetors I do not
think they should have this privilege, but they
ought first to serve for one or two terms as lieu-
tenants to the ex-praetors just mentioned) ; then
they should next hold office as consuls, provided
tjiat they have proved satisfactory officials to the end
of their terms, and after that they should receive
the more important governorships. I advise you,
namely, to arrange these positions as follows. Take
Italy as a whole (I mean the part of it which is
more than one hundred miles from the city), and
all the rest of the territory which owns our sway,
the islands and the continents, and divide it into
districts, in each case according to races and nations,
and take also all the cities that are strong and in-
dependent enough to be ruled by one governor with
full powers. Then station soldiers in them and send
out as governor to each district or independent city
one of the ex-consuls, who shall have general charge,
and two of the ex-praetors. One of the latter, fresh
from the city, should be put in charge of all matters
pertaining to persons in private life and of the com-
missary; the other, a man who has had special
training for this work, will administer the public
business of the cities and will have command of the
soldiers, except in cases that involve disfranchisement
or death. Such cases, of course, should be referred to
the ex-consul who is governor, and to him alone, except
where the persons involved are centurions recruited
from the levies or private persons of prominence in
their respective communities; as for both these classes,
do not allow anybody but yourself to punish them,


K 2

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iroXiTiK&v fcal r&v iSi(oriK&v ofioiio^ irpotarao'Oai.
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tA? Si/ca^ rd^ re iKKKrjTOv^ Ka\ rcL<; dvairopLiripLov^
rh^ diro ^ r&v arparrjy&v avr^ ^ <f>oird>aa9 Kpive-

6 Tft). Ka\ firj davfjuda-jf^ el koX rr}v ^IraXiav rovavra
fiepT) velfxai aoc irapaivA' iroWij re yhp Ka\
TTokvdvffpcoTTO^; oiaa dSvvaro^ eariv viro r&v iv
r(p aarei dp^ovrcov /ca\&<; SiotKet(r0ai, Set yctp
roh re hrjfioi<; rov dpxovra del irapelvaL koX rol<;
ap)(pv<Ti rd Sward irpodrdfraea-Oai.

23 " Aafx^avertoa-av he fiia-Qov irdvre^i ovrot, ol rd^
e^co T^9 7roXeft)9 dp^d^ iinrpeirofievoLy TrXeico fiev

01 fjLel^ov^i ekdrrco he ol fcaraheearepoi,, fieaov he
ol fiiaor ovre yap diro r&v oI/c€L(ov olov re iariv
avrov<; iv rfj dXKorpia dirot^rjv, ovr dopia-r^ kuI

2 daradfirircp dvdkdf/jLari &a"irep vvv XPW^^^* ^^*
dp^eraxrav fiTjre eXarrov ir&v rpi&v, el firj Tt9
dhcfci]aei€ ri, fir^re trXelov irevre, ro fikv on al

^ Lacuna recognised by Bk.
2 iLxh Rk., irh VM.
' avr^ Rk. , ahrov VM.


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lest they come to fear some of these officials to such an
extent as to take measures, on occasion, against you as
well as against them. As for my suggestion that the
second of the ex-praetors should be put in charge of
the soldiers, it is to be understood as follows : if only a
small body of troops is serving abroad in the military
posts or at home in a single post, my proposal is
satisfactory ; but if two citizen legions are wintering
in the same province (and more than this number I
should not advise you to trust to one commander), it
will no doubt be necessary for both the ex-praetors
to hold the command over them, each having charge
of one, and for each to have his share of authority
similarly in matters affecting either the state or
private citizens. Let the ex-consul, accordingly,
[have] these [duties], and let him also decide the
cases which come to him on appeal and those which
are referred to him by the praetors for review. And
do not be surprised that I recommend to you the
dividing of Italy also into these administrative dis-
tricts. It is large and populous, and so cannot possibly
be well administered by the magistrates in the city ;
for a governor ought always to be present in the
district he governs, and no duties should be laid upon
our city magistrates which they cannot perform.

'* Let all these men to whom the commands outside
the city are assigned receive salaries, the more
important officers more, the less important less, and
those between an intermediate amount. For they
cannot Hve in a foreign land upon their own resources,
nor should they indulge, as they do now, in unlimited
and indefinite expenditure. They should hold office
not less than three years, unless they are guilty of
misconduct, nor more than five. The reason is that


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4 yp,€VQ)v, rovrov^ p^ev yap avrol i/celvoi Bi/catov-

^ vpoffiiKtiy Bk. , vpoarriKoy VM.
2 nia\l-Kcoffl Bk., StoXe/wftxrf VM.

* ody $ov\€vrh,5 Bs. , (ru/ujSouXevTiy VM.

* fiiiri Dind., fiiiroi VM. » »^> M, om. V.

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offices held for only one year or for short periods b.c. 29
merely teach the officials their bare duties and then
dismiss them before they can put any of their acquired
knowledge into use, while, on the other hand, the
longer terms of many years* duration somehow have
the effect, in many cases, of filling the officials with
conceit and encouraging them to rebellion. Hence,
again, I think that the more important posts ought in ^
no case to be given consecutively to the same man.
For it makes no difference whether a man is governor
in the same province or in several in succession, if he
holds office for a period longer than is advisable;
besides, appointees improve when there is an interval
between their incumbencies during which they return
home and resume the life of ordinary citizens.

" As regards the senators, therefore, I declare that
they ought to discharge the duties named and in the
way described. Of the knights the two best should
command the bodyguard \^hich protects you, for it is
hazardous to entrust it to one man, and sure to lead
to confusion to entrust it to more than two. There-
fore let the number of these prefects be two, in order
that, if one of them feel indisposed, you may still not
lack a person to guard you. And men should be
appointed to this office who have served in many
inilitary campaigns and have, besides, held many
administrative positions. And they should have com-
mand both of the Pretorians and of all the other
soldiers in Italy, with power even to put to death
any of them who do wrong, with the exception of
the centurions and of those in general who have
been assigned to the staffs of magistrates of senatorial
rank. For these soldiers should be tried by the


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fcal KoXdaat koX ri/Jbrja-ai <7<^a9 e^ovaiav l^ovre?,
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3 irpd^eco^ (pepeTcoa-av, tovto fiev otl ^ ovx olov t€

^ Kaurapeloav H. Steph., Kaiaraplafv VM.

2 Sidy€ip Hffrai Bs., haylvetrOai VM.

^ tnirris M (tTrir^ts), linrets V.

* i\dTTOva R. Steph. , rhv iKdrrova VM. * 5t( M, om. V.


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senatorial magistrates themselves, in order that the b.c. 29
latter, by virtue of the authority they would thus
possess of dealing out punishments to them as well
as honours, may be able to command their un-
hesitating support. Over all the other soldiers in
Italy, however, the prefects I have mentioned should
be in command, having lieutenants under them, and
likewise over the Caesarians, both those who are in
attendance upon you and such of the others as are
of any account. These duties will be both fitting
and sufficient for them to discharge, for if they have
more responsibilities assigned to them than they are
able to carry satisfactorily, there is danger that they
may have no time for the essential things, or, if they
have, may prove incompetent to exercise oversight
over all their duties. These prefects also should hold
office for life, like the prefect of the city and the sub-
censor. Let another official be appointed to be com-
mander of the night-watch ^ and still another to be
commissioner of grain 2 and of the market in general,
both of them from the equestrian order and the best
men after the prefects, and let them hold their posts
for a definite term, like the magistrates elected from
the senatorial class. The management of the public
funds, also, — I mean both those of the people and
those of the empire, not only in Rome but also in the
rest of Italy and outside Italy, — should be entirely in
the hands of the knights, and they, as well as all the
other members of the equestrian order who are
charged with an administrative position, should be
on salary, greater or less in proportion to the dignity
and importance of their duties. The reason for the
second part of this suggestion is that it is not possible

^ Praefectua vigUum. * PraefecttLS annonae.


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7 rerayiievcp iarparevfievcov. rovrcov fiev yap r&v

^ re M, om. V. ^ rii T^ M, ra ip tJ V.

* iirotTJ) V, &,vairci M.


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for the knights^ since they are poorer than the
senators^ to meet their expenditures out of their
own means^ even when their duties keep them in
Rome^ and for the first point, that it is neither
practicable nor to your interest that the same men
should be given authority over both the troops and
the public funds. And, furthermore, it is well that
the whole business of the empire should be transacted .
by a number of agents, in order that many may at
the same time receive the benefits and gain ex-
perience in public affairs ; for in this way your
subjects, reaping a manifold enjoyment of the common
blessings, will be more favourably disposed towards
you, and you will have at your disposal in the largest
measure those who are at any particular time the best
men for all urgent needs. One official of the eques-
trian order is sufficient for each branch of the fiscal
service in the city, and, outside the city, for each pro-
vince, each one of them to have as many subordinates,
drawn from the knights and from your own freedmen,
as the needs of the case demand ; for you need to
associate with the officials such assistants in order
that your service may offer a prize for merit, and
that you may not lack those from whom you may
learn the truth, even contrary to their wishes, in
case any irregularity is committed.

^^ If any of the knights, after passing through many
branches of the service, distinguishes himself enough
to become a senator, his age ought not to hinder him
at all from being enrolled in the senate. Indeed,
some knights should be received into the senate,
even if they have seen service only as company com-
manders in^ the citizen legions, except such as have
served in the rank and file. For it is both a shame


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2 Selflor., SctvVM.

3 OVK hy id<ras Rk. , ovk hu idffrjis VM flor. (cod. B), €t ovk hv
kdamis flor. (cod. A).

* Trapexjis R. Stepll., irap4xots VM.


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and a reproach that men of this sort, who have carried b.c.
faggots and charcoal, should be found on the roll of
the senate ; but in the case of kniglits who began
their service with the rank of centurion, there is
nothing to prevent the most notable of them from
belonging to the senate.

"With regard, then, to the senators and the knights,
this is the advice I have to give you, — yes, and
this also, that while they are still children they should
attend the schools, and when they come out of child-
hood into youth ^ they should turn their minds to
horses and to arms, and have paid public teachers in
each of these departments. In this way from their
very boyhood they will have had both instruction
and practice in all that they will themselves be
required to do on reaching manhood, and will thus
prove more serviceable to you for every undertaking.
For the best ruler, — the ruler who is worth anything,
— should not only perform himself all the duties which
devolve upon him, but should make provision for the
rest also, that they may become as excellent as possible.
And this title can be yours, not if you allow them to
do whatever they please and then censure those who
err, but if, before any mistakes are made, you give
them instruction in everything the practice of which
will render them more useful both to themselves
and to you, and if you afford nobody any excuse
whatever, either wealth or nobility of birth or any
other attribute of excellence, for affecting indolence
or effeminacy or any other behaviour that is counter-
feit. For many persons, fearing that, by reason of

* The Greek term indicates approximately the age of


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Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 10 of 35)