Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 11 of 35)
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8 a-v ixev yhp ovSev dfiapT7]a"rj tov dSiKi]aavTa
Ti/Jbcoprja-djiievofi, &a"7r€p ovSe 6 laTpo^ Kavaa^ Tivct
Kal TefKov* eKelvov he Si) irdvTe^ SiKaid>aovaiv,

1 \4yu R. Steph., \4yap VM. « Set M, 5J^ V.


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some such advantage^ they may incur jealousy or b.c. 29
danger, do many things that are unworthy of them-
selves, expecting by such behaviour to live in greater
security. As a consequence, not only do they, on
their part, become objects of pity as being victims of
injustice in precisely this respect, that men believe
that they are deprived of the opportunity of leading
upright lives, but their ruler also, on his part, suffers
not only a loss, in that he is robbed of men who
might have been good, but also ill-repute, because he
is blamed for the others' condition. Therefore never
j>ermit this thing to happen, and have no fear, on
the other hand, that anyone who has been reared
and educated as I propose will ever venture upon
a rebellion. On the contrary, it is the ignorant and
licentious that you should suspect; for it is such
persons who are easily influenced to do absolutely
any and every thing, even the most disgraceful and
outrageous, first toward themselves and then toward
others, whereas those who have been well reared and
educated do not deliberately do wrong to any one
else and least of all to the one who has cared for
their rearing and education. If, however, one of
these does show himself wicked and ungrateful, you
have merely to refuse to entrust him with any
position of such a kind as will enable him to do
any mischief; and if even so he rebels, let him be
convicted and punished. You need not, I assure you,
be afraid that anyone will blame you fpr this, pro-
vided that you carry out all my injunctions. For in
taking vengeance on the wrongdoer you will be
guilty of no sin, any more than the physician is who
resorts to cautery and surgery; but all men will
assuredly say that the offender has got his deserts,


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OTi /cat Tpo<f>rj^ /cal iraiZeia^ t^9 avrrf^ T0Z9 aXKoi^
fieraa-'X^oDv iire^ovXeva-e a 01.

" Uepl fiev oil/ roi/^ fiovXevrh^ rov^ re iinrea^
27 jaina r^v^vkaOta' tou9 Se hr) crTpaTi(OTa<; dOavd-


avfjbfJbdxo>v» Tji fiev irXeiov^ ry Se iXArrov^, KaO*
iKoa-TOV edvo^y oirm^i &v 17 X/>e/a t&v irpayfidrcov

2 aTrairfj, Tpe<f>€a6av irpoarjKei, koX avToif<; del re iv
T0Z9 07rXot9 elvai KaX tyjv aa-Krja-iv r&v iroXefitfc&v
Bih TravTO^ iroietaOaL Set, 'xeifidhid re iv toI^ iin-
xatpordToi^ X(^p^ov^ Kar€aK€va(r/jL€vov<; /cal xpovov
rafCTOv arparevofikvov^^ &ar€ tl avrol^ /cal irpo

3 Tov yrjpco^ t% ffKL/cla<i irepietvai, ovre ydp iirl
T&V /caip&v ^O7}0evai^ tktIv €ti xpriaOat Svvd-
fieda, avToi re roaovrov diro t&v t% dp^n^
iaxfX'Tt&v aTnjpTrjfievoi /cal 7roX€fiiov<; ifcaaTaxodi
TTpOfToiKovvra^ €y(ovT€<;' av re eTn^rpe-^ccfiev iraac
Tol^ iv Trj ffKiKia oiai /cal tA oirXa K€/CTrja6ai
/cal tA ifiTToXefiia da/ceiv, aTdaei^ Kal iroXefioi

4 dii avT&v ip^^vXioi del yevija-ovTai. Kal fiePTOt
/cav KcoXvaavrh a<f>a^ TavTa iroielv hreira avfi-
fxaxLa^ TLVo^ irap avT&v SerjO&fiev, KivSwevao-
fiev^ direipoi^ re /cal dyvfivdcTOi^ aTpariooTai^ del
Xpfo/ievoi, Sid fikv Brj TavTa yvdfirjv iroiovfuu
T0U9 fihf aXXov^ irdvTa^ avev t€ oirXtov Kal avev
T€ix&v Kv^y T^^^ ^^ ipp(Ofjbeve(TTdTov<; Kal fiiov
fidXicTa Seofievov^ KaTaXiyeaOal re Kal daKelv.

6 avToi T€ yap dfieivov iroXefi'^aova-i tovt<p fi6v<p

^ Kivhvvi{)ffo/ifv'R, Steph., KivZw^iffaiiiV Whli..

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because, after partaking of the same rearing and b.o.
education as the rest, he plotted against you.

*^ Let this be your procedure, then, in the case of
the senators and the knights. A standing army also ^
should be supported, drawn from the citizens, the
subject nations, and the allies, its size in the several
provinces being greater or less according as the
necessities of the case demand ; and these troops
ought always to be under arms and to engage in the
practice of warfare continually. They should have
winter-quarters constructed for them at the most
advantageous points, and should serve for a stated
period, so that a portion of life may still be left for
them between their retirement from service and
old age. The reason for such a standing army is
this : far removed as we are from the frontiers of the
empire, with enemies living near our borders on
every side, we are no longer able at critical times to
depend upon expeditionary forces; and if, on the
other hand, we permit all the men of military age to
have arms and to practise warfare, they will always
be the source of seditions and civil wars. If, however,
we prevent them from all making arms their pro-
fession and afterwards need their aid in war, we
shall be exposed to danger, since we shall never have
anything but inexperienced and untrained soldiers to
depend upon. For these reasons I give it as my
opinion that, while in general the men of military
age should have nothing to do with arms and walled
camps during their lives, the hardiest of them and
those most in need of a livelihood should be enlisted
as soldiers and given a military training. For they
will fight better if they devote their time to this one



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T^ €py(p <r;^o\afoi/T€9, Koi oi XoLTrol paov ^etofr>/r\'
(Tovci Kol pavTiXovvrac rd re aXKa ret rff €Lpr}vrf
TrpoarjKovTa Trpd^ovai^ p/qre etc^orjdelv dvajKa^o-
jjbevoi Kol TT po(f>v\aKdf; a(f>(ov erepov^ exovre^, to
T€ aKfiacoraTOV Koi lax^porarov koX ifc XyareCa^
fidXiaTa ^fjv dvajKa^ofievov d\v7ra><; Tpa^^ycrera*,
Kal TO \omov irav aKivSvvco^ fiid>aeTai,
^ " T160€V ovv xpi]fjLaTa koI €9 tovtov^ koI €9 t^
aXXa Ta dvayxaico^ dvdkfoOrjo'Ofieva eaTat; iyo)
Kal TovTO ScSd^ci), a/jbiKpov CKcivo V7r€i7ra)v, oti
K&v Srjfio/cpaT7j0S>iJL€P, 7rai/TO)9 ttov ^/tnyyttaroji/
BerjcrofJieda'^ ov yap olov t€ ovt' avev cTpaTitoT&v
rjfia^ aco^eaOat ovr dfnaOL^ Tiva<;^ o-rpaTev-

2 eaOai, firj oiv w Kal Ttf fiovapxl^a fiovrf rij^
dvayKaia<; t&v ^^yftaTcoi/ dOpolceoa^ 7rpoa"qKOv<T'ri^
^apvv€Ofi€0a, fJLTjBe Be avTr^v Kal dir iKeivr)^
d7roTpe7r(Ofi€0a, a\X' 0)9 Kal irdpTO)^ dvayxatov
OP fifuvy 07ra)<; ttot ap 7ro\tT€va>/ii€0a, Kal dpyv-

3 pi^€a0ai Tipa, ovtco * ^ovXevdfieOa, ^rjfu tolpvp
XP^vaL ae irp&TOP fiep dirdpTcop Tct KTrffiaTa tcL
ip T^J BTjfjLoaio) 8pTa (iroWct Bk TavTa 6p& Bict
T0U9 7ro\e/^oi;9 yey opoTa) TrcoXijaai, irKrjp oXiycop
T&p KoX irdpv XPV^^H^^ ^^^ ^^^ dpayKaiap, Kal
TO dpyvpiop TovTO Trap iirl fiSTpioL^ Ttal t6koi<}

4 cKBapelaai. ovtco yap fj re yrj ipepyo^ eaTai,

BedTTOTai^ avTovpyol^ Bo0e2aa, Kal iKctpot d<l>op'

firjp Xay8oi/T€9 eviropdiTepoi. yeprjaoPTau, to T€

* 8€i7<r<J/A€6a Dind., B€rieri<r6fi9ea VM.

a iLfiiaei St., i/Aio-ae/ VM.

^ Tildas M, Tipa V. * oSrco M, outws V.


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business, and the rest will find it easier to carry on rc. 29
their farming, seafaring, and the other pursuits appro-
priate to peace, if they are not compelled to take
part in military expeditions but have others to act as
their defenders. Thus the most active and vigorous
element of the population, which is generally obliged
to gain its livelihood by brigandage, will support
itself without molesting others, while all the rest
will live without incurring dangers.

" From what source, then, is the money to be pro-
vided for these soldiers and for the other expenses
that will of necessity be incurred ? I shall explain
this point also, prefacing it with a brief reminder
that even if we have a democracy we shall in any
case, of course, need money. For we cannot sur-
vive without soldiers, and men will not serve as
soldiers without pay. Therefore let us not be
oppressed by the idea that the necessity of raising
money belongs only to a monarchy, and let us not be
led by that consideration to turn our backs upon this
form of government, but let us assume in our delibera-
tions that, under whatever form of government we
shall live, we shall certainly be constrained to secure
fiinds. My proposal, therefore, is that you shall first of
all sell the property that belongs to the state,-^and
I observe that this has become vast on account of
the wars, — reserving only a little that is distinctly
useful or necessary to you; and that you lend
out air the money thus realized at a moderate rate
of interest. In this way not only will the land
be put under cultivation, being sold to owners who
will cultivate it themselves, but also the latter will
acquire a capital and become more prosperous, while
the treasury will gain a permanent revenue that will

L 2

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hrifxociov hiapKYi koX addvarov irpoaoSov ?^€i.
elTa avWoyiaaaOai ravrd re koX T&KKa oca €K
T€ fieraWeia^; koI el Sij iroOev aXKodev ^e^aim^

5 ivvarai irpoa-ievai, teal fierk rovro avTiXoyiaa-
aOai fjJq fiovov rh (TTpaTimTi/cci dXXh /cal rSXXa
Trdvra hC &v KaX&^ 7r6X^9 olKetrai, /cal irpoceri
KCil oaa ?9 T€ Ta9 ai<f>vihiov^ a-rpareia^ xaX i<: tA
XoiTTct oca ettddev iirX xaipov cvfi^aiveiv, dvay-

6 Kalov icrah hairavacOav kclk tovtov irpo^ irav
TO Xelirov if>6pov re iTTird^ai irdciv dirXw to?9
iiriKapiriav ^ rivh r^ iceKrrjfisv^ avrh irapixovcc,
Kal riXrj Karacrrjcai iraph iraciv &v ap'XPfiev
(^KaX yhp Koi Bi/caiov /cal irpocrj/cov icri firjBeva
avT&v dreXTj elvai, fir) ISkottjv, fiij Srjfwv, &t€ xal
T^9 tt)^€Aia9 T^9 air^ avr&v ofwlo)^ to?9 aX\ot9

7 aTToXavcovra^^), /cal c<f>a)v i/cT^xyyea^ tov<; iiri-
rpoTrevcovra^ eKacTa')(p6i iroirjcah &ct€ avT0v<$
irav TO T^ T% eiTLTpoireia^ avr&v xpovtp irpocrj-
Kov ef dirac&v t&v irpocoScov icirpdrreiv. rovro
yhp /cal €/c€ivoi<; pao) rr}v ecirpa^LV rroirjceu Kal
T0Z9 hthovci re a>^€Xlai/ ovk iXaxio'Trjv irape^er

8 Xeyco S^ ro ^ /car o)Uyov c<pa^ iv rat^ rd^eciv
oca o^eiXovciv ia^epeiVy Kal firj, ^payvv paOv-
fiTjcavra^ Xpovov, eTnKe<f>aXai(o6€vra iravra ecd-
ira^ drrairelcOaL.

29 ** Kal OVK dyvoS) fikv on rtvk^ r&v re if>6poiv Kal
r&v reX&p Kadicrafievtov dxO€c0i]covrar dXXii
Kal eKelvo olSa on, av firfre irpoceTrrfped^oovrai
Kal r^ ^f>y^ ireicd&civ on rrdvra ravra KaX

^ iviKapirlap M, ivl Kapriay V.

* &vo\ainrovra5 R. Steph. , ii7ro\av(ravTas VM.

» tJ>R. Steph., ToOVM.


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suffice for its needs. In the second place^ I advise b.c. 29
you to make an estimate of the revenues from this
source and of all the other revenues which can with
certainty be derived from the mines or any other
source, and then to make and balance against this a
second estimate of all the expenses, not only those
of the army, but also of all those which contribute to
the well-being of a state, and furthermore of those
which will necessarily be incurred for unexpected
campaigns and the other needs which are wont to
arise in an emergency. The next step is to provide
for any deficiency by levying an assessment upon
absolutely all property which produces any profit for
its possessors, and by establishing a system of taxes
among all the peoples we rule. For it is but just and
proper that no individual or district be exempt from
these taxes, inasmuch as they are to enjoy the
benefits derived from the taxation as much as the
rest. And you should appoint tax-collectors to have
supervision of this business in each district, and
cause them to exact the entire amount that falls
due during the term of their supervision from all the
sources of revenue. This plan will not only render
the work of collection easier for these officials, but
will in particular benefit the tax-payers, inasmuch, I
mean, as these will bring in what they owe in the
small instalments appointed, whereas now, if they
are remiss for a brief period, the entire sum is added
up and demanded of them in a single payment.

*^I am not unaware that some will object if this
system of assessments and taxes is established. But
I know this, too, — that if they are subjected to no
frirther abuses and are indeed convinced that all
these contributions of theirs will make for their own


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vwep T779 acDTrjpia^ a'<l>&v koX inrep rov ret Xoiira

2 aSew KapiTovaOai avveaoiaovai,, KaX TTpoa-eri ^
Tct TrXeiot) avr&v ovx erepoi rive^ aW' avrol
eKelvoh oi fiiv ap^ovre^ oi Sk ifnTpoTTevovre^ ol
Sk aTparevofievot, XtpjrovTac, /cal Trdvv *7roX\rjv
X^pi'V elaovTai col, ^pa^^a dwo iroW&v &v av
fjb'qhkv iirr^pea^ofievoi Kapir&VTac SiBovre^, aXXctf?
T€ fc&v opcoai a€ a-axppovco^ t€ 8iaiT(Ofi€Vov /cal

3 firjShu fidrrfv irapavaXia-fcovTa, tL^ yap ov/c av
ISiov (T€ 7r/)09 fJiev ra olfcela (jyecScoXoTaTOV tt/oo? Se
rd KOivd d(^eihe<TTaTOv ovra, iOeXovrl avvTeXia-eii
Tt, Koi d(T<f>d\eiav koX eviroplav iavrov to ae
irKovrelv elvav vofii^cov;

30 "^pi]fiaTa fikv hi) koX irdw iroXKa i/c tovtwv
virdp^eiev av* rd Se Srf \017rd TovBe rbv Tpoirov
BioiKelv <T0L 7rapatv&. to fikv aarv tovto Kal
KaraKocfiei Trdarj iroXvTeKeLq, /cal iinXdfiirpvve
iravrl elhei iravq^yvpewv* irpoariKei re ydp '^fid^
TToXXofv apxovra^ iv Trdai irdvrmv virepiyeiv, Kal
if>ep€L TTw? KoX rd roiavra irpo^ re tov^ avfju-
pA^pv^ alh& Kal irpo^ rov^ iroXepiov<; Kara-
2 TrXrj^tv. rd S^ Sr} rSyv aXKtov Syhe SUire, irp&Tov
fi€V ol hrj/jboi u/qre KvpioL tivo^ earayaav p^rfre 69
eKtcXTja-iav to irapdirav (pocTdrcDaav' ovre ydp
dyaOov ^ ovSev (fypovijaeiav av Kal av^vd av del ^
rapd^eiav- oOev ovhe rov irap fjpHv Srjp,ov ovre *
€9 SiKaarripLov oxfre e? apxaip^aia^y ovre €9 aXXoh
Tivd Toiovrov a-vXXoyov iv (p ti Kal %/o?;/iaTt-

^ 7rpo(T€Ti R. Steph., wphs iir\ VM.
2 iiyaehv M, om. V.

• o€l M, om. V.

* oiir€ R. Steph., obBh VM.

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security and for their fearless enjoyment of the rest b.o. 29
of their property, and that, again, the larger part of
their contributions will be received by none but them-
selves, as governors, procurators, or soldiers, they
will be exceedingly grateful to you, since they will
be giving but a sHght portion of the abundance from
which they derive the benefit without having to
submit to abuses. Especially will this be true if
they see that you live temperately and spend nothing
foolishly. For who, if he saw that you were quite
frugal in your expenditures for yourself and quite
lavish in those for the commonwealth, would not
willingly contribute, beheving that your wealth
meant his own security and prosperity ?

" So far as funds are concerned, therefore, a
great abundance would be , supplied from* these
sources. And I advise you to conduct as follows
the administration of such matters as have not yet
been mentioned. Adorn this capital with utter dis-
regard of expense and make it magnificent with
festivals of every kind. For it is fitting that we who 1
rule over many people should surpass all men in all
things, and brilHance of this sort, also, tends in a way
to inspire our allies with respect for us and our
enemies with terror. The affairs of the other cities
you should order in this fashion : In the first place,
the populace should have no authority in any matter,
and sh(5uld not be allowed to convene in any assembly
at all; for nothing good would come out of their
delflrerations and they would always be stirring up a
good deal of turmoil. Hence it is my opinion that
our populace here in Rome, for that matter, should
not come together either as a court or to hold the
elections, or indeed in any meeting whose_ object is


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3 adrjvai Set, avviivai ^fd XPV^^^* hreiTa Se firjr
olKoSofiTjfidTCov irXriOeaiv rj xal ^ fieyiOeaiv virep
Tava^Koia 'XprjaOcoaav, fiYjT dycovcov ttoW&v kcu
iravToSaTr&p avaXdfiaai hairavdadooaav, XvafirjTe
(TTTOvhal^; fjLaraiai^: iKTpvxo>VTai firjTe (f>i\orvfilai^

4 aXoyoi*: TroXefjLc^vrai, e'xeToxrav fiev yap Kal
TTavqyupet^ /cai decopia^ Ti,vd<;, X(opX<i tt)? Itttto-
Spofua^ T^9 Trap* 'q/uv iroiov^vq^, firj fiivroi &aT€
Kal TO hr)fi6(7iov fj /cal tou9 ISiov^ otxov^ Xv/jLoi-
veadai, ^evov ri rcva dvayKd^€<r0ai Trap* avroh
KoL oTtovv dvaXL(TKeiv, KaX airrjabv addvarov
Trdatv dirXw to?9 drf&vd riva VLKrfaaai SiSoaOat.

5 Tov<; T€ yap €VTr6pov<; aXoyov iariv e^co ti t&v
TraTpiZcov dvayKaaroifi BaTravav, koI toI^ dr/a>-
VKTTaui diroxpV '^^ aOXa ret Trap* iKdaroi,^
TiOifieva, xa)/)l9 ^ et tc<; avr&v *OXvfiTrva fj

6 HvOca fj Tiva ivravOa dycjva dveXoiTO'^ Toif<; yhp
TOLovTOv; fi6vov<i (TiTelaOai Sec, Xva firjre al ttoXci^
fidrrjv iTTLTpi^covTai fii]T€ ^f o) Tt9 r&v d^iovcKODp
da/c^, Bvvdfi€vo<: aXXo ri %/)77<74/a<ot€/)oi/ Kal eavr^


7 ravra yiyvaxrKto, Ta<: S' iTTTroBpo/ua^ ra^ dvev t&v
yvfiviK&v dycovcov iTTtreXovfiiva^ ovx rfyovfuiL heiv
dXXrj TLvl TToXec Trotelv iTnrpiTreiv, oirto^i fujre
'X^prjfjuiTa TrafjLTrXrjdij elKJj TrapairoXXvrjraL fiijO*

^ Kal M, om. V.

* i.v4\oiro Rk., hy l^Koiro V, hv $\oito M.


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to transact business. In the second place, the cities b.c. 29
should not indulge in public buildings unnecessarily
numerous or large, nor waste their resources on
expenditures for a large number and variety of
public games, lest they exhaust themselves in futile
exertions and be led by unreasonable rivalries to
quarrel among themselves. They ought, indeed, to
have their festivals and spectacles, — to say nothing of
the Circensian games held here in Rome, — but not
to such an extent that the public treasury or the
estates of private citizens shall be ruined thereby, or
that any stranger resident there shall be compelled
to contribute to their expense, or that maintenance
for life shall be granted to every one without
exception who has won a victory in a contest. For
it is unreasonable that the well-to-do should be put
under compulsion to spend their money outside
their own countries ; and as for the competitors in
the games, the prizes which are offered in each event
are enough, unless a man wins in the Olympian or
Pythian games or in some contest here in Rome.
For these are the only victors who ought to receive
their maintenance, and then the cities will not be
wearing themselves out to no purpose nor will any
athlete go into training except those who have a
chance of winning ; the rest will be able to follow
some occupation that will be more profitable both to
themselves and to the commonwealth. This is my
opinion about these matters. But as to the horse-
races in connection with which there are no gjnnnastic
contests,^ I think that no city but Rome should be
permitted to have them, the object being to prevent
the wanton dissipation of vast sums of money and to

* He has reference to the Circensian games in Rome.


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01 avOpcoTTOt Ka/cw ifCfxaLVcopTai, fcal to /jbiyiaTOV,
IV oi (TTparevofievoi Tot9 apia-Toi^ ittttoi^ d(f>06-

8 j/ct)9 %/)^(7^afc e%(»<74. TOVTO /jb€v Sfj Sea ravT
airayopevto Travrdiracn fjLrjSafiodi aXXodi irXifP
ivravda yiyveaOac, tA Se Bf) Xoiirh efi€TpUi<ra, %v
evBaTrdvov^ rd^ diroXavaei^i koI t&v 0€Q)p7)fidT(ov
Koi TCJv aKova-fidToyv <09 cfcaaTOC irotovfievoi KaX
aQ)<f)pov€a-T€pov Kol daTaa-Laa-Torepov Sidr/oxTi.

9 " M?;Te Se vopiafiara fj Koi araOfid fj fierpa ihia
T69 avTMV e-xerco, dXkd to?9 'qp^eripoc^ xal eKelvoi
7rdvT€<; 'XpTjadcoa-av^ />t?;T€ irpecr^eiav rivd irpo^
(re, ifKr^v el ir pay fid re SiayvaxrecD^^ i')(pfievov etrj,
irefiireTcoaav, dWd r^ re ap)(pvTL a<})Q)v SrfXov-
Tcoa-av oaa fiovXovrai, /cal Bl ifceivov ^ aoi ^ rd^
d^icoa€i<f, oaa^ civ Bofcifidar), irpo(Tif>€p€T(o<Tav.

10 ovT(i> ydp OUT dvaXaxTovai tl ovt ala'X^pw Bia-
Trpd^ovTai, aW' d/cepaiov^ rd*; dirofcpiaei^ dvev
Bairdv7]<i fj KaX Trpayfiareia^; tivo<: Xriy^ovra^,,

31 " Kat pAvTOL seal rdXXa «S' dv px)i Bofcel^ ^
dptara Biard^ai, dv irpSyrov fiev rd^ irpeaPeia^
rd^ T€ irapd tS)V iroXep^ieov xal 7^9 Trapd t&v
ivairovBcov fcal iSaaiXioov KaX BrjfKov d(l>iKvovp,€va^
69 TO (TweBpiov iadyj)^ (rd re ydp dXXa teal
aepvov KaX d^ioXoyov iart to re rrjv /SovXfjv
iravTcov KvpLav BoKeZv elvat, KaX to ttoXXovs tov^

* 4k€Ivov M, iKeivovs V. ''^ ffOl V, cov M,

' d0K€tS Bk., BoKrjis VM.


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keep the populace from becoming deplorably crazed b.c.
over such a sport, and, above all, to give those who
are serving in the army an abundant supply of the
best horses. It is for these reasons, therefore, that I
would altogether forbid the holding of such races
anywhere else than here in Rome ; as to the other
games, I have proposed to keep them within bounds,
in order that each community, by putting upon an
inexpensive basis its entertainments for both eye and
ear, may live with greater moderation and less
factious strife.

" None of the cities should be allowed to have its
own separate coinage or system of weights and
measures; they should all be required to use ours.
They should send no embassy to you, unless its busi-
ness is one that involves a judicial decision; they
should rather make what representations they will to
their governor and through him bring to your attention
such of their petitions as he shall approve. In this way
they will be spared expense and be prevented from
resorting to crooked practices to gain their object ;
and the answers they receive will be uncontaminated
by their agents and will involve no expense or red

" Moreover (to pass to other matters), it seems to
me that you would be adopting the best arrangement
if you should, in the first place, introduce before the
senate the embassies which come from the enemy
and from those under treaty with us, whether kings
or democracies ; for, among other considerations, it
is both awe-inspiring and calculated to arouse com-
ment for the impression to prevail that the senate
has full authority in all matters and for all men to be
fully aware that those envoys who are unfair in their

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1 ylyvoiro St., yiyvoivro VM.


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dealings will have many to oppose them. In the b.o. 29
second place, you would do well to have all your
legislation enacted by the senate, and to enforce no
measure whatever upon all the people alike except
the decrees of this body. In this way the dignity of
the empire would be more securely established and
the judgments rendered in accordance with the laws
would instantly be free from all dispute or un-
certainty in the eyes of all the people. In the third
place, it would be well in the case of the members of

Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 11 of 35)