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Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

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everything,-— the army, the laws, and the provinces,
— not only those which you committed to me, but
also those which I myself later acquired for you.
Thus my very deeds also will prove to you that even
at the outset I desired no position of power, but in
very truth wished to avenge my father, cruelly
murdered, and to extricate the city from great evils
that came on unceasingly. Indeed, I would that I
had not gone so far as to assume charge of affairs
as I did ; that is, I would that the city had not

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heherftrOai fiov tt/oo? tocovto tl rrjv iroKiv, a\X'
iv clprjvTf Koi ofwvoLa, KaOaTrep ttotc koI oi
Traripe^ rjfi&v, /cal rjim^; tou9 iv TjjBe rfj rfKiKva

2 air ap'xri^ ^€/3i(o/c€vai. iirel he eifiapfievrj Tt9,
ft)9 eoifcev, €9 TovTo 7rpoi]yay€v vfid<; &<ne koi
ifjiov, Kaiirep viov en Tore ovto<;, fcal xpelav (Txelv
Koi irelpav Xa^eiv, p^e'xpi p^v ov^ ra irpdyp^ara
T^9 Trap ep^v eirLicovpia<; eyprj^e, irdvTa Te
Trpo6vp.(o<; /cal xnrep ttjv rjXiKiav eiroirjaa fcal
irdma euTi/^w? Ka\ virep Trjv hvvapLiv xaTCTrpa^a'

3 fcal oifK €(TTCV o Ti T&v TravT(ov airerpe^i p,e
KivSwevovaiv vpZv iin/covprjaai, ov ttovo^, ov
^6^0^ f ovK ixOp&v direiXai, ov <f>L\(dv ierjaei^,
ov TO ttX^^o? t&v avvea-TrffcoToyv, ovx V dirovoia
T&v avTiTeTorfp^voyv, aW' eirehtOKa a^eLi&^ vpXv
epbavTov 69 irdvTa tA frepieaTrffcoTa, /cal eirpa^a

4 Kal iiraOov airep ta-Te. ef &v avTo<; pev ovhev
Ke/cipBay/ca ttXtjv tov Trjv iraTpLBa irepiireTroirj-
aOai, vpsi<; B^ /cal ad)^ea-0e /cal aaxfypoveiTe,
CTreiBr} Bk /ca\&<; iroLOvaa r) tv^H ^^^ '^h^ elpi]vrjv
aSoXov /cal ttjv 6p,ovotav daraaiaaTOv Be ip,ov
vpuv cnroBeBwKev, diroXd^eTe Kal ttjv eXevOepiav
Kal Tr)v BripLOKpaTiaVy KopiaaaOe Kal to, oirXa
Kal tA eOvT} rk vTT'^Koa, Kal iroXiTeveade &(nrep
eldoOeiTe,

6 '* Kal p,i]Te ^ 0avpbd<T7)Te el Tavd^ ovtco (f>pov&,
TTjv T€ aXXr)v iirieiKeidv pbov Kal TrpaoTrjTa Kal
dirpaypLoavvriv 6p&vTe<;, Kal TrpotreKXoyi^op^voL
OTi ovBkv irdyrroTe ov0* virepoyKOV ov0* virkp tov^
iroXXoik, Kaiirep iroXXct TroXXdKt<i '>^<^KTapAv(ov

2 vp^v, eBe^dp^rjv p>i]T ad p^piav px)v Karayv&Te,
1 o5 Bk., wov VM. • /*^Te Bk., fi-firot VM.

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required me for any such task^ but that we of this b.c. 27
generation also might have lived from the beginning
in peace and harmony, as our fathers lived of yore.
But since some destiny, as it appears, brought you
to a position where you had need even of me, young
as I still was at the time, and put me to the test, I
did ever3rthing with a zeal even beyond my years
and accomplished everything with a good fortune
even beyond my powers, so long as the situation de-
manded my help. And nothing in the world could
deter me from aiding you when you were in danger,
— neither toil, nor fear, nor threats of foes, nor
prayers of friends, nor the multitude of the conspira-
tors, nor the desperation of our adversaries ; nay, I
gave myself to you unstintingly for any and all the
exigencies which have arisen, and what I did and
suffered, you know. From all this I have derived
no gain for myself except that I have kept my
country from perishing ; but as for you, you are :
enjoying both safety and tranquillity. Since, then, '
Fortune, by using me, has graciously restored to you
peace without treachery and harmony without
faction, receive back also your liberty and the re-
public ; take over the army and the subject pro-
vinces, and govern yourselves as has been your
wont.

" You should not be surprised at this purpose of
mine, when you see my reasonableness in other
respects, my mildness, and my love of quiet, and
when you reflect, moreover, that I have never ac-
cepted any extraordinary privilege nor anjrthing
beyond what the many might gain, though you have
often voted many of them to me! Do not, on the



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oTfc i^oP fJLOi KoX vfi&p apX€iv fcal njXi/cavTrfv
'^yejjjoviav Tocravrrjf; olfcovfjLevrjf; €X€I>p ov ySou-
Xofiai. eyo) yap, av re to Sifcacov t*9 i^erd^y,
Sifcaiorarov eivai vofjui^a) ro ra v/jbirepa vfid<;
Bieireiv, av re Kal to a'Vfi<f)€pov, avfj^opwraTOv
fiyovfiat Kal ifwl to firjre TrpdypbaTa ex^tv pLrjTe

(f)0OV€t(T0ai fl7]T€ €7n/3ovk€V€(T0at fCal V/UV TO fJL€T

iXevOepia^ Kal (T(o^p6v(o<; Kal <I>c\ck&^ ttoXltcv'

3 €<T0ar av t€ xal to evKXei^;, ovirep evexa ttoWoI
Kal TToXepslv xal kcvBvv€V€cv TroWaKi^ aipovvTat,

TTW fZeV OVK evSo^OTUTOV flOl €<TTai TtjXcKavTrj^

dpxv^ d<j>€a0ac, ttw? S' ovk evKXeeaTaTOV €k
ToaovTOV riyefiovLa^ oyKOV i0€XovTl IBuoTSvaai;
&(TT et Tt9 v/jL&v diriaTel TavT 6vt(o<; Ttvct aXXov
xal <f>povrj(rai iir dXij0€ia^ Kal eiTreiv Svva(r0ai,

4 efjbocye TncTevadTco. iroXXd yap Kal fieydXa
KaTaXe^at ex^ov oaa xal utt' ifjuov Kal vtto tov
iraTpo^ fiov €vrjpy€Tr}a'0€, e^' oZ? et^oTco? av '^fia<;
virep 7rdvTa<; tou9 aXXov<; Kal <f>iXoir}T€ xal ti-
fi<prjT€, ovhev av dXXo tovtov fiaXXov eliroifii, ovS^
av ctt' dXXq> Tti/l fidXXov (refivvvaifirjv, otl ttjv
fiovapxi^p f^VT€ iKeivo^ KavTOV SiSovtcov vfi&v
Xa/Selv ri0eXr}ae koli iyo) €xcov d(f>ir}fii,

7 *'T/ ydp av T«9 Kal Trape^eTdaeiev avT^; ttjv
TaXaTiaf; dXcoaiv fj ttjv Havvovia^ SovXeoaiv rj
T7JV Mu<rta9 %€t/>G)(7ti/ rj ttjv AiyvTTTOV KaTa-
a-Tpo<f>7]v; dXXd tov ^apvdKrjv tov ^lovjSav tov
^paaTtjv, Tr}v iirl TOt'9 TipeTTavov^ (TTpaTciav,

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BOOK LIII

other hand^ condemn me as foolish because, when it b.c. 27
is in my power to rule^xMter-y^ou-aiuLlQ JiqM sq .great
a soverejgnty_xia£r this vast wnrld, T dn not w.isb it.
For/iF~one looks into the merits of the case from
the point of view of justice, I regard it as most just
for you to manage your own affairs ; if from the
point of view of expediency, I consider it most
expedient, both that I should be free from trouble
and not be the object of jealousy and intrigue, and
that you should have a government based upon
liberty and conducted with moderation and friendly
feeling ; and if, finally, from the point of view of
glory, to win which many men are often found ready
to choose war and personal risk, will it not add most
to my renown to resign so great an empire, will" it
not add most to my ^ory to learc^ so exdtcd a I
sovereignty and voluntarily become a private citizen ? (
Therefore, if there is any one of you who believes
that no man except me can really and sincerely hold
to such ideals and give them utterance, at least let
him believe it of me. For, though I could recite
many great benefits conferred upon you both by me
and by my father, for which we beyond all other
men could reasonably claim your affection and your
honour, I could single out no other act in preference
to this, nor could I feel a greater pride in any other
thing than in this, — that he refused the monarchy
although you offered it to him, and that I, when I
hold it, lay it aside.

**What achievement, indeed, could one compare
with these acts of ours ? The conquest of Gaul, the
enslavement of Pannonia, the subjugation of Moesia>
the overthrow of Egypt ? Or Phamaces, or Juba, or
Phraates^ or the campaign against the Britons, or

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T^v Tov '¥i]Vov StdjSaaiv; koLtoi roa-avra xal
Toiavra ravrd iariv oaa /cal ola ovBe (TVfvrravre^
oi iraTepe^ fjfi&v iv iravrl r^ irpoaOev XP^^^

2 nreiroLTiKaaiv* aX)C ofio)^ ovt€ tovtcov ri T<p
irapovTi epycp irapa^aXelv iariv a^cov, ov0* ort
T0U9 ifx^vkiov^ TToXifiov^ fcal /aey ia-rov^ xal iroi-
fciXeoraTov^ Sia Trdvrcov yevofievov^ xal St€7roX€-
firjaafiev koKS)^ koX SieOifjueOa <f)i\av6pa>7r(o^, tov
fiev dirnaravTO^ w? Kol iroXefiiov nravro^ ^ Kparrj-
aavre^f to S' virel^av <i9 koX <f>i7uov ttSlv Trepiaa)'

3 aavre^, &<tt elirep irore koX aidi^ TreTrpay/juevov
€irf TT}v iroXiv ^/jl&v ^ voarja-ai, tovtov avTr}v tov
TpoTTOv ev^aadai Tiva a-raa-idaai* to ydp tol
ToaovTQV T€ laxvo^^vTa^ f^fia^ icaX ovtcd kclL ttj
dpcTy fcal TTf Tvxti dfc/jbdaavTa^ &<TTe KaX CKOvTaov
fcal dfcovTcov vfi&v avTapx^o^cLi hwqdrjvai, fiijTe
itc^povrjaai, firjTe Try; fiovapx^cL^ i'TTiOvfirja-ai,
dXXh xal eKelvov SiSo/jbhnjv avTrjv dwcoa-aa-Oai
Kol ifi^ SeSo/Jiivrjv diroSiSovai,, tnrep avOpcoTrov

4 ia-TCV, Xiyci) Sk TavTa ovk aXK(o<; iinKOfiTr&v
{ovSe yctp av elirov auTct dpxv^, el Kal otlovv
TrXeoveKTYjaeiv dir avT&v rjfieWov), aXX' iva
elSrjTC OTi froW&v fcal /JueydXcov I9 re to kolvov
€U€py€T7)fidTa}v Kal €9 t^ olxeia aefiPoXoryr^fidTcov
rifuv ovTtov, iirl TOVTcp fjbdXiaTa dr/aWofJieOa otl,
&v €T€poi Kal ^ta^ofievoL Ti,va^ iindyfiovac, Tav0*

8 17/^6*9 ovS* dvayKa^ofievoi irpotnefieOa. t/9 fJiev
yhp &v fi€ya7</)ylrvxoT€p6<: fiov, Xva firj Kal tov
iraTipa tov psTrjXXaxora aiOt^ eiTro), Tt9 B^ Bai-
p^vioyrepo^ evpeOeirj; oari^:, & Zev Kal ^^HpaKXe^,

^ irakrhs M, riphs V.

^ eft; tV v^^iy Tjfxuv V, rifi&v tlri tV WAiv M.

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BOOK LIII

the crossing of the Rhine ? Yet these are greater b.c. 27
and more important deeds than even all our fore-
fathers together performed in all previous time.
Nevertheless, no one of these exploits deserves a
place beside my present act, to say nothing of our
civil wars, of all which have ever occurred the
greatest and most varied in its changing fortunes,
which we fought to an honourable conclusion and
brought to a humane settlement, overpowering as
enemies all who resisted, but sparing as friends all
who yielded ; therein setting an example, so that if
it should be fated that our city should ever again be
afflicted, one might pray that it should conduct its
quarrel in the same way. Indeed, I will go further :
that we, when we possessed a strength so great, and
when we so clearly stood at the summit of prowess
and good fortune, that we could exercise over you,
with or without your consent, our arbitrary rule, did
not lose our senses or conceive the desire for sole
supremacy, but that he thrust that supremacy aside
when it was offered him and that I return it after it
has been given me, — ^that, I say, transcends the
deeds of a man ! I say this, not by way of idle
boasting, — ^indeed, I should not have said it at all, if
1 were going to derive any advantage whatever from
it, — ^but in order that you may see that, although we
can point to many benefits conferred upon the state
at large and to many services rendered to individuals
of which we might boast, yet we take the greatest
pride in this, that what others so desire that they are
even willing to do violence to gain it, this we do not
accept even under compulsion. Who could be fo^ind >
more magnanimous than I^— not to mention again
my deceased~fath:er;-^wHo more nearly divine? For

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(TTpaTKora*; to(tovtov<; koI toiovtov<;, koI TroXtra^
/cal arv/Jifidxov^, (piXovvrdf; fie ex'^v, kclI 7rd(ri]<;
fjbev T^9 6Z/T09 tS)v 'HpaKXcLcop (TTrjXcov 0a\d(Taij<;
ttK^v oXiycov Kpar&v, iv Trd<Tai<; Se ral^ -qireipoi^

2 Koi 7ro\€t9 icaX effvrj /c€/CTi]fjL€vo<;, /cal fiijT dWo-

<f>v\0V Tiv6<i €Tl TrpOdTTOKefJiOVVTO^ flOl fJbrjT oIk€lov

araaid^ovTo^, dWa Trdvrcov vfiSyv koX elprfvovv-
Tcov KCbi opjovoovvTcav Koi evOevovvTcov^ koX to
pAyiarov iffeXoprrjBov TreidapxovvTwv^ eireiff* ifcov-
aio^ avTeirdyyeXTO^ xal dpxv^ rrfKiKavrTj^; d<f)i'
(TTa/juii Kal ovfTia^ TOtravrrj^; diraWdTTOfJMt.

3 &aT elirep 6 ^OpdTCO^ 6 Movfcu)<; 6 Koupr^o? 6
'P7;70i;\o9 oi AeKtot /cal KLvhwevaav /cal diro*
Bavelv virep rod fieya ti fcal koXov ireirot/qKevav
So^at rjOiXfja-av, irax; ov/e &v iyo) fxaXKov iiri'
OvfJurfaaifiL tovto irpa^ai ef ov KaKeivov^; Kal
T0U9 aX\oi/9 afia irdvra^ dv6 ptoirov^; evxXeia ^(ov

4 virep^aXSi; firj ydp roc vofucrj Tt9 vfJL(ov ^ rov^
fjbkv TfdXai 'Fci)fJbaLOV<; Kal dperrj^; Kal eifBo^ia^
i<f>€ia0ai, vvv he i^LTrjXov iv ry iroXet irdv to
di/BpwBe^ yeyovivai. firj fievTOi firfS" viroTTTeva-rj
OTL irpoetrOai re vfiaf; koX TrovrjpoU Ttaiv dvBpdaiv
iircTpeylrai, fj Kal oxXoKpaTLa Tivi, i^ ^9 ov fiovov
ovBev j^i^cTToi' dXKib Kal irdvTa to, BeivoTaTa del
iracLv dvOpcoTTOi^ yiyveTac, eKSovvai ^ovXofjbac,

5 VfUV ydp, Vfllv T0t9 dpLtTTOL^ Kal <^pOVLfl(OTdTOL<;

irdvTa TCL koiv^ dvaTL0i]fii., eKelvo fiev yap ov-
herroT &v iiroirjaa, ovB^ el fJuvpidKi^ dirodavelv
fj KoX fiovapX'^o'aL fie eBer tovto Bk Kal vfrep

6 ifiavTOV Kal virep t^9 TToXea)^ 7roc&. avTO^ re

^ chdevovvrav Dind., ehOrivovvrav Rk., €vffBfPo6vruy VM.
* vfjLuv M, rifi&y V,

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I, — the gods be my witnesses ! — ^who have so many b.c. 27
gallant soldiers, both Romans and allies^ who are
devoted to me, I, who am supreme over the entire
sea within the Pillars of Hercules except for a few
tribes, I who possess both cities and provinces in
every continent, at a time when there is no longer
any foreign enemy making war upon me and no one
at home is engaged in sedition, but when you are all
at peace, are harmonious and strong, and, greatest of
all, are content to yield obedience, I, in spite of all
this, voluntarily and of my own motion resign so
great a dominion and give up so vast a possession.
So then, if Horatius, Mucins, Curtius, Regulus, and
the Decii were willing to encounter danger and to
die to win the fame of having done a great and
noble deed, why should not I desire even more to do
this thing, whereby, without losing my life, I shall
excel both them and all the rest of mankind in
glory ? In truth no one of you should think that
the ancient Romans sought to win fair fame and
reputation for valour, but that in these days every
manly virtue has become extinct in the state. And
further, let no one suspect that I wish to betray you
by delivering you into the hands of a group of wicked
men, or by giving you over to government by the
mob, from which nothing good ever comes, but
rather in all cases and for all mankind nothing but
the most terrible evils. Nay, it is to you senators,
to you who are the best and wisest, that I restore '
the entire administration of the state. The other
course I should never have followed, even had it
been necessary for me to die a thousand deaths, or
even to assume the sole rule ; but this policy I adopt
both for my own good and for that of the city. For

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7^/0 Kai Treirovrjfiac /cal reraXanrwp-qfiaL, koX

OVKeT OVT€ TJj ylrvxf) OVT€ T^ O-d/JUlTl aVT€')(eiV

Svva/jLar xal irpoaeri koX tov <f)06pov Koi to
fuao^, h Kal tt/oo? tou9 dpiarov^ avipa^; iyyiyve-
rai Ti<Ti, rd^ re i^ avT&v eVtySovXa? Trpoop&fiai.

7 Kal Sid ravra koX ISimTevaai fiaXKov €VK\e&^ fj
fiovapxVf^<^f' eiriKLvhivm^; alpovfiai. xal ra Kocvd
KoivS)^ dv TToKv 0i\Tcov are ^ koI vtto ttoW&v
a/jui Biayofieva /cal fjufj e? &a Tivd dvrjpTrjfieva
SioikoIto,

9 " AC ovv ravra Kal iKereixa Kal Seofiai TrdvTcov
vfi&v ofJLom^ Kal avveTraivecai, Kal avfjLTrpoOvfii]'
Brjvai fioc, Xoyia-afiivov^ irdvO^ oaa Kal ttctto-
\ifirjKa virep v/jl&v Kal 7r€7ro\LT€Vfiai, Kdv TOVTtp
irdadv fioi rrjv virep avT&v X^P^^ dTroSovra^, iv
T^ avyx^PV^^^ A^o* ^^ V^^X^9 ^^^ ttot^ Kara-
/3i&vai, Xva Kal eKelvo eiSrjre on ov pivov apxstv
dXXd Kal apx^cOai i'Trla-rapai, Kal irdvS* oaa dX-
\ot9 inera^a, Kal avTo<; dineirLraxOrivai hvvap^ai.

2 paki(TTa pkv ydp Kal da<l)a\&^ ^rjaetv Kal p^rfSkv
VTTO prjSevo^ p^rjre epycp p^rire Xoycp KaKov ireia-e-
aOai 7rpoaBoK&' tocovtov ttov rfj evvoia vp,&v, ef

3 &v avTo<: ip/iVT^ avvoiha, iriaTeva}, dv Be ti
Kal TrdOo), ola 7ro\XoA9 avp/Salvei (ovBk ydp olov
T€ eari irdai riva, dWco^ re Kal ev roa-ovroi^
TToXip^ocf;, Tot9 p^ev o6veloL<; toI<; Be Kal ep^vKioi^,
yev6p,evov Kal rrfXiKavra irpdypuna eTriTpaTrevTa,
dpiaat)y Kal nrdw eroLpuo^ Kal irpo rov eipbap-

^ $tKTiov irt Rk., fitKriovd re VM.
2IO



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BOOK LIII

I myself have undergone both labours and hardships b.c. 27
and am no longer able to stand the strain^ either in
mind or in body. Furthermore, I foresee the jealousy
and hatred which are engendered in certain persons I
against even the best men and the plots which arise/
therefrom. It is for these reasons that I choose the;
life of a private citizen and fair fame rather thauf
that of a sovereign and constant peril. And as for
the business of the commonwealth, it would be
carried on far better by all in common, inasmuch as
it would be transacted by many men together instead
of being dependent upon some one man.

" For these reasons, then, I ask and implore you
one and all both to approve my course and to
cooperate heartily with me, reflecting upon all that
I have done for you alike in war and in public life,
and rendering me complete recompense for it all by
this one favour, — by allowing me at last to be at
peace as I live out my life. Thus you will come to
know that I understand not only how to rule but
also how to submit to rule, and that all the commands
which I have laid upon others I can endure to have
laid upon me. I ask this because I expect to live in
security, if that be possible, and to suffer no harm
from anybody by either deed or word, — such is the
confidence, based upon my own conscience, which I
have in your good-will ; but if some disaster should
befall me, such as falls to the lot of many (for it is
not possible for a man to please everybody, especially
when he has been involved in wars of such magnitude,
both foreign and civil, and has had affairs of such
importance entrusted to him), with entire willingness
I make my choice to die even before my appointed



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fievov fioc 'Xpovov TeXevTrja-ac fiaXXov ISccoTevcra^,
'ff /cal aOdvaro^ fwvapxv^a^ yeviaOai, alpovfiai.

4 ifiol fikv yap evKKeiav xal avro tovto olaei, on,
ov fiovov ovK i(f>6v€V<Td Tiva virep rov rrjv ap'xrjv
KaTaa-yelv, oKXa xai TrpoaaireOavov inrep rov
fit) jjLovapxv^ai'' o Be Bf) ToX/ii]aa<; diroKrelvai
fi€ 7rdvTQ)(; irov kcu vtto rov Saifioviov xaX vif>^

5 vfi&v /coXaadrjaeTai,, airep irov xal iirl rov
irarpo^ fiov yiyovev* eKelvo^ fiev yap koI laoOeo^;
aTreBcL'xOy) fcal rifi&v diSioyv ervxev, oi 3' diro-
a^d^avre^; avrov xaxol KaK&<; dirdiXovro. dddva-
Toi fikv yap OVK av Bvvrf0€L7f/i€V yeviaOai, ix Bk
Bij Tov KaXcj<; ^rjaac Kal €k rov xaXw reXev-

6 TTJa-ac Kal rovro rpoirov rivh KToofieOa. a<^'
ovirep Kol iya> rb fiev ijBrj e^^v to Bl e^eiv iXirC'
^(ov, diroBiBayp^i vfitv Kal rci oirXa Kal rd eOvrj rd*;
T€ 7rpoa'6Bov<; Kal tou9 v6fiov<;, roaovrov fiovov
vTreiircov, Xva firfre to fiAyeOo^i fj koX to Bva-fiera-
'XeipioTOV r&v irpay/jArayv <f>o^7f0€VT€<i dOvfujcrrjTe,
firfT ai Kara<f>pov'^aavT€^ avr&v w Kal paBi(a<;
BioiKclaOac Bvvafji€VQ)v dfieX'^a'rjre,

10 " KoLToi Kal Ka6^ eKaarov r&v jiec^ovtov ovk av
oKVYjaaiiu vjuv iv Kc^aXaioi^ oca XPV Trpdrreiv
VTrodicOoi. rvva Be ravrd eari; irp&TOV jjlIv

TOV<; K€tfl€VOV<; VOjJLOV^ la^X^pW (f>vXdTT€T€, Kal

fiTjBeva avT&v fieTa/SdXrfre* rd yap iv ravr^

pAvovra, K&v %€t/0(it) ^, o-vp,<f>op(OT€pa r&v del

Kaivorofiovfievoyv, k&v fieXrioj elvac BoKrj, iariv,

2 eireira Be, oaa irpoardrrovaiv vfilv ovroi iroielv

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time as a private citizen, in preference to living b.c. 27
forever as the occupant of a throne. Indeed^ this
very choice will bring me renown, — that^Fnot only
did not deprive another of life in order to win that
office, but went so far as even to give lip my life in
order to avoid being king ; and the man who dares
to slay me will certainly be punished, I am sure, both
by Heaven and by you, as happened, methinks, in
the case of my father. For he was declared to be
the equal of the gods and obtained eternal honours,
whereas those who slew him perished, miserable men,
by a miserable death. As^MmmortaJity, we could
not possibly achieve it; but byjiving nobly and . by
dying nobly we do in a sense gain even this boon.
Therefore, I, wlio already possess the first requisite '
and hope to possess the second, return to you the
armies and the provinces, the revenues and the laws,
adding only a few words of suggestion, to the end
that you may not be afraid of the magnitude of the
business of" administration, or of the difficulty of
handling it and so become discouraged, and that you
may not, on the other hand, regard it with contempt,
with the idea that it can easily be managed, and thus
neglect it.

^^And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about
suggesting to you in a summary way what ought to
be done in each of the leading departments of
administration. And what are these suggestions.'*
In the first place, guard vigilantly the established
laws and change none of them ; for what remains
fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advan-
tageous than what is always subject to innovations,
even though it seem to be superior. Next, pay
strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon

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DIO'S ROMAN HISTORY

xal oacov airayopevova-tv direXGo^Ocu, firj t^
\6y<p fjLOVov ahXh koI r^ ^py<P> f^V^^ ^^ '^^ koiv^
fiovov aWct Kol ihia dxpi/Sw irapar'qpeiaOe}

3 07rft)9 firj Tifiaypta^: dXXa TifiS>v rvyxdvrjTe, rd^:
T€ dpx^^ fcal Ta<; elprjvifcd^ fcal to,*; 7ro\efiiKct<;
T0fc9 del dpiaroi,^ t€ koI ifKJypoveardTOi^ iiri-
T/3€7r6T6, firjTe <h6ovovvrh Tiai^ firiS* virep rov
Tov Secva fj rov oetva TrXeovexTTJaai ri, dW virkp
rov rrjv ttoXlv /cal aco^eaOai xal evirpayelv

4 <f>cXoTi/Jiovfi€i^oi. fcal T0U9 fiev roiovrov^ rifmre,
T0U9 S' a\Xci)9 TTox; iroXcTevofxevov^ fcoXd^ere, xal
rd fiev ihia /coivd rfj ttoXc* irapex^re, r&v he
Srjfwaiayv a)9 dWorpicDV direx^o-Oe. koX rd fiev
vTTapxovff* vfup dfcpcfiw (pvXdrTere, r&v he fii)

5 TTpoa-fjKovToav firfhafiA^ itpteade, /cal tou9 fiiv
avfjbfidxovf; Koi tov<; V7rrjK6ov<; p,rfii* vffpi^ere
firfTe ifcXPVH^'^^^^^^^f '^^^^ ^^ irokefiiov^ pLrjr
dhiKelre fi^re (po/Seiade, rd fiev oirXa ev Tat9

X€p(Tlv del €X€T€, fJLTj flivTOC fJLTJTe KWT aWl/Xft)!'

6 iiryre /card t&v elprjvovvTODV avroh XPV^^^*^ tou9
re arparicora^ rpetpere fiev dpKovvrco^, &are fit)-
hepo^ r&v dWorpiayv hi diroplav emdv/irja'ai,
avvix^Te he /cal aa)(f>povv^€re, &(rre p/qhev /ca/cov
hid Opaavrrjra hpaaai.

7 " ' AWa Tt hel p^a/cpoXoyeiv, Trdvff* a irpoaij/cei
rroielv vfia<; eire^iovra; Kal ydp rd Xoiird pahUa^
dv i/c rovrcov 0)9 Xpi) rrpdrreaOai cvvihoire.^
tv oJ>v €Ti rovro elirwv irava-op^u, on dv fikv ovro)
TroKirevarjcde, avroi re evhaip^ovvjaere koX epol

^ 7raparrip€i<r$€ R. Steph. , irapaTripetffdai VM.

* TLfft M, rivt V. * XP^^^ Mf XP^**"^** ^»

* trvvihont Pflugk, <rvyc($otT6 VM.

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you and to refrain from whatever they forbid, and do b.c. 27
this not only in word but also in deed, not only
in public but also in private, that you may obtain,
not penalties, but honours. Entrust the offices both
of peace and of war to those who are the most
excellent and the most prudent, harbouring no
jealousy of any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to
advance the private interests of this or that man,
but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous.
Honour men who show this spirit, but punish those
who act otherwise in political life. Treat your private
means as the common property of the state, but
refrain from the public funds as belonging to others.
Guard strictly what you already have, but never
covet that which does not belong to you. Do not
treat the allies and subject nations insolently nor
exploit them for gain, and in dealing with the
enemy, neither wrong him nor fear him. Have your
arms always in hand, but do not use them either
against one another or against those who keep the
peace. Maintain the soldiers adequately, so that
they may not on account of want desire anything
which belongs to others ; keep them in hand and
under discipline, that they may not become pre-
sumptuous and do harm.

" But why make a long speech by going through
everything in detail which it behooves you to do }
For you may easily understand from these hints how
all other matters should be handled. I will close with



Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 15 of 35)