Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 17 of 35)
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iTTiricov Tot'9 B^ Kal etc t&v aireXevOeptov irefirreti
ttXtjv Ka6^ oaov rov<; (f>6pov<; ol dvOviraroi rrap^

4 S)v apxovaiv earrpdaaovaiv, evrokd^ re rLva<;
Kal T0?9 eTTirpoTrot^ Kal T0t9 dvOvirdroi^ roTt^^
dvri<Trpari]yoc<; BiBaxriv, oirco^ iirl p7froc<; e^iooa-iv
Kal yctp Tovro Kal to ^ fiia6o<f>opcLV Kal €K€lvoi<;

5 Kal T0t9 a\Xoi9 BiBoarOai rore ivofdadr), to fiev

yctp TrdXaL epyoXa^ovvrh Tive<; irapa rov Brfpo-

aiov irdvra a'(f>Lai ret 7r/)09 rrjv dpxv^ (fiipovra

rrapelxov eirl Be Bt) rov Kalarapo<: irp&rov avrol

eKelvoL raKTov ri 7uLfi0dvetv fjp^avro, Kal rovro *

fiev ovK €K rov taov iraai a(^L(jiv, aW' &^ irov

Kal rj X/)€ta dirrjrei, erdx^rj* Kal T0Z9 ye eTTcrpO'

iroi^ Kal avrb rb tov ^ d^tco/jbarof; ovofia dirb rov

dpiOpLOV T&v BiBofievfov avrol^ xPVf^^'^^^ irpoa-

^ fiovKixKTovras Dind., fiov\€v<Tavras VM.
2 rov Bs., avrov rov VM, ^ rh Bk., t^i/ VM.

* TovTo R. Steph., rod VM. * to rov Bk., rovro VM.


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These positions, then, appertain to the senators, b.c. 27
Passing now to the knights, the emperor himself se-
lects knights to be sent out as military tribunes (both
those who are prospective senators and the others ;
concerning their difference in rank I have already
spoken 1), despatching some of them to take command
of the garrisons of purely citizen-legions, and others
of the foreign legions as well. In this matter he fol-
lows the custom then instituted by Caesar. The
procurators (for this is the name we give to the men
who collect the public revenues and make disburse-
ments according to the instructions given them) he
sends out to all the provinces alike, to those of the
people as well as to his own, and to this office knights
are sometimes appointed and sometimes even freed-
men ; but the proconsuls may exact the tribute from
the people they govern. The emperor gives in-
structions to the procurators, the proconsuls, and the
propraetors, in order that they may be under definite
orders when they go out to their provinces. For both
this practice and the giving of salaries to them and to
the other officials was established at this time. In
former times, of course, certain persons had made a
business of furnishing the officials with all they needed
for the conduct of their office, drawing upon the
treasury for the money ; but under Caesar these officials
now for the first time began to receive a fixed salaiy.
This was not assigned to them all on the same basis,
but approximately as their needs required ; and the
procurators, indeed, get the very title of their rank
from the amount of the salaries assigned to them.^

1 In Hi. 25, 6 f.

2 i.e. centenariif ducenarii, and trecenariii receiving one
hundred, two hundred, and three hundred thousand sesterces


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apyvpcov e^o) tov rerayfjiivov iairpaaaeiv, el firj
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fcofuS^ /uifj iyxpopi^CLVy aXV ipTO<; rpi&v fir}v&v
16 TaOra fiev ovrco t6t€ &<; ye elirelv SieTa^Ov'
T^ yap epycp koX Trdvreov koX hih 7ravT0<; avrb^ 6
Kalarap, are xal t(ov yprj/jLaTOdv KVpievtov QJtycp
fiev yap tcl hr^ixoaia airo t&v i/ceipov o/ireKeKpiTOy
epytp Be fcal ravra irpb^i ttjv yvcofirjv avrov dvq-
lUa/cero) Kal t&v arpaTicoT&v Kpar&v, avrap-

2 XW^^^ ejxeWe. T179 yovv heKaerla^ i^eXdovarj^
aWa err) irevre, eVra irevTe, fcal fierh rovro Sifca
Kal Irepa aiOi'i hetca Kal aWa ScKa,^ TrefiTrrdfct^ ^
avT^ €yjn](f>La0^], &<TTe ttj t&v SeKerrfpiScov * Sta-

3 Boxfi Bict J3iov avTov fwvapxv^^'" ^^^ Bia tovto
fcal oi peTCb ravra avro/cpdrope^, Kalroi firjKer €9
raxrov xpovov dW* 69 irdvra KaOdira^ rov j3lop
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ecopraaav 0)9 ical rrjv rjyefioviav aZ0i<; rore dva-
veovpevor Kal rovro Kal vvv yiyverai,

4 'O S* ox>v Kaiaap iroWd fiev Kal irporepov,^
ore rd irepl rrj^ i^ay/jLoa-ia^ t^9 fiovapx^a^ fcal rd
Trepl T^9 r&v eOv&v SiavofjLi]<i SieXix^V'^ eka/Se'
Kal yap ro re rd<; Bd<f>va(; irpo r&v ^aatXeitov

* h supplied by R. Steph.

* Koi &\\a Uku supplied by Momnisen.
•^ trffirrraKis Zon., irefivrdKiS h VM.

* d€K€rrjpl^a}V Xiph., deKaerijpiSwv Zon., SeKerripluy VM.

* wpSrfpoy Rk. , irpSrepa VM. • Sif\4x^'n M, ^ithtryx^^ ^'


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The following regulations were laid down for them , b.c. 27
all alike : they were not to raise levies of soldiers or I
to exact money beyond the amount appointed, unless
the senate should so vote or the emperor so order ;
and when their successors arrived, they were to leave
the province at once, and not to delay on the
retumjourney, but to get back within three months. I

These regulations were established at that time, ^
to speak generally; for in reality Caesar himself
was destined to^have absolute i^ontroTof all~matt«cs j .
for all time^ because he was not only master of the/
funds (nominally, to be sure, he had separated thel
public funds from his own, but as a matter of fact,!
he always spent the former also as he saw fit), but\ ^^
also commanded the soldiers. At all events, when
his ten-year period came to an end, there was voted '
to him another five years, then five more, after that
ten, and again another ten, and then ten for the ^
fifth time, so that by the succession of ten-year
periods he continued to be sole ruler for life. And .
it is for this reason that the subsequent emperors, '
though no longer appointed for a specified period,-
but for their whole life once for all, nevertheless
always held a celebration every ten years, as if then
renewing their sovereignty once more; and this is
done even at the present day.

Now Caesar had received many privileges and
honours even previously, when the question of de-
clining the sovereignty and that of apportioning the
provinces were under discussion. For the right to
place the laurel trees in front of the royal residence


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17 Ovt(o fiev Brj to t€ tov Brjfiov Kal to Trj<; yepov-
<7ta9 KpdTO^ irdv 69 tov AvyovaTOV fiCTeaTrj, xal dir
avTOv Kal dKpLJSrj^ fjuovapxia /careo-Tiy fwvap'xLa
ydp, el Kal tcl fidXia-Ta Kal Bvo Kal Tpel^ afia
TO Kvpo^ TTOTe €(T)(pv, dXrj6e<TTaTa dv vopi^oiTO,

* tpovs R. Steph., opov V, ^ov M.
2 <r€$(i(€(r0ai Zon., fftfilieffBai VM.


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and to hang the crown of oak above them was then b.c. 27
voted him to symbolize that he was always victor
over his enemies and the saviour of the citizens.
The royal residence is called Palatium, not because
it was ever decreed that this should be its name, but '
because Caesar dwelt on the Palatine ^ and had his
military headquarters there, though his residence
gained a certain degree of fame from the mount as a
whole also, because Romulus had once lived there.
Hence, even if the emperor resides somewhere else,
his dwelling retains the name of Palatium. And when
Caesar had actually carried out his promises, the
nam& Augustus was at length bestowed upon him by-
the senate and by the people. For when they wished
to call him by some distinctive title, and men were
proposing one title and another and urging its
selection, Caesar was exceedingly desirous of being
called Romulus, but when he perceived that this
caused him to be suspected of desiring the kingship,
he desisted from his efforts to obtain it, and took the
title of ^'Augustus," signifying that he was more than
human ; for all the most precious and sacred objects
are termed augu^ta. Therefore they addressed him
also in Greek as Sehastos^ meaning an august person-
age, from the passive of the verb sehazo, " to revere."

In this way the power of both people and senate
passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from -
his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarchy ; for
monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter
if two or three men did later hold the power at the

^ In both Greek and Latin the common form of the name
for the Palatine [XlaXik'nov and Palatium) is the same as that
for the imperial residence. It is hardly necessary to state
that Palatium has given the English '* palace."

2 Cf. lii. 40.

• 235

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apx^tv, &aTe Kat ei/T09 tov 7ra>fir)pL0V /cat tov9
linria^ Kat tov9 ^ovXevTa^; OavaTovv ivvaaOai,


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same time.^ The name of monarchy, to be sure, the ]b.c. 27
Romans so detested that they called their emperors !
neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort ;|
yet since the final authority for the government;
devolves upon them, they must needs be kings. The
offices established by the laws, it is true, are main-
tained even now, except that of censor; but the
entire direction and administration is absolutely in
accordance with the wishes of the one in power at
the time. And yet, in order to preserve the ap- '
pearance of having this power by virtue of the laws
and not because of their own domination, the em-
perors have taken to themselves all the functions,
including the titles, of the offices which under the
republic and by the free gift of the people were
powerful, with the single exception of the dictator-
ship. Thus, they very often became consuls, and
they are always styled proconsuls whenever they are
outside the pomerium. The name of ** imperator** is
held by them all for life, not only by those who have
won victories in battle, but also by those who have not,
in token of their independent authority, and this has
displaced the titles ^^king " and " dictator." These
last titles they have never assumed since the time they
first fell out of use in the conduct of the government,
but the functions of those offices are secured to them
under the appellation of ''imperator,'* By virtue of the \
titles named they secure the right to make levies, to ''.
collect funds, declare war, make peace, rule foreigners
and citizens alike everywhere and always,— even to
the extent of being able to put to death both knights 1
and senators inside the pomerium, — ^^and all the other /

See note on § 8 inf.


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fcar €T09 avrf}V p,era r&v del Brjfjbapxpvvrcov
^ Upwv R. Steph., Uptoiv V Xiph., Upttov M.

^ Up to the time when Dio wrote these words it was true
that when two or more jointly held the imperial power (as
Marcus Aurelius with L. v erus, and Septimius Severus with


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privileges once granted to the consuls and other i
officials possessing independent authority ; and by
virtue of holding the censorship they investigate our
lives and morals as well as take the census^ enrolling
some in the equestrian and senatorial classes and
erasing the names of others from these classes,
according to their will. By virtue of being con- \
secrated in all the priesthoods and of their right to
bestow most of these positions upon others, as well
as from the fact that, even if two or three persons I
hold the imperial office at the same time, one /
of them is high priest,^ they hold in their own/
hands supreme authority over all matters both pro-/
fane and sacred. The tribunician power, as it is-
called, which used to be conferred only upon men of \
the greatest influence, gives them the right to nullify \
the effects of measures taken by any other official, in |
case they do not approve it, and makes them immune |
from scurrilous abuse ^ ; and if they appear to be
wronged in even the slightest degree, not merely by i
deed, but even by word, they may destroy the guilty (
party, as one accursed, without a trial. The emperors,
it should be explained, do not think it right to be
tribunes, inasmuch as they belong altogether to the
patrician class, but they assume the power of the
tribunes to its full extent, as it was when it was
greatest ; and in numbering the years they have held
the imperial office they use the tribunician power to
mark the stages, the theory being that they receive
it year by year along with those who are regularly

his two sons) only one of them was pontifex maximus. But
a few years later, in 23B, Balbinus and Maximus both claimed
the title.

« Cf. vol. i. p. 127 ff., xhx. 15, 5-6.

2 39

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TOVTo dpxvp iyevero aW' h re TLfirjv Kal €9
irapa^veaiv, Xv avTol re tov^ dpxopAvov<^ g)9 koX

* That is, they measured the length of their reign by
tribunician years, dating either from the very day when the
tribunician power was conferred upon them (even if before


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'Made tribunes.! -p,

they have taken ,. . *''^ the insti>..H

'« the form S.Ti^'?'^^^^ ^pSltT Z^'"^' "-^^

'^nd also mak?» ^"''^ they seveiX 5- ?*? "tialjy

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^" comn.,,?'" declare; 2 tbTt il .^*^' *« the very

tttX~ ^^.ov-St *^ - -

'^•ngs exTent ;.'"^ P«^«ess "Tthe „ "^'^ ^ ^^*«°t

"^esar'-^oV^rP^'*'-^ title F^rffeT*'^ '^^

PeeuJiar nnw ^"gustus " conf/rc ^PP^"»tion

^elon/r « J "^^»*s of thf^ ^o -1 *^^ one case

^ffic^af ;. ^^ ^^ the other fh'^^ *^ ^^^^h thev

"cial position. Th^ ? ^'^^ splendour of ^u^

^em a cer+o; "^ term '*^Fathi,.»' i ^ their

^hieh fatwf *"thoWty over Sail ^k'^'^P^ ^'^^s

) ; of.



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avTrjf; e%oi;T69 ovTe aipovvTai iir avTfjv, ovtb
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Kal ofioLco^ TOt? irpoaOev tcl fieTa TavTa irpa-

2 'xOevTa Xex^^vaL BvvaTai, irpoTepov fjuev ydp €9
t€ T7JV fiovXrjv Kal 69 to^ Brjfwv nrdvra, Kal el
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7raz/T€9 T€ avTd ifxdvdavov Kal iroXXol avveypa-
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Td fidXicTTa Kal <f>6P(p Ttvd Kal %a/}tT^ ifiCXia
Te Kal e'XjSpa Tcalv ipp'^drj, irapd yovv T0fc9 dX-
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3 T0i9 Brjfjio<rCoi<; Tpoirov ircvd evpi<TK€T0. ix Be Br)
Tov xpoj/ou €K€Lvov Td fiev TrXeto) Kpv^a koI Be
diropprjTODV ylyveaOai ijp^aTO, el Be irov Tiva Kal


* Aoixtrtavhs R. Steph., BonriTiavhs VM.
^ ry irpoo'.cK'fiaei Bs. , tV fffiaKhiriffiv VM.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


children, and to their subjects, that they should b.o. 27
revere them as they would their fathers.

Such is the number and nature of the appella-
tions which those who possess the imperial power
employ in accordance with the laws and with what
has now become tradition. At present all of them,
are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one
and the same time, with the exception of the title
of censor; but to the earlier emperors they were
voted separately at different times. As regards
the censorship, sopie of them took it in accordance
with the ancient practice, and Domitian, in fact,
took it for life, but this is no longer done at the
present day ; for, inasmuch as they possess its
powers, they are not elected to the office and do
not use the title except in connexion with the

In this way the government^ was^ciliangejd at fhsLJ
timeTor^the "Uet^f ' and^ln the interest of greater
security ; for it was no doubt quite impossible for
the people to be saved under a republic. Never-
theless, the events occurring after this time can not
be recorded in the same manner as those of previous
times. Formerly, as we know, all matters were re-
ported to the senate and to the people, even if they
happened at a distance ; hence all learned of them
and many recorded them, and consequently the
truth regarding them, no matter to what extent
fear or favour, friendship or enmity, coloured the
reports of certain writers, was always to a certain
extent to be found in the works of the other writers
who wrote of the same events and in the public
records. But after_this time most things that hap-
pened beg^tiTTo be kept secret and concealed, and

R 2

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TToWa Be KoX irdvv avfju^aivopra dyvoelrat,
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5 Trjv ^ aKpi^ecav avT&v irapix^Tat. ev t€ yap Ty
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e^Q> T&v irpaTTovTcov avTa ycyvcoaKec, ir\ei<TTOL K

6 6<T0L ovS dKovovai TTjv dp')(rjv oti yeyovev, odev-
irep Kal eyo) irdvTa tcl e^9, oaa ye * Kal dvay-
Kalov eaTai elirelv, 0)9 nrov Kal SeZruKOTai <l)pd<rco,
ecT 6Wa)9 ovTco^ ecTe koI €T€p(o<; irco^ exec. irpo<r-
earai fievTOL tv avTol<i Kal t^9 €/x^9 ho^aaia^, €9
oaov ivSexeTai, ev 0I9 dWo tl fidWov fj to dpv
Xovfievov riBvvi]6r)v ck itoXX&v &v dveyvcov rj Kal
f}Kovaa rj Kal elSov TeK/ju'tjpaa-dai.

20 AvyovaTo^ fxkv Srj 6 Kalaap, wairep elirov,
€irci>vofid<T0r), Kal avT^ ar^fxelov ov ap^iKpov evdv<;
TOT€ Tf79 vvKTO^ €7rey€veT0' 6 yhp Ti^epi^ ireXayl-
aa<i irdaav Tr)v ev Toh ireBloi^ 'Vd>fn]v KaTeXa^ev
(ocTTe irXeladaiy Kal dir* avTOv oi fidvTec^ otl t€

1 7€ R. Steph., T« VM Xiph. » t^v Xiph., om. VM.
» Ti VM, nva Xiph. * 7* H. Steph., tc VM.


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even though some things are perchance made public, b.c. 27

Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 17 of 35)