Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 23 of 35)
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some of them, as usually happens in such a case,
found fault with him on the ground that they had
been unjustly expelled, he at that time accorded
them the right to attend spectacles and celebrate
festivals along with the senators, wearing the same
garb as they, and for the future he allowed them to
stand for the various offices. The majority of them /
came back in the course of time into the senate ; \


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1 &AA<^ R. Steph., ikwo M.

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but some few were left in an intermediate positic
being regarded as belonging neither to the sena
nor to the people.

After these events, many immediately and ma]
later were accused, whether truly or falsely,
plotting against both the emperor and Agrippa.
is not possible, of course, for those on the outside
have certain knowledge of such matters ; for wh*
ever measures a ruler takes, either personally
through the senate, for the punishment of men i
alleged plots against himself, are generally look
upon with suspicion as having been done out of spH
no matter how just such measures may be. F
this reason it is my purpose to report in all su
cases simply the recorded version of the afiair, wi1
out busying myself with anything beyond the pu
lished account, except in perfectly patent cases,
giving a hint as to the justice or injustice of the i
or as to the truth or falsity of the report. Let tl
explanation apply also to everything that I sh
write hereafter. As for the time of which we a
speaking, Augustus executed a few men ; m tHe ca
of Lepidus, however, although he hated the im
among other reasons, because his son had be
detected in a plot against him and had been pu
ished, yet he did not wish to put him to death, b
kept subjecting him to insult from time to time
various ways. Thus he would order him to come ba
to the city from his estate in the country,^ whetli
he wished to do so or not, and would always take h
to the meetings of the senate, in order that
might be subjected to the utmost to jeering a

1 At Circeii.

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* fiov\€vffoyTas R. Steph. , fiovXevffavras M.
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did not feel that it ^^' • ^^^ *his priesthood, he

hved.2 This replv ZT a^^-* *** **« «o^hile L^idul

nappy one, as was al«. ^*^*J'stius was regarded as «.

^*^as said inThe senrte"**^^' remark of his: whe^

senatow ought to t^i^^ t ' ***" **°® occasion, that the

Antistius, not darine'to ^T^^i,*" guarding Augustus,

^»"ing to assent r^l i ^^^ '" opposition nor. yet

«o cannot sleep at thl*^^^^' ".^^ ^O' "»«' ^ «°ore,. ^1

Among the 1„ ^^V^door of his chamber." ^

^hich provided tW V^^* Augustus enacted was ox^^

order to«,to offil i''*'?,^^ ^ho had bribed anyone i^

^ PrelZTi S. '*'"**^ ^^ debased from ofece F^

i2L. xo, d, and <?liap. 27, 2 iV-
^OL. VI. -. 3 ^^ :»


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1 eZp^e R. Steph., cTp^c M.

^ Karafio'fia'tas R. Steph. , KartfiSiicrtv M.

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five years. He laid heavier assessments upon the\ b c. is
unmarried men and upon the women without hus-Y'?%
bands, and on the other hand offered prizes for ^ ,
marriage and the begetting of children. And since
among the nobility there were far more males than
femaTes, he allowed all who wished, except the
senators, to marry freedwomen, and ordered that
their offspring should be held legitimate.

Meanwhile a clamor arose in the senate over the
disorderly conduct of the women and of the young
men, this being alleged as a reason for their re-
luctance to enter into the marriage relation ; and
when they urged him to remedy this abuse also, with
ironical allusions to his own intimacy with miuiy
women, he at first replied that the most necessary
restrictions had been laid down and that anything
further could not possibly be regulated by decree in
similar fashion. Then, when he was driven into a
corner, he said : " You yourselves ought to admonish
and command your wives as you wish ; that is what I
do." When they heard that, they plied him with
questions all the more, wishing to learn what the
admonitions were which he professed to give Livia.
He accordingly, though with reluctance, made a few
remarks about women's dress and their other adorn-
ment, about their going out and their modest be-
haviour, not in the least concerned that his actions
did not lend credence to his words. Another in-
stance of such inconsistency had occurred while he
was censor. Some one brought before him a young
man who had taken as his wife a married woman
with whom he had previously committed adultery,
and made ever so many accusations against the

Y 2

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^ fiSKts Pflugk, fidKiffra M. * yafj.'fiarei Zon., 'yo/t-^triji M.
* y^p supplied by R. Steph. * ol Bk., koI ol M.
^ fKaaros Reim., ^Kacrrov M.

1 Cf. note on liii. 13, 2.

•^ Apparently in a lost portion of his work.


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man> and Augustus was at a loss what to do, not b.c. 18
daring to overlook the affair nor yet to administer
any rebuke. At length, though with difficulty, he
recovered himself and said : '^ Our factious quarrels
have borne many terrible fruits ; let us, then, forget
them and give our attention to the future, that
nothing of the sort may occur again." Inasmuch,
too, as certain men were betrothing themselves to
infant girls and thus enjoying the p'rivileges granted
to married raen,^ but without rendering the service
expected of them, he ordered that no betrothal ■
should be valid if the man did not marry within two X-
years of such betrothal, — that is, that the girl must
in every case be at least ten years old at her be-
trothal if the man was to derive any advantages ;
from it, since, as I have stated,^ girls are held to
have reached the marriageable age on the com-
pletion of twelve full years.

Besides these several enactments, Augustus further
provided that, for the distribution of grain, one
candidate, who must have served as praetor three
years previously, should be nominated each year by
each of the officials then serving, and that, from
these nominees, four men should be chosen by lot
to serve in succession as distributors of grain.^ And
he commanded that the office of prefect of the city,
who was chosen for the Feriae,^ should always be
filled by the election of one man, and that the
Sibylline verses, wliich had become indistinct
through lapse of time, should be copied off by the
priests with their own hands, in order that no one

' Snetonius {Axig. 37) names among the neu' offices esta-
blished by Augustus the ''^ cur am . . . frumtnti populo

* See note on chap. 6 ; and cf. xli. 14, 4, and xlix. 16, 2.

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* KCKTTJIxeVOlS Bk., K€KTf1IJ.4vuV M.

^ Fatov Bk., TOV yatov M.

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else might read them. He permitted all to stand b.c. 18
for office who possessed property worth four hundred
thousand sesterces and were eligible by the laws to
hold office. This was the senatorial rating which ^
he at first established ; but later he raised it to;
one million sesterces. Upon some of those who lived
upright lives but possessed less than the four
hundred thousand sesterces in the first instance^ or
the million in the second^ he bestowed the amount
lacking. And because of this he allowed the
praetors who so desired to spend on the public
festivals three times the amount granted them from
the treasury. Thus, even if some were vexed at
the strictness of his other regulations, yet by reason
of this action and also because he restored one
Pylades, a dancer, who had been exiled on account
of sedition, they remembered them no longer.
Hence Pylades is said to have rejoined very cleverly,
when the emperor rebuked him for having quar-
relled with Bathyllus, a fellow-artist and a favourite
of Maecenas ^ : " It is to your advantage, Caesar, that
the people should devote their spare time to us.'*

These were the occurrences of that year. In the b.c. 17
consulship of Gains Fumius and Gains Silanus,f
Agrippa again acknowledged the birth of a son, who\ ^
was named Lucius ; and Augustus immediately \
adopted him together with his brother Gains, not 1
waiting for them to become men, but appointing ;
them then and there successors to his office, in order \
that fewer plots might be formed against him. He
transferred the festival of Honor and Virtus to the
days which are at present theirs, commanded those
who celebrated triumphs to erect out of their

1 Cf. Tac. An7i. i. 54.


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spoils some monument to commemorate their deeds, b.c. i7
and held the fifth celebration of the Ludi Saeculares.
He ordered the orators to give their services as
advocates without pay, on pain of a fine of four
times the amount they received ; and he forbade
those who were drawn as jurymen from time to
time to enter any person's house during their year
of service. And since the members of the senate
showed a lack of interest in attending its sessions,
he increased the fines for those who were late with-
out a good excuse.

Next he set out for Gaul, during the consulship b c. ic
of Lucius Domitius and Publius Scipio> making the
wars that had arisen in that region his excuse. For
since he had become disliked by many as a result of
his long stay in the capital, and now was offending
many who committed some act contrary to his
decrees by the punishments he was inflicting, and ^
at the same time, by sparing many others, was being
compelled to transgress his own enactments, he
decided to leave the country, somewhat after the
manner of Solon. Some even suspected that he •
had gone away on account of Terentia, the wife of \
Maecenas, and intended, inasmuch as there was | ^
much talk about them in Rome, to live with her I
abroad free from all gossip. So great, indeed, was
his passion for her that he once made her enter a
contest of beauty against Li via. Before setting out
he dedicated the temple of Quirinus, which he had
rebuilt. I mention this for the reason that he
adorned it with seventy-six columns, which was the
exact number of the years he lived, and thus caused
some to declare that he had chosen this number
deliberately and not by mere chance. So he dedi-
cated this temple at that time, and also exhibited


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gladiatorial combats, Tiberius and Drusus represent- b.c. 16
ing him in the matter after the senate had granted
them permission. Then he committed to Taurus
the management of the city together with the rest
of Italy (for he had sent Agrippa again to Syria and
no longer looked with equal favour upon Maecenas
because of the latter*s wife), and taking Tiberius,
though praetor at the time, along with him, he set
out on his journey. Tiberius, it appears, had
become praetor in spite of his already holding the
rank of a praetor; and Drusus now performed all
the duties of his office in pursuance of a decree.
The night following their departure the temple of
Inventus^ was burned to the ground. Other portents
also had occurred : a wolf had rushed into the Forum
by the Sacred Way and had killed people, and not
far from the Forum ants were conspicuously swarm-
ing together; moreover, a flame like a torch had
shot from the south towards the north all night
long. Because of all these signs prayers were
offered for the return of Augustus. Meanwhile they
held the quadrennial celebration of his sovereignty,
Agrippa, represented by his fellow-priests, bearing
the expense ; for he had been consecrated as one of
the quindecimviri, upon whom the management of
the festival devolved in regular succession.

There were many other disturbances, too, during
that period. The Camunni and Vennii,^ Alpine
tribes, took up arms against the Romans, but were
conquered and subdued by Publius Silius. The
Pannonians in company with the Norici overran

^ Aedes luventtUis.

^ Other forms of this name are Vemiones, VeDnontes, and

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Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 23 of 35)