Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 24 of 35)
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* 'Pw/47rraA«»7 R. Steph., ^(afjLirra\K7\i VM (but 'PufjnirdKKTis
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Istria ; but the former, upon being discomfited by b.c. 16
-Silius and his lieutenants, both came to terms again
themselves and caused the Norici to be subjected
to the same slavery. The uprisings in Dalmatia and
in Spain were quelled in a short time. Macedonia
was ravaged by the Dentheleti and the Scordisci.
In Thrace somewhat earlier Marcus LoUius, while
aiding Rhoemetalces, the uncle and guardian of the
sons of Cotys, had subjugated the Bessi. Later
Lucius Gallus conquered the Sarmatians for the
same reason and drove them back across the Ister.
The greatest, however, of the wars which at that
time fell to^ the lot of the Romans, and the one
presumably which drew Augustus away from the
city, was that against the Germans. It seems that
the Sugambri, Usipetes, and Tencteri had first seized
in their own territory some of the Romans and had
crucified them, after which they had crossed the
Rhine and plundered Germania and Gaul. When
the Roman cavalry approached, they surprised them
from ambush ; then, pursuing them as they fled,
they fell in unexpectedly with Lollius, the governor
of the province, and conquered him also. On
learning of all this, Augustus hastened against them^
but found no warfare to carry on ; for the barbarians,
learning that Lollius was making preparations and
that the emperor was also taking the field, retired
into their own territory and made peace, giving

For this reason Augustus had no need of arms,
but in arranging other matters he consumed the


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* avrohs Reim., avrh. V, avrcks M cod. Peir., rohi fxrivas
Xiph. • {nrrdrovs Dind., abyouffrovs VM cod. Peir.


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whole of this year, as well as the next, in which b.c. is
Marcus Libo and Calpurnius Piso were consuls.
For not "only had the Gauls suffered much at the
hands of the Germans, but much also at the hands
of a certain Licinus.^ And of this, I think, the
sea-monster had given them full warning before-
hand ; twenty feet broad and three times as long,
and resembling a woman except for its head, it
had come in from the ocean and become stranded
on the shore. Now Licinus was originally a Gaul,
but after being captured by the Romans and be- ;
coming a slave of Caesar's, he had been set free by j
him, and by Augustus had been made procurator of ■
Gaul. This man, then, with his combination of bar- '
barian avarice and Roman dignity, tried to overthrow
every one who was ever counted superior to him and
to destroy every one who was strong for the time
being. He not only supplied himself with plenty
of funds for the requirements of the office to which
he had been assigned, but also incidentally collected
plenty for himself and for his friends. His knavery
went so far that in some cases where the people
paid their tribute by the month he made the months
fourteen in number, declaring that the month called
December was really the tenth, and for that reason
they must reckon two more (which he called the
eleventh and the twelfth 2 respectively) as the last,
and contribute the money that was due for these
months. It was these quibbles that brought him
into danger; for the Gauls secured the ear of
Augustus and protested indignantly, so that the

* Licinus 'appears to be the proper spelling of the name,
although we find Licinius even in some Roman writers.

'"^ Bekker plausibly suggested 'Ev$€ic^iu)3piov and AwSc/c^/uiSpiov,
t.e. Undeeemberand Duodecember. y

335 -^

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1 (ruv<ixOe<real Xiph., &x^eff0ai VM.

* (ruvvcvrifA.4pa Sylburg, evvtvtfjuntxiva V, <rwvfv^fif\fU¥a M
cod. Peir.

^ 'IraXiai Bk., IraXU^i VM.

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emperor in some matters shared their vexation and b.c. is
in others tried to excuse Licinus. He claimed to^
be unaware of some of his extortions and affected
not to believe others, while some matters he actually
concealed, feeling ashamed to have employed such
a procurator. Licinus, however, devised another
scheme as follows, and laughed them all to scorn.
When he perceived that Augustus was displeased
with him and that he was likdy to be punished, he
brought the emperor into his house, and showing
him many treasures of silver and gold and many
other valuables piled up in heaps, he said : ^^ I have ;
gathered all this purposely, master, for you and for \
the rest of the Romans, lest the natives, by having \
control of so much money, should revolt. At any .
rate, I have kept it all for you and now give it^to
you." I

Thus Licinus was saved, by pretending that he i
had sapped the strength of the barbarians in order |
to serve Augustus. Drusus and Tiberius in the
meantime were engaged in the following exploits.
The Rhaetians, who dwell between Noricum and
Gaul, near the Tridentine Alps ^ which adjoin Italy,
were overrunning a large part of the neighbouring
territory of Gaul and carrying off plunder even from
Italy ; and they were harassing such of the Romans
or their allies as travelled through their country.
Now these acts of theirs seemed to be about what
was to be expected of nations which had not accepted
terms of peace ; but they went further and destroyed
all the males among their captives, not only those
who had already come into the world, but also those
who were still in the women's wombs, the sex of

^ The Alps around Tridentum (Trent).



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1 4(r$ct\6yrfs M, i<r$d\\ovr€s V.

* an€\tv04puv VM cod. Peir., i.x€\€v6fpov Xiph.

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whom they discovered by some means of divination. b.c. is
For these reasons^ then, Augustus first sent against
them Drusus, who speedily routed a detachment of
them which came to meet him near the Tridentine
mountains, and in consequence received the rank of
praetor. Later, when the Rhaetians had been re-
pulsed from Italy, but were still harassing Gaul,
Augustus sent out Tiberius also. Both leaders then
invaded Rhaetia at many pomts at the same time,
either in person or through their lieutenants, and
Tiberius even crossed the'lake ' with ships. In this
way, by encountering them separately, they terrified
them and not only easily overwhelmed those with
whom they came into close quarters at any time,
inasmuch as the barbarians had their forces scattered,
but also captured the remainder, who in consequence
had become weaker and less spirited. And because
the land had a large population of males and seemed
likely to revolt, they deported most of the strongest
men of military age, leaving behind only enough to
give the country a population, but too few to begin
a revolution.

This same year V^diu^ Pollio died, a man who in
general had done nothing deserving of remem-
brance, as he was sprung from freedmen, belonged to
the knights, and had performed no brilliant deeds ; but
he had become very famous for his wealth and for his
cruelty, so that he has even gained a place in history.
Most of the things he did it would be wearisome to
relate, but I may mention that he kept in reservoirs

* The Lacua Venetus (Lago di Garda).

z 2

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■ taa — T^ Kotv^ (chap. 24, 7) omitted by Y, whose archetype
L had lost one folio at this point. ^ rhw M Xiph., rh Xyl.

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huge lampreys that had been trained to eat men, Ib.c. is
and he was accustomed to throw to them such of his \-^
slaves as he desired to put to death. Once, when '
he was entertaining Augustus, his cup-bearer broke
a crystal goblet, and without regard for his guest,
PoUio ordered the fellow to be thrown to the
lampreys. Hereupon the slave fell on his knees
before Augustus and supplicated him, and Augustus
at first tried to persuade Pollio not to commit so
monstrous a deed. Then, when Pollio paid no heed
to him, the emperor said, *^ Bring all the rest of the
drinking vessels which are of like sort or any others
of value that you possess, in order that I may use
them," and when they were brought, he ordered
them to be broken. When Pollio saw this, he was
vexed, of course; but since he was no longer
angry over the one goblet, considering the great
number of the others that were ruined, and, on tiie
other hand, could not punish his servant for what
Augustus also had done, he held his peace, thouch
much against his will. This is the sort of person Pollio
was, who died at this time. Among his many be-
quests to many persons he left to Augustus a good .
share of his estate toge^er with Pausilypon,^ the |
place between Neapolis and Puteoli, with instructions
that some public work of great beauty should be
erected there. Augustus razed Pollio's house to the
ground, on the pretext of preparing for the erection
of the other structure, but really with the purpose
that Pollio shofild have no monument in the city ;

* The modem Posilipo, between Naples and Pozzuoli.
The Greek name Pausilypon means ** grief -assuaging," thus
corresponding to euch modem names as Sane Souci, Hearts-
ease, etc.


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and he built a colonnade^ inscribing on it the name, b.c, 15
not of Pollio, but of Livia.

However, he did this later. At the time we are
considering he colonized numerous cities in Caul and
in Spain, restored to the people of Cyzicus their
freedom, and gave money to the Paphians, who
had suffered from an earthquake, besides allowing
them, by a decree, to call their city Augusta. I re-
cord this, not that Augustus and the senators, too,
did not aid many other cities also both before and
after this occasion, in case of similar misfortunes,^*-
indeed, if one should mention them all, the work in-
volved in making the record would be endless, — but
my purpose is to show that the senate even assigned
names to cities as a mark of honour and that the
inhabitants did not, as is usually done now, make
out for themselves in each instance lists of names
according to their own pleasure.

The next year Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Come- b.c. 14
lius were consuls ; and the curule aediles, after
resigning their office because they had been elected
under unfavourable auspices, received it again, con-
trary to precedent, at another meeting of the as-
sembly. The Basilica of Paulus was burned and the
flames spread from it to the temple of Vesta^ so
that the sacred objects there were carried up to the
Palatine by the Vestal Virgins,^ — except the eldest,
who had become blind, — and were placed in the
house of the priest of Jupiter. The basilica was
afterwards rebuilt, nominally by Aemilius, who was
1 Cf. xlii. 31, 3.


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the descendant of the family of the man who had b.c. 14
formerly erected it, but really by Augustus and the
friends of Paulus. At this time the Pannonians re-
volted again and were subdued, and the Maritime
Alps, inhabited by the Ligurians who were called
Coinatii^ and were still free even then, were reduced
to slavery. And the revolt among the tribes of the
Cimmerian Bosporus was quelled. It seems that one
Scribonius, who claimed to be a grandson of Mithri-
dates and to have received the kingdom from Augustus
after the death of Asander, married Asander*s wife,
named Dynamis, who was really the daughter of
Pharnaces and the granddaughter of Mithridates and
had been entrusted with the regency by her husband,
and thus he was holding Bosporus under his control.
Agrippa, upon learning of this, sent against him
Polemon, the king of that part of Pontus bordering
on Cappadocia. Polemon foimd Scribonius no longer
alive, for the people of Bosporus, learning of his
advance against them, had already put him to death ;
but when they resisted Polemon through fear that
he might be allowed to reign over them, he en-
gaged them in battle. But although he conquered
them, he was unable to reduce them to submission
until Agrippa came to Sinope with the purpose
of conducting a campaign against them. Then
they laid down their arms and were delivered up
to Polemon; and the woman Dynamis became his
wife, naturally not without the sanction of Augustus.
For these successes sacrifices were offered in the
name of Agrippa, but the triumph which was voted
him wa» not celebrated. Indeed, he did not so much

* I.e. the ^* long-haired*" C^. Gallia Comata, xlvi. 55, 5.


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Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 24 of 35)