Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 29 of 35)
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d7r€<f>r)v€ T^9 v€0Tr)T0<; tXapxov t€ <f>vXrj(; yeveadat,
iirerpe'^e, — Zod. 10, 35.

10 Kal /a€t' ivtavTOV koI Aovkiov Ta9 rifid^
oaai T^ Tai(p t^ dSeXifyc^ avrov iSiSovro eXa^cv,
dOpocadevTov Sk rov Si^fiov xal iiravopdaf^rjvai
Tiva d^iovvTov Kal tov<; Stjfidpxov*; Sid tovto
7rpo9 Toi' AvyovcTov irifiylravro*;, ijiXdev iKcivov
Kal irepl &v iSiovTo a^uri avvSiea-KhlraTO' /cal
iirl TovT^^ rjaOrjaav atravTe^. — Zon. 10, 35.

^ Tom^Tij cod. Peir., toi(£$c VaL

* T^€ Val., rh r6T€ cod. Peir. » to6t^ ABO, tovto E.


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exercised his authority by compelling the Parians to b.c. e
sell him the statue of Vesta, in order that it might be
placed in the temple of Concord ; and when he reached
Rhodes, he refrained from haughty conduct in both
word and deed. This is the truest explanation oi
his journey abroad, though there is also a story that
he took this course on account of his wife Julia,
because he could no longer endure her ; at any rate,
she was left behind in Rome. Others said that he
was angry at not having been designated as Caesar,
and yet others that he was expelled by Augustus
himself, on the ground that he was plotting against
Augustus* sons. But that his departure was not for
the sake of instruction nor because he was displeased
at the decrees passed, became plain from many of
his subsequent actions, and particularly by his open-
ing his will immediately at that time and reading
it to his mother and Augustus. But all possible
conjectures were made.

The following year Augustus in the course of his b.c. 6
twelfth consulship placed Gains among the youths
of military age, and at the same time introduced him
into the senate, declared him princeps iuventutis, and
permitted him to become commander of a division of

And after the lapse of a year Lucius also obtained b,c. 2
all the honours that had been granted to his brother
Gaius. On one occasion, when the people had
gathered together and were asking that certain
reforms be instituted and had sent the tribunes to
Augustus for this purpose, the emperor came and
consulted with them about their demands; and at
this all were pleased.


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10 'O Se Avyovcrrof; to tov a-iroBorovfiivov ^ ttX^-

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hpaxfii^^ eSwAce.— Xiph. 100, 30-101, 1.

1* 'XI9 r} Avyovarov dyopa Kadiepdadri, — Index to

Bk. LV. 1. 6.
1^ 'II9 TOV "Apeco^; vao^ 6 iv avry <ov Ka0i€p(!>dr).
—Index to Bk. LV. 1. 7.

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2 "Aptt Morell, pci M.

' lAapxo^yrau Bk., tl\apxo^yra>v M.


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Augustus limited the number of people to be sup- B.a 2
plied with grain, a number not previously fixed, to
two hundred thousand ; and, as some say, he distri- •
buted a largess of sixty denarii to each man.

EHow the Forum of Augustus was dedicated.]
How the Temple of Mars therein was dedicated.]
... to Mars, and that he himself and his grand-
sons should go there as often as they wished, while
those who were passing from the class of boys and
were being enrolled among the youths of military
age should invariably do so; that those who were
sent out to commands abroad should make that their
starting-point ; that the senate should take its votes
there in regard to the granting of triumphs, and that
the victors after celebrating them should dedicate
to this Mars their sceptre and their crown; that
such victors and all others, who received triumphal
honours should have their statues in bronze erected
in the Forum ; that in case military standards cap-
tured by the enemy were ever recovered they should
be placed in the temple ; that a festival should be
celebrated beside the steps of the temple by the
cavalry commanders of each year ; ^ that a nail should
be driven into it by the censors at the close of their
terms ; ^ and that even senators should have the
right of contracting to supply the horses that were
to compete in the Circensian games, and also to take

^ The seviri equitum.

'^ This custom is not elsewhere recorded in the case of the
censors. In early times a nail was driven each year into the
side of the cella of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, for
the purpose of keeping official count of the years. After the
practice had lapsed for a time, it was again revived on the
oc<:asion of great disasters or dangers, as a propitiatory rite,
and a dictator was sometimes chosen for this sole purpose in
the absence of both consuls.


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^ KpoK6S€t\oi R. Steph. , KopK6Bti\oi M.

' Neat 'ir6\€i Bk., veair6\9i M.

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general charge of the temple, just as had been pro-
vided by law in the case of the temples of Apollo
and of Jupiter Capitolinus.

These matters settled, Augustus dedicated this
temple of Mars, although he had granted to Gaius
and Lucius once for all the right to consecrate all
such buildings by virtue of a kind of consular
authority that they exercised in the time-honoured
manner. And they did, in fact, have the manage-
ment of the Circensian games on this occasion, while
their brother Agrippa took part along with the boys
of the first families in the equestrian exercise called
'^ Troy." Two hundred and sixty lions were slaugh-
tered in the Circus. There was a gladiatorial combat
in the Saepta, and a naval battle between the
'^Persians" and the "Athenians" was given on the
spot where even to-day some relics of it are still
pointed out. These, it will be understood, were the
names given to the contestants ; and the ^^ Athenians "
prevailed as of old. Afterwards water was let into
the Circus Flaminius and thirty-six. crocodiles were
there slaughtered. Augustus, however, did not serve
as consul during all these days, but after holding office
for a short time, gave the title of the consulship to

These were the celebrations in honour of Mars.
To Augustus himself a sacred contest ^ was voted in
Neapolis, the Campanian city, nominally because he
had restored it when it was prostrated by earthquake
and fire, but in reality because its inhabitants, alone
of the Campanians, tried in a manner to imitate the
customs of the Greeks. He also was given the strict
right to the title of "Father" ; for hitherto he had

I Cf. li. 1, 2.


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1 avrh Rk., aurhv M, atfrhv cod. Peir. Xiph.
^ Ka/i7rav/f Xiph., Ka/niravlav M.

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merely been addressed by that title without the
formality of a decree. Moreover, he now for the
first time appointed two prefects over the Praetorians,^
Quintus Ostorius Scapula and Publius Salvius Aper,
— for I, too, apply this name ^^ prefect" solely to
them, of all who exercise a similar office, inasmuch as
it has won its way into general use. Pylades, the
dancer, gave a festival, though he did not perform
any of the work himself, since he was very old, but
merely wore the insignia of office and provided the
cost of the entertainment ; and the praetor Quintus
Crispinus also gave one. 1 mention this only because
it was on this occasion that knights and women of
distinction were brought upon the stage. Of this,
however, Augustus took no account ; but when he
at length discovered that his daughter Julia was so
dissolute in her conduct as actually to take part in
revels and drinking bouts at night in the Forum and
on the very rostra, he became exceedingly angry.
He had surmised even before this time that she was
not leading a straight life, but refused to believe it.
For those who hold positions of command, it appears,
are acquainted with everything else better than with
their own affairs ; and although their own deeds do
not escape the knowledge of their associates, they
have no precise information regarding what their as-
sociates do. In the present instance, when Augustus
learned what was going on, he gave way to a rage so
violent that he could not keep the matter to himself,
but went so far as to communicate it to the senate.
As a result Julia was banished to the island of Pan-
dateria,2 lying off Campania, and her mother Scribonia

^ Prae/ecti praetorio.

' The modem Ventotene, between the Ponza islands and


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— Xiph. 101, 21-32, Exc. V. 178^ 179 (p. 665).

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1 "lowXXoj Bs., io{fKios M. cod. Peir. Xiph.

2 6 supplied by Bk.

' Between &$ koX and kripovs (10 a, 1) two folios are lacking
in M. * hidplai Val., diapirda-ai cod. Peir.


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voluntarily accompanied her. Of the men who had .b.c. 2
enjoyed her favours, luUus Antonius, on the ground
that his conduct had been prompted by designs upon /
the monarchy, was put to death along with other/
prominent persons, while the remainder were ban- ^ ^
ished to islands. And since there was a tribune
among them, he was not tried until he had completed
his term of office. As a result of this affair many
other women, too, were accused of similar behaviour,
but the emperor would not entertain all the suits ;
instead, he set a definite date as a limit and forbade
all prying into what had occurred previous to that
time. For although in the case of his daughter he
would show no mercy, remarking that he would
rather have been Phoebe's father than hers, he
nevertheless was disposed to spare the rest. This
Phoebe had been a freed woman of Julia's and her
accomplice, and had voluntarily taken her own life
before she could be punished. It was for this that
Augustus praised her.

Gaius assumed command of the legions on the b.c. i
Ister with peaceful intent. Indeed, he fought no
war, not because no war broke out, but because he
was learning to rule in quiet and safety, while the
dangerous undertakings were regularly assigned to

When the Armenians revolted and the Parthians
joined with them, Augustus was distressed and at a
loss what to do. For he himself was not fit for
campaigning by reason of age, while Tiberius, as has
been stated, had already withdrawn, and he did not

* 4k rovTov Exc. Val. , om. Xiph.

^ jxriBtp Xiph. , M^ cod. Peir.

^ var^p fxaWov Xiph. , fiaWop var^ip cod. Peir.


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Xiph. 101, 32-102, 4.

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' ol Koi AE, ol BCc.

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^ /cat supplied by Bs.

* ^paraKTis^ ^paraKTi Bs., (fypardicrris, (ppaHrdicri (bufc corrected
by first hand to tfypardKyj) Exc. Urs. cod. A, tppardicTou Xiph.
VL', <l>pardKrov Xiph. C, ppardKTr] Xiph. VOL'.


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dare send any other influential man ; as for Gaius b.c. i
and Lucius, they were young and inexperienced in
affairs. Nevertheless, under the stress of necessity,
he chose Gaius, gave him the proconsular authority
and a wife, — in order that he might also have the
increased dignity that attached to a married man,^ —
and appointed advisers to him. Gaius accordingly
set out and was everywhere received with marks of
distinction, as befitted one who was the emperor's
grandson and was even looked upon as his son.
Even Tiberius went to Chios and paid court to him, i
thus endeavouring to clear himself of suspicion ; >
indeed, he humiliated himself and grovelled at the '
feet, not only of Gaius, but also of all the associates
of Gaius. And Gaius, after going to Syria and
meeting with no great success, was wounded.

When the barbarians heard of Gaius* expedition,
Phrataces sent men to Augustus to explain what had
occurred and to demand the return of his brothers
on condition of his accepting peace. The emperor a.d. i
sent him a letter in reply, addressed simply to
^' Phrataces," without the appellation of " king,"
in which he directed him to lay aside the royal
name and to withdraw from Armenia. Thereupon
the Parthian, so far from being cowed, wrote back
in a generally haughty tone, styling himself " King
of Kings " and addressing Augustus simply as
" Caesar." Tigranes did not at once send any en-
voys, but when Artabazus somewhat later fell ill
and died, he sent gifts to Augustus, in view of the

* See note on liii. 13, 2.

•'' avKus Xiph., om. Exc. Urs.

* vir€p<pp6ya>s Kxc. Urs., v-irepriipdpus Xiph.


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1 Tc A (B ? V ?).

* rhv Uap0iKhy Bs*, ruw nipBoty Urs., rhv UapBhy A (B ? V ?).


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fact that his rival had been removed, and though he a.d. l
did not mention the name ^^king" in his letter, he
really did petition Augustus for the kingship. In-
fluenced by these considerations and at the same time
fearing the war with the Parthians, the emperor
accepted the gifts and bade him go with good hopes
to Gaius in Syria.

.... others who marched against them from
Egypt, and did not peld until a tribune from the
pretorian guard was sent against them. This man in
the course of time checked their incursions, with
the result that for a long period no senator governed
the cities in this region.

Coincident with these events there was an out-
break on the part of the Germans. Somewhat
earlier Domitius, while still governing the districts
along the Ister, had intercepted the Hermunduri, a
tribe which for some reason or other had left their
own land and were wandering about in quest ot
another, and he had settled them in a part of the
Marcomannian territory ; then he had crossed the
Albis, meeting with no opposition, had made a
friendly alliance with the barbarians on the further
side, and had set up an altar to Augustus on the
bank of the river. Just now he had transferred his
headquarters to the Rhine, and in his desire to secure
the return of certain Cheruscan exiles through the
efforts of other persons had met with a reverse and
had caused the other barbarians likewise to conceive
a contempt for the Romans. This was the extent,
however, of his operations that year ; for in view of
the Parthian war which was impending no attention
was paid to the Germans at this time.


VOL. VI. ^ ^

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yrfcaPTa TJj t€ yepovaia to j^ovkrjpa avTOV

^ Tipihdruv Dind., rapiddrov M.

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Nevertheless, war did not break out with the a.d. i
Parthians, either. For Phrataees, hearing that
Gains was in Syria, acting as consul, and, ftirther-
more, having suspicions regarding his own people,
who had even before this been inclined to be disloyal

Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 29 of 35)