Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 31 of 35)
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when he takes his exercise, when he sleeps, and
when he takes the food and drink which they have
prepared. For the ruler labours under this special
disadvantage as regards his friends, that, although he
can protect himself from his enemies by arraying
his friends against them, there is no corresponding
ally on whom he may rely to protect him from these
very friends. Consequently we rulers find it to be .
true at all times, that whereas solitude is dreadful,
company also is dreadful, that whereas unprotected-
ness is terrifying, the very men who protect us are
most terrifying, and that whereas our enemies are
difficult to deal with, our friends are still more
difficult. ^ Friends,' I say, for friends they must all
be called, even if they are not friends. And even if
one should find loyal friends, still one could by no
means so completely trust them as to associate with
them with a sincere, untroubled, and unsuspecting



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Kcu TO Tov^ aXXov^ TOv<; iin^ovXevojna^ apay-
Kotov elvai afivpeadai irdvheivov ifrrtv, to yap
TOi Tiixoapeladai re koX KoKa^eiv aei rtva^ avay-
/cd^eaOai fieyaXTjv ayOrihova toa? ye ayaOol^
avopaa-i <f>€p€i.
16 ** 'A\V op6w ye \eyei<;,^^ direKpivaTO rj Aiovla,
" Kai aoc yvcoprjv Sovvai €%ft), av ye Kal irpoa -
Si^aadai avTrjv edeXijaTf^, koI prj Siapipyjrjf ^ ore
yvvTf ova a 7o\p& aoi (rvfi/SovXevcrcu ti olov ovS*
&v eh aXXo^ ovBe t(ov irdvv (f>i\a}V irapaiveaeiev,
ov^ on ovfc t(Ta<rcv avro, aX\' on ov Oapaovaiv

2 " A€7'," ij S' 09 AiiyovaTo^, '* 6 ri St] irore
TovTO eariv.

'H ovv Aiovia " (fypdao),^^ €<f>r), *' prjhev kuto-
Kvqaaa-a, are Kal ra dyaOk kclI rh xaKct €k tov
iaov (TO I exovaa, Kal aoy^opevov pev (tov xal avrrj
TO pipo^ apxovaa, Beipov Se re iraffovro^, h py

3 yevono, avvaTroXovpevrj, el ydp toi tj re <f>v(TC^
7] dvOptoTTivr) irdvTO)^ ri dpaprdveiv rivcL^ dva-
ireiOei, Kal dprj^ctvov eariv avrrjp irpa^aC ri
aypprjpivrjv eiriax^lv, kcu fjhr] ye Kal avrii riu
hoKovvrd Tiaiv dryad a elvai, Xva pij Ta9 t&v
iroW&p KaxCa^ elirio, Kal irdvv av^yov^ dBiKelv
etraipeL (Kal yap yevov^ av^VH^ ^** irXovrov
<l>povijpa Tiprj^ re peyedo^ Kal ctt' dvhpela^ Opdao^

4 i^ovaia^ re 07/C09 iroXKoif^ e^oKeXXeiv iroieT), Kal
prfre ro yevvalov Svayevh pijre to dvSpelov Seikop
prjre ro eptfypop dpovp larc iroirjaac (dBvparop
ydp), prjT av rh^ ireptovaia^ tlpwp TrepiKoirreiP

^ Siafi4fi,rf,'p R. Steph., Stave fitlfji M Xiph.

* iir' ii/Jpefot Wolf, iir* itvipftas M, ^ir* iivSplav Xiph.


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heart. This situation^ then, and the necessity of
taking measures to protect ourselves against the
other group of plotters, combine to make our position
utterly dreadful. For to be always under the neces-
sity of taking vengeance and inflicting punishments
is a source of great sorrow, to good men at least."

^' You are indeed right," answered Li via, " and I
have some advice to give you, — ^that is, if you are
willing to receive it, and will not censure me because
I, though a woman, dare suggest to you something
which no one else, even of your most intimate
friends, would venture to suggest, — not because they
are not aware of it, but because they are not bold
enough to speak."

'^ Speak out,*' repHed Augustus, '^ whatever it is.'*
"I will tell you," said Livia, " without hesitation,
because 1 have an equal share in your blessings and
your ills, and as long as you are safe I also have my
part in reigning, whereas if you come to any harm,
(which Heaven forbid !), I shall perish with you. If
it indeed be true that man's nature persuades some
persons to err under any and all conditions, and that
there is no way to curb man's nature when it has
once set out upon a course of action, and that even
what some men look upon as good conduct (to leave
out of consideration the vices of the many) is forth-
with an incentive to wrongdoing to very many men
(for example, boasting of high birth, pride of wealth,
loftiness of honours, arrogance of bravery, conceit of
power — all these bring many to grief) ; if it be tarue
that one can not make ignoble that which is noble,
or cowardly that which is brave, or prudent that
which is foolish (for that is impossible) ; if, on the
other hand, one ought not to curtail the abundance .


F F 2

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'fj Tct<; <f>c\oTifua^ jaireivovv /iif)Siv ye TrXrffifieXovV'
T(ov XPV {S^hiKOv yap), TO t' afivvofievov ff koX
TrpOKaTaXafi/Sdvoirrd riva^ Kal avid(T0ai koI
fcaKoSo^elv avayxaiov iari, <f>€p€ /jLerafiaXcofjieffa

5 fcat TLVo^ avT&v (f)€i(Toofi€0a. fcal yap fioi ^ So-
kgI iToXK(p irXeieo SCkavdpayirla rj tcvc ^fJUorrfTi
fearopdovadai. rov^ fxkv yhp avyyvcofiova^ oif
jjLOVOv oi €\€rf0ivT€<; vtt* avT&v <f)iXov(nv, ware
Kal dfieifiea-dai a<^a^ airovhd^eiv, dXKa fcal oi
dWoi TrdfVTes Kal alhovvrai Kal ae/Sovo'iv, &aT€

6 /iiif €VTo\fi€iP avTOv^ dSiKelv tou? S' aTTapairrj-
TOi^ opyal^ %/>G)/£€i/oi;9 ovk iKelvot fjLovoL oX ti
<l>ol3ovfi€VOi fjLiaovaiv, dXXd Kal oi Xoi^wol irdvre^
hv€r')(epaLvov(Ti, Kal ck tovtov Kal iTn/SovXevovaiv
avTol^, Xva fir) irpoairoXcovTai.

17 "*H ovx opa9 Stl Kal oi larpol tA? fi€v rofjuiff
Kal Ta9 Kav<T€L^ (nravKorard tkti irpocrifiepova'iv,
Xva fit) i^ayptaivoaatv avr&v rd uoaij/iaTa, toi^
Sk aiovijfiaac Kal to?? rjirioi^ <^apfidKoi^ rh irXeio}
imkOdaaovre^ depairevovo't ; fit) yap, on eKelva
fjL€V T&v aco/MiTcov TavTa Se r&v y^v^Siv iraOrj-
/utrd iari, Sia<f)€p€ip ri vofiia"p^ avrd dXKrjkayv.
2 irdfiiroWa yhp ofwia Tpoirov rivd Kal Tat<; yvco-
jiai^ T&v dv0pd)ira>v, kclv rd fidXto'Ta dacofiaroc
&a-iv, Kol ^ ToU adfiaai avfi^aiver avareXXovrai
T€ ydp VTTO <f>6fiov Kal i^oiSovaiv viro ffvfjuov, \v7rrf
T€ Tiva^ Ko\ov€i Kal $dpao^ oyKOi, &<T7 oXiyov
(r(f>6Spa TO irapaWdrTov avr&v elvai, Kal Sut
TovTO Kal irapairKriaioyv lafidrmv avrd SeurOai.

^ ydp jjLot Pflugk, /ioi y^p M.

^ iaiv Koi flor. , Zaiv & Koi M (but & deleted by corrector).


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of others or humble their ambitions^ when they arc >.d. *
guilty of no offence (for that were unjust) ; if, finally,
the policy of defending oneself or even of trying to
forestall the attacks of others inevitably leads to
vexation and ill repute — if all this is true, come, let
us change our policy and spare some of the plotters. .
For^ it seems to me that far more wrongs are set
right by kindness than by harshness^ For those who"
forgive are not only loved by the objects of their
clemency, who will therefore even strive to repay the
favour, but are also respected and revered by all the
rest, who will therefore not readily venture to harm
them ; those, on the other hand, who indulge in in- ,
exorable resentment are not only hated by those who
have something to fear, but are also disliked by all
the rest, and are in consequence even plotted against
by them in their desire to avoid meeting with
destruction first.

*^ Do you not observe that physicians very rarely
resort to surgery and cautery, desiring not to ag-
gravate their patients* maladies, but for the most
p>art seek to soothe diseases by the application of
fomentations and the milder drugs ? Do not think
that, because these ailments are affections of the
body while those we have to do with are affections
of the soul, there is any difference between them.
For also the minds of men, however incorporeal they
may be, are subject to a large number of ailments
which are comparable to those which visit their
bodies. Thus there is the withering of the mind
through fear and its swelling through passion; in
some cases pain lops it off and arrogance makes it
grow with conceit ; the disparity, therefore, between
mind and body being very slight, they accordingly


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3 \6yo^ T€ yap ^7r*o9 t^ Xex^cl^ irdv to dypialvov
avrov xaXa, Kaddirep Tpaxv^ erepo^ xal rb dvei-
fiivov opyi^er /cal avyyvdfirj hodelaa zeal rov
irdw dpaavv htaxel, KaOdirep rj TLfjxopLa koX tov
irdvv Trpfov 'xaXeiraiveL. al fiev yap ^iacoi irpd-
^€49 del TrdvTa<i, k&v SifcaioTaTac &ai, irapo^vv-

4 ovaiv, al Be eineiKel^ rjfiepov(ri. fcal Bid tovto
ireiadel^ dv t49 paov Kal rd BeivoTara ifcojv fj
^laaOel^ virofieiveiev, Kal ovtco ye <l>va'ei tipI
dvayxaia ifcdrepov avrcov %p^t£U, &ar€ Kal t<oi/

• dXoyeov ^cocov rtov fir]Biva vovv e-)(pvT(ov iroXKd
fiev Kal T&v taxvpordrcov Kal dyptcoTaTcov 0(0-
Treiai^ re tktl rcOaaeveTai Kal BeXedafiaai ^et-
povrai, iroWd Be Kal t&v BeiXordroDv Kal da-Be-
veaTarcov Xvirrffiaai re Kal <f>6^oc<; Kal eKra-
pdrrerai Kal irapo^vverat,
lo Jvat ov \,ey(D tovto otl dec iravTcov a7r\a)9 tcoi/

dBiKovvTODV <\>eLBe(Tdai, dX)C otl tov fiev iTtfv^
Kal TroXvTTpdyfjLOva Kal KaK0^6rj Kal KaKojSovkov
Kal dvrjKea-Tq) tlvI kclI BiapKel Trovrjpia avvovTa
eKKOTTTeiv &a7rep irov Kal Td irdvv dviaTa fieprj
2 T&v aco/JLdTCi}v, T&v Be Brj dXK(ov oaoi ti veoTijTi
7] dfiadia 'fj dyvoia ^ kol CTepa tivI avvTV^i^ oi
fiev €k6vt€^ oi Be Kal aKovTe^ dfiapTdvovaiv, tov9
fiev X07049 vovOeTeiv, tou9 Be direLXai^; aaxfypovi-
^eiv, T0U9 Be Kal CTepov Tiva Tpoirov jieTpL<o^ ir(o^
fi^Tax^tpi^eaOai, Kaddirep Kal iirl t&v BovXcov

* fi€V irviv Xiph., fitviTiiv M.


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require cures of a similar nature. Gentle words, for
example, cause all one's inflamed passion to subside,
just as harsh words in another case will stir to wrath
even the spirit which has been calmed ; and for-
giveness granted will melt even the utterly arrogant
man, just as punishment will incense even him who
is utterly mild. For acts of violence will always in
every instance, no matter how just they may be,
exasperate, while considerate treatment mollifies.
Hence it is that a man will more readily submit to .
the most terrible hardships — and gladly, too, — if he
has been persuaded, than if compulsion has been
put upon him. And so true it is that, in following '
both these courses, man is subject to a compelling
law of nature, that even among the irrational
animals, which have no intelligence, many of the
strongest and fiercest are tamed by petting and
subdued by allurements, while many even of the
most cowardly and weak are aroused to fury by acts
of cruelty which excite terror in them.

'^ I do not mean by this that we must spare all
wrongdoers without distinction, but that we must
cut off the headstrong man, the meddlesome, the
malicious, the trouble-maker, and the man within
whom there is an incurable and persistent depravity,
just as we treat the members of the body that are
quite beyond all healing. In the case of the rest, how-
ever, whose errors, committed wilfully or otherwise,
are due to youth or ignorance or misapprehension
or some other adventitious circumstance, we should
in some cases merely rebuke them with words, in
others bring them to their senses by threats, and in
still others apply some other form of moderate treat-
ment, just as in the case of slaves, who commit now


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aXKwv dfjLafyravovTcov aXXa^ tov9 fjbkv fiei^oa-i

3 TOv<; Se eKarrotn iravre^ KoXd^ovaip, &<tt€ fcal
Tct Kara tovtov<; aKCpBvvco^; ficTpid^eiv €^€(ni aoc,
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^rjfjLLOvvTi, €T€pov<; €9 X^P^^ iripov^ 69 7ro\€t9
Tiva^ KarartOefiivq),

" Kal fjBf] ye Tive<; Kal xnro rod fjurf rv^etv &v
fjXin^ov Kal virb tov SiafiapTeiv &v ej)ievTo e<T<o-

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&v fj TOLovTo Ti iradelv, i^ oiv tovtcdv eKetvoi^
fiev ovBev pacov 17 rifjieopia, dXXct fcal x^XeireoTepa
yiyvoiT av, rfpZv Be Bfj to fiijre riva eirrfyopiap

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TToXXoif^ fiev opyfj,^ iroXXoif^ Be iiriffv/ua XPV'
fidrcov, dXXov^ dvBpeia^ <f)6^q) xal fidXa dXXov<;
dperfj^ Tivo^ <f>dov(p KTeLveiv BoKovfiev, ovBel^
yap paBico^ iriarevec on Tt9 ev re i^ovaia
Kal ev Bvvdfiei ToaavTrj &v vtt' IBkotov rivb^
doTrXov* iin/SovXevdrjvai Bvvarai, d\V 01 fiev
ravra XoyoTroiovaLV, oi Be on ylrevBrj iroXXd
dKovofJuev fcal iroXXoi^ fJLdrrjv ox; xal dXrjOeai

6 irpoaexpfiev, rov^ ydp toi Biovrevovrd^ re xal
coTafcovtTTOvvTa^ ^ rd Toiavra, roif^ fikv e^Opa

^ 9o6\o)v &\\(i)y afiaprav6vr(ov 2(\Aa Capps, riWa afiapray^y-
Tdov R. Steph. , Zo6K(ov rifiwpiais Rk. , r^UXa M Xiph.

* TFoWohs fikv opy^ supplied by Bs. M shows a lacuna of
fourteen to sixteen letters.

^ A<{irAou R. Steph., iLv6irKov M Xiplfc.

* wraKovtrrovvras Xiph. and corrects ia M, itraxovir^ks. M,


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this and now that offence, all men impose greater
penalties upon some and lesser upon others. Hence,
so far as these political offenders are concerned, you
may employ moderation without danger, punishing
some by banishment, others by disfranchisement,
still others by a pecuniary fine, and another class
you may dispose of by placing some in confinement
in the country and others in certain cities.

^^ Experience has shown that men are brought to
their senses even by failing to obtain what they
hoped for and by being disappointed in the object
of their desires. Many men have been made better
by having assigned to them at the spectacles seats
which confer no honour, or by being appointed to
posts to which disgrace attaches, and also by being
offended or frightened in advance ; and yet a man of
high birth and spirit would sooner die than suffer
such humiliation. By such means their plans for
vengeance would be made no easier, but rather more
difficult, of accomplishment, while we on our part
should be able to avoid any reproach and also to live
in security. As things are now, people think that
we kill many through resentment, many through
lust for their money, others through fear of their
bravery and others actually through jealousy of their
virtues. For no one finds it easy to believe that a
ruler who possesses so great authority and power
can be the object of plotting on the part of an un-
armed person in private station, but some invent the
motives I have mentioned, and still others assert
that many false accusations come to our ears and
that we give heed to many idle rumours as if they
were true. Spies, they say, and eavesdroppers get
hold of such rumours, and then — ^actuated sometimes


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Toif<; Be ofyy^, aWov^ apyvpiov irapa r&v ixffp&P
avr&p Xa^ovra^i aXKov<; irap avrtav eKeivtov fjuri
\a/36vTa^, TToWA xal ylrevBij aKevcDpeia-Oai ^aaiv,
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i<l>0€y^aro rotovhe ri, 6 Bk aKOV<Ta^ itrcdirrjaev,
a\\o9 iyeKaaev, SXKo^ iBcLKpvaev.
19 *' Mvpia av toiovtot poira elirelv eyptpbi, a
el zeal ret /uLoXiara dXrjdij etrj, a\X* ovri ye fcal
TTpoarjKovrd iaTiv ovre iroXvTrparffjbovelaffai irap*
eKevdepot^ dvOpdiroi^ ovre aol Biar/yeXXeaffai.
XaOopra fxev yap ra rocavra ovBev av ae fiXd-
yfreiev, dfcovadivra Bk irapo^vveie Kal aKovra.

2 oirep fj/eiara y^pr] aXX6>9 t€ Ka\ ap^ovri tivcov
avfjbfialvecv. avxyoif^ yovv eic tovtov, tov^ fiev
uKpCrovf; T0U9 Be Kal iaKevcoprffievr) rivl Kara-
yv(0(T€L BiKaaTTjpiov, dBiKO)^ diroXXvaOav ttoWoI ^
vofd^ovaip' ovre yap ra^ fiapTvpia^ ovre tA?
^atrdvov^ ovt dXXo re t&v toiovtodv c!)9 fcaX

3 dX7]dh ov KOT avT&v irpoaUvrai. ravra yhp
ovra)^, el xal firj BiKaito^ eariv h avr&v, dXX^ em
TrdvTcov ye w? ^ elirelv t&v ovtco 0avaTOVfjL€va>v
OpvXelrai,. koL Bel ae, & Avyovare, fiif puovov
firjBev dBcKelv, dXXd firjBe Bofcetv, IBkott) fiev ykp
dpKel /irjBev TrXrjfip^Xelv, ap'XpVTt Be Bif irpoarjKei

4 pLTjBe BoKfjaiv riva avrov Xafifidveiv. dvOptmrtov
ydp, aXV ov Orjpicov 7]y€ fjLOV€V€t<%' Kal p^ovio^ &v

* woWol added by corrector in M, oin. Xipli.
2 &S Xiph. V, oi?i, M Xiph, C,


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by enmity and sometimes by resentment, in some
cases because they have received money from the
foes of their victims, in other cases because they
have received none from the victims themselves —
concoct many falsehoods, reporting not only that
such and such persons have committed some out-
rage or aTe intending to commit it, but even that
when so-and-so made such and such a remark, so-
and-so heard it and was silent, a second person
laughed, and a third burst into tears.

" I could cite innumerable instances of such a
kind, which, no matter how true they may be, are
surely not proper subjects for gentlemen to concern
themselves about or to be reported to you. Such
rumours, if ignored, would do you no harm, but if
listened to, would irritate you even against your
will ; and that is a thing by all means to be' avoided,
especially in one who rules over others. It is gener-
ally believed, at any rate, that many men are un-
justly put to death as the result of such a feeling,
some without a trial and others by a prearranged
conviction in court; for the people will not admit
that the testimony given or the statements made
under torture or any evidence of that nature is true
or suffices for the condemnation of the victims.
This is the sort of talk that does, in fact, go the
rounds, even though it is sometimes unjust, in the
case of practically all who are put to death by action
of the courts. And you^^Jkugustus, ought not only '
to avoid unjust action, but even the sus}>icion of it ;
for though it is sufficient for a person in private
station not to be guilty of wrongdoing, yet it behooves
a ruler to incur not even the suspicion of wrong-
doing. You are ruling over human beings, not wild


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ovTOD^ evvoelv aoi avrov^ aXr}d&^ 7rocija€ia<;, av
iravra'xpdev a<f>d^ xal Sta iravrcov ofioio}^ TTeiary^
ore fjLi]T€ ixcov Tipa firjTe d/ccov dScKi](T€L^^ <f>o-
fielaffai fikv yap rcva avayKaaOrjpai ti9 SvvaTat,

6 (fyiXeiv Se iretaOrfvai 6<f>eLKei,. TreiOerai Be i^ &v
av avTo^ T€ ei irddrj xal erepov^ evepyerovfievov^
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/niaetaOac vtto t&v dpxop£V(ov, irpo^ t^ pur^h^

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dvayKalov elvat irdvTa^ tov9 /cal otlovv dhitcq-
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p>7JT€ ix TovTOV '7rX€0V€KTa)VTai, Toif^ S' dpxpPTa^;
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<l>€p€iv pLTfTe yhp €K KaTaj>povri<T€a>^ p^tjT i^
€7nBpop,rj<; dBiKrjdrjvai <T^a^ hvvaarOat Sia to
iroXXa TCL Trpo<f>v\d<TaovTa avT0v<: elvai,
^0 '*"Oo*T€ €7a)7€ TavTa tc dKovovaa koX irpo^
javTa dirofiXeTTOvaa kivBvp€v<o Kal iravTeXw
aTreLTrelv aoi p/qheva hid toiovto tl diroKTipvvvau

2 at T€ yap irpoaT atrial iirL t€ ttj t&p dp^op^tov
acoTfjpia Ka0i<TTavTai, ottcw? p^rjBiv pJiS" vtt aXKij-
Xmv p.'qft virh tS)v dXKo^vXtov ^XdirrtovTai, ov
pud Aia ovx otto)? vtt avTa>v i/ceipayp ti Xvir&PTai'

^ iSiicfifffts flor., adiitfivrns M, itBiicriirtlas &y Xiph.

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beasts, and the only way you can make them truly a
well disposed toward you is by convincing them,
by every means and on every occasion consistently,
that you will wrong no one, either purposely or un-
wittingly. A man can be compelled to fear another, {
but he ought to be persuaded to love him ; and he
is persuaded not only by the good treatment he
himself receives, but also by the benefits he sees con-
ferred on others. The man, however, who suspects
that a certain person has been put to death unjustly
both fears that he may some day meet a like fate
and is compelled to hate the one who is responsible
for the deed. And to be hated by one's subjects, ^
quite apart from its being deplorable in general, is
also exceedingly unprofitable. For most people
feel that, although all other men must defend them-
selves against all who wrong them in any way or else
become objects of contempt and so be oppressed,
yet rul ers ought to prosecute only those ^ who wroog
the state, tolerating those who are supposed to be
committing oflTences against them privately ; liilers,
they reason, can not themselves be harmed either
by contempt or by direct attack, inasmuch as there
are many instrumentalities which protect them from

" I, therefore, when I hear such considerations j
advanced and turn my thoughts to them, am inclined
to go so far as to urge you to give up altogether the
inflicting of the death penalty in any case for reasons
of this kind. For the office of ruler has been estab- *
lished for the preservation of the governed, to
prevent them from being injured either by one an-
other or by foreign peoples, and not for a moment
that they may be harmed by the rulers themselves ;


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1 ? R. Steph., ^v M.

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and the greatest glory is gained, not by putting j a.d. 4
many citizens to death, but by being in a position to \
save them all, if that be possible. We must educate '
the citizens by means of laws and benefits and
admonitions, in order that they may be right-
minded, and furthermore, we must watch over them
and guard them, in order that, even if they wish to
do wrong, they may not be able to do so; and if
there is any ailment among them, we must find some
way to cure it and correct it, in order that the ailing
member may not be utterly destroyed. To endure j
the offences of the multitude is a task demanding at i
once great prudence and great power; but if any 1
one is going to punish them all without distinction
as they deserve, before he knows it he will have
destroyed the majority of mankind. Hence and for {
these reasons I give you my opinion to the effect \
that you should not inflict the death penalty upon ^
any man for such offences, but should rather bring
them to their senses in some other way, so that they
will not in future commit any crime. What wrong-
doing, indeed, could a man indulge in who is shut up
on an island, or in the country, or in some city, not
only deprived of a throng of servants and a supply
of money, but also under guard, in case this, too,
is necessary ? Of course, if the enemy were any-
where near here or if some part of our sea belonged

Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 31 of 35)