Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 32 of 35)
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to a foreign power, so that one or another of the
prisoners might escape to them and do us some
harm, or if> again, there were strong cities in Italy
with fortifications and armed forces, so that if a man
seized them, he might become a menace to us, that
would be a different story. But in fact all the
places here are unarmed and without walls that


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* KaraK€K\€ifi4vovs Dind., KaraK^KKtifffityous M Xiph.

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* iiv added by corrector of M (in margin), ora. Xiph. flor.


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would be of any value in war, and our enemies are a.d. 4
separated from them by an immense distance ; much
sea and much land, including mountains and rivers
hard to cross, lie between them and us. Why, then,
should one fear this man or that, defenceless men
in private station, here in the middle of your empire
and hemmed in by your armed forces? For my
part, I do not believe that any one could conceive
any such plot as I have mentioned, or that the
veriest madman could accomplish anjrthing by it.

" Let us make the experiment, therefore, beginning
with these very men. Perhaps they may not only ^
be reformed themselves, but also make others better ;
for you see that Cornelius is both of good birth and
famous, and we ought, I presume, to take human
nature into account in reasoning out such matters
also. The sword, surely, can not accomplish every- 1
thing for y ou,— ^^ wouTd^ indeed be a great boon if it
coulH^ bring men to their senses and persuade them
or even compel them to love a ruler with genuine
affection, — but instead, while it will destroy the body
of one man, it Wflt' alienate the minds of the rest.
For people do not become more attached to any one
because of the vengeance they see meted out to
others, but they beome more hostile because of their
fears. So much for that side ; but as for those who
are treated in a forgiving spirit, they not only repent,
because they are ashamed to wrong their benefactors
again, but also repay them with many services,
hoping to receive still further kindnesses ; for when
a man has been spared by one who has been wronged,
he believes that his rescuer, if fairly treated, will go

« ivT* c3 velffiffdai Dind., ivrewirf /<r«<reai Rk. , iivdvirol<r€a0ai
M Xiph.


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/licraiSaXoD Xiph., fitraPdWov M.
* &w49«t^€ M Xiph. , xpoaairtBti^tp Zon.

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to any lengths in his benefactions. Heed me, there- a.d. 4
fore, dearest, and change your course ; if you do, all
your other acts that have caused displeasure will be
thought to have been dictated by necessity, — indeed,
it is impossible for a man to guide so great a city
from democracy to monarchy and make the change
without bloodshed, — ^but if you continue in your old
policy, you will be thought to have done these un-
pleasant things deliberately."

Augustus heeded these suggestions of Livia and , .
released all the accused with some words of , ' >
admonition ; and he even appointed Cornelius con- ,
sul. As a result of this course he so conciliated
both him and the other persons so treated that ;
neither they nor any one of the rest thereafter either
actually plotted against him or was suspected of /
doing so. It was rather Livia herself, who was
chiefly responsible for saving the life of Cornelius,
that was to be charged with plotting the death of

At this time, in the consulship of Cornelius and a.d. 5
Valerius Messalla, violent earthquakes occurred and
the Tiber carried away the bridge and made the city
navigable for seven days ; there was also a partial
eclipse of the sun, and famine set in. This same
year Agrippa was enrolled among the youths of
military age, but obtained none of the same
privileges as his brothers. The senators witnessed
the Circensian games separately and the knights also
separately from the remainder of the populace, as is
the case to-day also. And since the noblest families
did not show themselves inclined to give their
daughters to be priestesses of Vesta, a law was
passed that the daughters of freedmen might like-


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^ i€paa0cu R. Steph., hpuadai M.

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• Avyoivrttov Xiph., uvyoiariot M (and similarly just below).


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wise become priestesses. Many vied for the honour, i a.d.
and so they drew lots in the senate in the presence
of their fathers, so far as these were knights ; how-
ever, no priestess was appointed from this class.

The soldiers were sorely displeased at the paltry

character of the rewards given them for the wars

which had been waged at this time and none of them

consented to bear arms for longer than the regular

period of his service. It was therefore voted that

twenty thousand sesterces should be given to members

of the pretorian guard when they had served sixteen

years, and twelve thousand to the other soldiers when

they had served twenty years. Twenty-three, or, as

others say, twenty-five, legions of citizen soldiers

were being supported at this time.^ At present only

nineteen of them still exist, as follows : the Second

(Augusta), with its winter quarters in Upper Britain ;

the three Thirds — the Gallica in Phoenicia, the

Cyrenaica in Arabia, and the Augusta in Numidia ;

the Fourth (Scythica) in Syria ; the Fifth (Macedonica)

in Dacia ; the two Sixths, of which the one (Victrix)

is stationed in Lower Britain, the other (Ferrata) in

Judaea ; the Seventh (generally called Claudia ^) in

Upper Moesia; the Eighth (Augusta) in Upper

Germany ; the two Tenths in upper Pannonia

(Gemina) and in Judaea ; the Eleventh (Claudia) in

^ The confusion is due to the fact that after the defeat of
Varus there were but twenty-three legions left (out of
twenty-six) ; but Augustus later increased the number to

2 Cf. Ix. 15, 4.

* otR. Steph., eiMXiph.
» ot T«Xiph., 0/56M.

• ^Karot iKdrepoL Reim., ScKcircpoi M, UKaroi Xiph.


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Lower Moesia (for two legions were thus named after a.d. 5
Claudius because they had not fought against him in
the rebellion of Camillus ^) ; the Twelfth (Fulminata)
in Cappadocia; the Thirteenth (Gemina) in Dacia;
the Fourteenth (Gemina) in Upper Pannonia; the
Fifteenth (Apollinaris) in Cappadocia ; the Twentieth
(called both Valeria and Victrix) in Upper Britain.
These latter, I believe, were the troops which Augustus
took over and retained, along with those called
the Twenty-second who are quartered in Germany,^
— and this in spite of the fact that they were by
no means called Valerians by all and do not use
that name any longer. These are the legions that
still remain out of those of Augustus ; of the rest,
some were disbanded altogether, and others were
merged with various legions by Augustus himself
and by other emperors, in consequence of which such
legions have come to bear the name Gemina.

Now that I have once been led into giving an
account of the legions, I shall speak of the other
legions also which exist to-day and tell of their
enlistment by the emperors subsequent to Augustus,
my purpose being that, if any one desires to learn
about them, the statement of all the facts in a single
portion of my book may provide him easily with the
information. Nero organized the First Legion,
called the Italica, which has its winter quarters in

1 Cf. Ix. 15, 4.

2 Dio is in error here ; the Twenty-second (Primigenia)
was organized by Claudius and therefore should be in the list
of later legions given in chap. 24.


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1 TABk.,TiM.

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Lower Moesia; Galba the First (Adiutrix), with a.d. 5
quarters in Lower Pannonia^ and the Seventh
(Gemina), in Spain ; Vespasian the Second (Adiutrix),
in Lower Pannonia, the Fourth (Flavia), in Upper
Moesia, and the Sixteenth (Flavia), in Syria;
Domitian the First (Minervia), in Lower Germany ;
Trajan the Second (Aegyptia) and the Thirtieth
(Germanica), both of which he also named after
himself ; ^ Marcus Antoninus the Second, in Noricum,
and the Third, in Rhaetia, both of which are called
Italica ; and Severus the Parthicae — ^the First and
Third, quartered in Mesopotamia, and the Second,
quartered in Italy.

This is at present the number of the legions of
regularly enrolled troops, exclusive of the city cohorts
and the pretorian guard ; but at that time, in the
days of Augustus, those I have mentioned were
being maintained, whether the number is twenty-
three or twenty-five, and there were also allied forces
of infantry, cavaliy, and sailors, whatever their
numbers may have been (for I can not state the
exact figures). Then there were the body-guards,
ten thousand in number and organized in ten
divisions, and the watchmen of the city, six thousand
in number and organized in four divisions ; and there
were also picked foreign horsemen, who were given
the name of Batavians, after the island of Batavia in
the Rhine, inasmuch as the Batavians are excellent
horsemen. I can not, however, give their exact
number any more than I can that of the Evocati.^
These last-named Augustus began to make a practice
of employing from the time when he called again

1 The Second was called Traiana and the Thirtieth Ulpia.
* That is, the " Recalled." Cf, xlv. 12, 3.


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^ atlvtfiv Dind., h^ivov M.

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into service against Antony the troops who had
served with his father^ and he maintained them
afterwards ; they constitute even now a special corps,
and carry rods, like the centurions.

Now Augustus lacked funds for all these troops,
and therefore he introduced a proposal in the senate
that revenues in sufficient amount and continuing
from year to year should be set aside, in order that
the soldiers might receive without stint from the
taxes levied their maintenance and bonuses without
any outside source being put to annoyance. The
means for such a fund were accordingly sought.
Now when no one showed a willingness to become
aedile, some men from the ranks of the ex-quaestors
and ex-tribunes were compelled by lot to take the
office — a thing which happened on many other
occasions.^ After this, in the consulship of Aemilius
Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius, when no revenues for
the military fund were being discovered that suited
anybody, but absolutely everybody was vexed because
such an attempt was even being made, Augustus in
the name of himself and of Tiberius placed money in
the treasury which he called the military treasury,^
and commanded that three of the ex-praetors, to be
chosen by lot, should administer it for three years,
emplojdng two lictors apiece and such further as-
sistance as was fitting. This method was followed
with the successive incumbents of the office for
many years ; but at present they are chosen by the
emperor and they go about without lictors. Now
Augustus made a contribution himself toward the
fund and promised to do so annually, and he also

1 Cf. xlix. 16, 2; Hii. 2, 2; liv. 11, 1.
' Aerarmm mUitare,


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accepted voluntary contributions from kings and a.d. o
certain communities; but he took nothing from
private citizens^ although a considerable number
made offers of their own free will, as they at least
alleged. But as all this proved very slight in com-
parison with the amount being spent and there was
need of some permanent supply, he ordered each one
of the senators to seek out sources of revenue, each
independently of the others, to write them in books,
and give them to him to consider. This was not be-
cause he had no plan of his own, but as the most
certain means of persuading them to choose the plan
he preferred. At all events, when different men
had proposed different schemes, he approved none of
them, but established the tax of five per cent, on the
inheritances and bequests which should be left by
people at their death to any except very near
relatives or very poor persons, representing that he
had found this tax set down in Caesar's memoranda.
It was, in fact, a method which had been introduced
once before, but had been abolished later, and was
now revived. In this way, then, he increased the
revenues ; as for the expenditures, he employed three
ex-consuls, chosen by lot, by whose help he reduced
some of them and altogether abolished others. i

This was not the only source of trouble to the ?

Romans; for there was also a severe famine. In >

consequence of this, the gladiators, and the slaves v

who were for sale, were banished to a distance of | j

one hundred miles, Augustus and the other officials
dismissed the greater part of their retinues, a recess
of the courts was taken, and senators were permitted
to leave the city and to proceed wherever they
pleased. And in order that their absence might not


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Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 32 of 35)