Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

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the reasons I have mentioned. ^ To be sure, there
were still under arms the Treveri, who had brought
in the Germans to help them, and the Cantabri, the
Vaccaei, and the Astures, — ^the three last-named of
whom were later subjugated by Statilius Taurus, and
the former by Nonius Gallus, — and there were also
numerous other disturbances going on in various
regions; yet inasmuch as nothing of importcmce
resulted from them, the Romans at the time did not
consider that they were engaged in war, nor have I,
for my part, an3rthing notable to record about them.
Caesar, meanwhile, besides attending to the gene-
ral business, gave permission for the dedication of
sacred precincts in Ephesus and in Nicaea to Rome
and to Caesar, his father, whom he named the hero
Julius.2 These cities had at that time attained chief
place in Asia and in Bithynia respectively. He
commanded that the Romans resident in these cities
should pay honour to these two divinities ; but he
permitted the aliens, whom he styled Hellenes, to
consecrate precincts to himself, the Asians to have
theirs in Pergamum and the Bithynians theirs in
Nicomedia. This practice, beginning under him, has
been continued under other emperors, not only in
the case of the Hellenic nations but also in that of
all the others, in so far as they are subject to the
Romans. For in the capital itself and in Italy

1 Cf. xxxvii. 24. * ».«. Divus Julius.


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1 Cf. chap. 1, 2. a cf . chap. 20, 3.

' In earlier times it had been customary, when a general

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generally no emperor, however worthy of renown he
has been, has dared to do this; still, even there
various divine honours are bestowed after their death
upon such emperors as have ruled uprightly, and, in
fact, shrines are built to them.

All this took place in the winter; and the Per-
gamenians also received authority to hold the
" sacred " games, as they called them, in honour of
Caesar's temple.^ In the course of the summer
Caesar crossed over to Greece and to Italy ; and
when he entered the city, not only all the citizens
offered sacrifice, as has been mentioned,* but even
the consul Valerius Potitus. Caesar, to be sure, was
consul all that year as for the two preceding years,
but Potitus was the successor of Sextus. It was he
who publicly and in person offered sacrifices in behalf
of the senate and of the people upon Caesar s arrival,
a thing that had never before been done in the case
of any other person. After this Caesar bestowed
eulogies and honours upon his lieutenants, as was
customary, and to Agrippa he further granted, among
other distinctions, a dark blue flag in honour of his
naval victory, and he gave gifts to the soldiers ; to
th^jjeqple he distpbuted- fiouT hundred sesterces
agiece, first to the men who were adults, and after-
wards to the children because of his nephew Mar-
cellus. In view of all this, and because he would not
accept from the cities of Italy the gold required for
the crowns ^ they had voted him, and because,

won a triumph, for the cities of his province to send gold
crowns, which were carried before him in the triumphal pro-
cession. By Cicero's time it was a common practice to send,
instead of the crowns themselves, their value in money
{aureum cor<marium) ; and this was now regarded as a form
of tribute.


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furthermore^ he not only paid all the debts he himself &c. 29
owed to others^ as has been stated^^ but also did not
insist on the payment of others' debts to him^ the
Romans forgot all their unpleasant experiences and .
viewed his triumph with pleasure, quite as if the
vanquished had all been foreigners. So vast an ;
amount of money, in fact, circulated through all parts '
of the city alike, that the price of goods rose and
loans for which the borrower had been glad to pay
twelve per cent, could now be had for one third that
rate. As for the triumph, Caesar celebrated on the
first day his victories over the Pannonians and Dal-
matians, the lapydes and their neighbours, and some
Germans and Gauls. For Grains Carrinas had sub-
dued the Morini and others who had revolted with
them^ and had repulsed the Suebi, who had crossed the
Rhine to wage war. Not only did Carrinas, therefore,
celebrate the triumph, — and that notwithstanding
that his father had been put to death by Sulla and
that he himself along with the others in like con-
dition had once been debarred from holding office, —
but Caesar also celebrated it, since the credit of the
victory properly belonged to his position as supreme
commander. This was the first day's celebration.
On the second day the naval victory at Actium was
commemorated, and on the third the subjugation of
Egypt. Now all the processions proved notable,
thmiks to the spoils from Egypt, — in such quantities,
indeed, had spoils been gathered there that they
sufficed for all the processions, — but the E^ptian
celebraticm surpassed them all in costliness ana mag-
nificence. Among other features, an effigy of the
dead Cleopatra upon a couch was carried by, so that

1 Cf. chap. 17, 8.


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in a way she, too, together with the other captives b.c. 29
and with her children, Alexander, called also Helios,
and Cleopatra, called also Selene, was a part of the
spectacle and a trophy in the procession. After
this came Caesar, riding into the city behind them
all. He did everything in the customary manner,
except that he permitted his fellow-consul and the
other magistrates, contrary to precedent, to follow
him along with the senators who had participated in
the victory; for it was usual for such officials to
march in advance and for only the senators to

After finishing this celebration Caesar dedicated
the temple of Minerva, called also the Chalcidicum,
and the Curia lulia, which had been built in honour
of his father. In the latter he set up the statue of
Victory which is still in existence, thus signifying
probably that it was from her that he had received the
empire. It had belonged to the people of Tarentum,
whence it was now brought to Rome, placed in the
senate-chamber, and decked with the spoils of Egypt.
The same course was followed in the case of the
shrine of Julius which was consecrated at this time,
for many of these spoils were placed in it also ; and
others were dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus and to
Juno and Minerva, after all the objects in these
temples which were supposed to have been placed
there previously as dedications, or were actually
dedications, had by decree been taken down at this
time as defiled. Thus Cleopatra, though defeated and
captured, was nevertheless glorified, inasmuch as her

^ The cnstom was for the magistrates to issue from the
city to meet the victorious general, and then to turn and
march ahead of him. Octavius, b^ putting them behind him,
symbolized his position as chief citizen of the state.


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adornments repose as dedications in our temples and d.c. 20
she herself is seen in gold in the shrine of Venus.

At the consecration of the shrine to Julius there
were all kinds of contests^ and the boys of the
patricians performed the equestrian exercise called
*' Troy," and men of the same rank contended with
chargers, with pairs, and with four-horse teams;
furthermore, one Quintus Yitellius, a senator, fought
as a gladiator. Wild beasts and tame animals were
slain in vast numbers, among them a rhinoceros and
a hippopotamus, beasts then seen for the first time
in Rome. As regards the nature of the hippopotamus,
it has been described by many and far more have
seen it. The rhinoceros, on the other hand, is in
general somewhat like an elephant, but it has also a
horn on its very nose and has got its name because of
this. These beasts, accordingly, were brought in, and
moreover Dacians and Suebi fought in crowds with
one another. The latter are Germans, the former
Sc3rthians of a sort. The Suebi, to be exact, dwell
beyond the Rhine (though many people elsewhere
claim their name), and the Dacians on both sides of
the Ister ; those of the latter, however, who live on
this side of the river near the country of the Triballi
are reckoned in with the district of Moesia and are
called Moesians, except by those living in the
immediate neighbourhood, while those on the other
side are called Dacians and are either a branch of
the Getae or Thracians belonging to the Dacian race
that once inhabited Rhodope. Now these Dacians
had before this time sent envoys to Caesar ; but



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when they obtained none of their requests, they went b.c. 29
over to Antony. They proved of no great assistance
to him, however, owing to strife among themselves,
and some who were afterwards captured were now
matched against the Suebi. The whole spectacle
lasted many days, as one would expect, and there
was no interruption, even though Caesar fell ill, but
it was carried on in his absence under the direction
of others. On one of the days of this celebration
the senators gave banquets in the vestibules of their
several homes ; but what the occasion was for their
doing this, I do not know, since it is not recorded.

These were the events of those days. And while
Caesar was still in his fourth consulship, Statilius
Taurus both constructed at his own expense and
dedicated with a gladiatorial combat a hunting-
theatre of stone ^ in the Campus Martius. Because
of this he was permitted by the people to choose one
of the praetors each year.

During the same period in which these events
occurred Marcus Crassus was sent into Macedonia and
Greece and carried on war with the Dacians and
Bastamae. I have already stated who the former were
and why they had become hostile ; the Bastamae, on
the other hand, who are properly classed as Scythians,
had at this time crossed the Ister and subdued the
part of Moesia opposite them, and afterwards sub-
dued the Triballi who adjoin this district and the
Dardani who inhabit the Triballian country. And as
long as they were thus engaged, they had no trouble
^ This was the first stone amphitheatre in Rome.


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* V omits from here to ireCohs in chap. 2d, 1, without
indicating a lacuna.


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with the Romans; but when they crossed Haemus
and overran the part of Thrace belonging to the
Dentheleti, which was under treaty with the Romans^
then CrassuSj partly to defend Sitas, king of the
Dentheleti, who was blind, but chiefly out of fear for
Macedonia, went out to meet them. By his mere
approach he threw them into a panic and drove them
from the country without a battle. Next he pursued
them as they were retiring homeward, gained pos-
session of the region called Segetica, and invading
Moesia, ravaged the country and made an assault upon
one of the strongholds. Then, although his advance
line met with a repulse when the Moesians, thinking
it an isolated force, made a sortie, nevertheless, when
he reinforced it with his whole remaining army, he
hurled the enemy back and besieged and destroyed
the place. While he was accomplishing this, the
Bastamae checked their flight and halted near the
Cedrus ^ river to observe what would take place. And
when, after conquering the Moesians, Crassus set out
against them also, they sent envoys bidding him not
to pursue them, since they had done the Romans no
harm. Crassus detained the envoys, on the plea that
he would give them their answer the following day,
treated them kindly in various ways, and made them
drunk, so that he learned all their plans ; for the
whole Scythian race is insatiable in the use of wine
and quickly becomes sodden with it. Meanwhile
Crassus moved forward into a forest during the night,
stationed scouts in front of it, and halted his army

^ The spelling is uncertain ; the forms Cebrus, Cibrus, and

Ciabrus are also found. Now the Tzibritza. ,


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there. Then, when the Bastamae, in the belief that b.c. 29
the scouts were all alone, rushed to attack them and
pursued them as they retreated into the thick of the
forest, he destroyed many of them on the spot and
many others in the rout which followed. For not
only were they hindered by their waggons, which
were in their rear, but their desire to save their
wives and children was also instrumental in their
defeat. Crassus himself slew their king Deldo and
would have dedicated his armour as spolia opima to
Jupiter Feretrius had he been general in supreme
command. Such was the nature of this engage-
ment. As for the remainder of the Bastarnae, some
perished by taking refuge in a grove, which was
then set on fire on all sides, and others by rushing

Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 5 of 35)