Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 6 of 35)
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into a fort, in which they were annihilated ; still
others were destroyed by leaping into the Ister,
or as they were scattered here and there through
the country. But some survived even so and
seized a strong position, where Crassus besieged
them in vain for several days. Then with the aid
of Roles, king of a tribe of the Getae, he destroyed
them. Now Roles, when he visited Caesar, was
treated as his friend and ally because of this ser-
vice ; and the captives were distributed among the

After accomplishing this task Crassus turned his
attention to the Moesians ; and partly by persuasion
in some cases, partly by terrifjdng them, partly also
by applying force, he subdued all except a very few,
though only after great hardships and dangers. And
for the time being, since it was winter, he retired
into friendly territory, after suffering greatly from


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the cold and much more still at the hands of the b.c. 29
Thracians^ through whose country he was returning
in the belief that it was friendly. Hence he de-
cided to be content with what he had already
accomplished. For sacrifices and a triumph had
been voted, not only to Caesar, but to him also ;
nevertheless^ he did not receive the title of imperator,
as some report, but Caesar alone assumed it. The
Bastamae, now, angered at their disasters and
learning that he would make no further campaigns
against them, turned again upon the Dentheleti and
Sitas, whom they regarded as having been the chief
cause of their evils. Thus it came about that Crassus
reluctantly took the field; and falling upcm them
unexpectedly after advancing by forced marches, he
ccmquered them and imposed such terms of peace as
he pleased. And now that he had once taken up
arms again, he conceived a desire to punish the
Thracians who had harassed him during his return
from Moesia ; for it was reported at this time that
they were fortifying positions and were eager for war.
He succeeded in subduing some of them, namely
the Maedi and the Serdi, though not without difficulty,
by conquering them in battle and cutting off the
hands of the captives ; and he overran the rest of the
country except the territory of the Odrysae. These
he spared because they are attached to the service
of Dionysus, and had come to meet him on this
occasion without their arms; and he also granted
them the land in which they magnify the god,
taking it away from the Bessi who were occupy-
ing it.

While he was thus engaged. Roles, who had
become embroiled with Dapyx, himself also king of


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a tribe of the Getae, sent for him. Crassus went to
his aid^ and by hurling the horse of his opponents
back upon their infantry he so thoroughly terrified
the latter also that what followed was no longer a
battle but a great slaughter of fleeing men of both
arms. Next he cut off Dapyx, who had taken refuge
in a fort, and besieged him. In the course of the
siege someone hailed him from the walls in Greek,
obtained a conference with him, and arranged to
betray the place. The barbarians, thus captured,
turned upon one another, and Dapyx was killed
along with many others. His brother, however,
Crassus took alive, and not only did him no harm but
actually released him.

After finishing this campaign Crassus led his troops
against the cave called Ciris. For the natives in great
numbers had occupied this cave, which is extremely
large and so capable of defence that the tradition
obtains that the Titans took refuge there after their
defeat suffered at the hands of the gods ; and here
they had brought together all their Herds and their
other most cherished belongings. Crassus first sought
out all the entrances to the cave, which are tortuous
and difficult to discover, walled them up, and in this
way subdued the men by famine. After this success
he did not leave in peace the rest of the Getae, either,
even though they had no connexion with Dapyx,
but he marched upon Genncla, the most strongly
defended fortress of the kingdom of Zyraxes, because
he heard that the standards which the Bastamae
had taken from Gains Antonius ^ near the city of the
Istrians were there. His assault was made both by

» Cf, xxxviii. 10.


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land and from the Ister (the city is built upon
the river), and in a short time, though with much
toil, despite the absence of Zy raxes, he took the place.
The king, it seems, as soon as he heard of the
Romans' approach, had set off with money to the
Scythians to seek an alliance, and had not returned
in time.

These were his achievements among the Getae.
And when some of the Moesians who had been sub-
dued rose in revolt, he won them back by the aid
of lieutenants, while he himself made a campaign
against the Artacii and a few other l^bes who had
never been captured and would not acknowledge his
authority, priding themselves greatly upon this point
and at the same time inspiring in the others both
anger and a disposition to rebel. He brought them
to ternas, partly by force, after they had made no
little trouble, and partly by fear for their countrymen
who were being captured.

All these operations took a long time ; but the
facts I record, as well as the names, are in accord-
ance with the tradition which has been handed down.
In ancient times, it is true, Moesians and Getae occu-
pied all the land between Haemus and the Ister;
but as time went on some of them changed their
names> and since then there have been included
under the name of Moesia all the tribes living above
Dalmatia, Macedonia, and Thrace, and separated from
Pannonia by the Savus, a tributary of the Ister.
Two of the many tribes found among them are those
formerly called the Triballi, and the Dardani, who still
retain their old name.


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* Koi supplied by R. Steph.
^ &irov\€iov iiroT€/os M, om, V.


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The following is contained in the Fifty -second of Dio*8
Rome: —

How Caesar planned to lay aside his sovereignty (chaps.

How he began to be called emperor (chap. 42).

Duration of time, the remainder of the consulship of
Caesar (V) and Sextus Apuleius. (b.o. 29.)

Such were the achievements of the Romans and b.c. 29
such their sufferings under the kingship^ under the
republic, and under the dominion of a few, during a
period of seven hundred and twenty-five years.
After this they reverted to what was, strictly
' speaking, a monarchy, although Caesar planned to .
lay down his arms and to entrust the management
of the state to the senate and the people. He made
his decision, however, in consultation with Agrippa
and Maecenas, to whom he was wont to communicate
all his secret plans; and Agrippa, taking the lead,
spoke as follows : "

" Be not surprised, Caesar, if I shall try to turn
your thoughts away from monarchy, even though I
should derive many advantages from it, at least if it
was you who held the position. For if it were to be
profitable to you also, I should advocate it most
earnestly ; but since the privileges of a monarchy


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* h.v supplied by St.

* ^vxns Rk., rlxni VM.


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are by no means the same for the rulers as for their b.c. 29
friends^ but, on the contrary, jealousies and dangers
fall to the lot of the rulers while their friends reap,
without incurring either jealousies or dangers, all the
benefits they can wish for, I have thought it right,
in this question as in all others, to have regard, not
for my own interests, but for yours and the state's.

"Let us consider, now, at our leisure all the
characteristics of this system of government and
then shape our course in whichever direction our
reasoning may lead us. For surely no one will assert
that we are obliged to choose monarchy in any and
all circumstances, even if it be not profitable. If we
choose it, people will think that we have fallen
victims to our own good fortune and have been bereft
of our senses by our successes, or else that we have
been aiming at sovereignty all the while, making of
our appeals to your father and of our devotion to his
memory a mere pretext and using the people and the
senate as a cloak, with the purpose, not of freeing
these latter from those who plotted against them,
but of making them slaves to ourselves. And either
explanation involves censure for us. For who could
help being indignant when he finds that we have
said one thing and then discovers that we have
meant another ? Would he not hate us much more
now than if we had at the outset laid bare our desires
and set out directly for the monarchy ? To be sure,
men have come to believe that it somehow is an
attribute of human nature, however selfish that may
seem, to resort to deeds of violence ; for every one
who excels in any respect thinks it right that he
should have more than his inferior, and if he meets
with any success, he ascribes his success to the force


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of his own intelligence, whereas if he fails, he lays B.a 29
the blame for his failure upon the influence of the
divine will. But, on the other hand, the man who,
in following such a course, resorts to plotting and
villainy, is, in the first place, held to be crafty and
crooked, malicious, and depraved, — an opinion which
I know you would not allow anyone to express or to
entertain about you, even if you might rule the
whole world by such practices; and, in the second
place, if he succeeds, men think that the advantage
he has gained is unjust, or if he fails, that his dis-
comfiture is merited. This being the case, men
would reproach us quite as much if we should now,
after the event, begin to covet that advantage, even
though we harboured no such intention at the outset.
For surely it is much worse for men to let circum-
stances get the better of them and not only to fail
to hold themselves in check but to abuse the gifts of
Fortune, than to wrong others in consequence of
failure. For men who have failed are often compelled
by their very misfortunes to commit wrongs even
against their wdll m order to meet the demands of
their own interests, whereas the others voluntarily
abandon their self-control even when it is unprofitable
to do so. And when men have no straightforwardness
in their souls, and are incapable of moderation in
dealing with the blessings bestowed upon them, how
could one expect them either to rule well over others
or to conduct themselves properly in adversity ? In
the conviction, therefore, that we are guilty of
neither of these shortcomings, and that we have no
desire to act irrationally, but that we shall choose
whatever course shall appear to us after deliberation
to be best, let us proceed to make our decision


o 2

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avTov TToiTjacio/jLeda. Xe^ay Se fiera Trapprjaia^*
ovT€ yap avro^ aWax; av tl eiirelv Bvvaifirjv, ovie
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4 " 'H fikv Toivvv iaovo/jLia to re rrpoa-prj/jui evd-
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2 Sevfievov^, fcal Koivffv koI rr)v r&v aayfidrcov /cal
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rovaa S^ a^Oerai' /cal rb dvdpcoTreLov trav, are
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5 fiefiiarjfievov. dp^eiv re yap irdvres d^iovai, /cal
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/cat irXeove/crelaOai ovk eOeXova-it koL Bud rovro
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^ Kotvh. Rk., Ka\ KOivh VM.


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accordingly. I shall speak quite frankly, for I could b.c. 29
not, for my part, speak otherwise, and 1 know you
too well to think that you like to listen to falsehood
mingled with flattery.

" Equality before the law has an auspicious name
and is most just in its workings. For in the case of
men who are endowed with the same nature, are of
the same race with one another, have been brought
up under the same institutions, have been trained in
laws that are alike, and yield in an equal degree the
service of their bodies and of their minds to their
country, is it not just that they should have an equal
share in all other things also, and is it not best that
they should secure no distinctions except as the
result of excellence ? For equality of birth demands
equality of privilege, and if it attains this object, it is
glad, but if it fails, it is displeased. And the human
race everywhere, sprung as it is from the gods and
destined to return to the gods, gazes upward and is
not content to be ruled forever by the same person,
nor will it endure to share in the toils, the dangers,
and the expenditures and yet be deprived of partner-
ship in the better things. Or, if it is forced to sub-
mit to anything of the sort, it hates the power which
has applied coercion, and if it obtains an opportunity,
takes vengeance upon what it hates. All men, of
course, claim the right to rule, and for this reason
submit to being ruled in turn ; they are unwilling to
have others overreach them, and therefore are not
obliged, on their part, to overreach others. They are
pleased with the honours bestowed upon them by
their equals, and approve of the penalties inflicted
upon them by the laws. Now if they live under this
kind of polity and regard the blessings and also the

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Tat9 Tvpawiai irdvra rdvavria avfi/Saivei, Kal
ra pkv iroXkh tL Bel /njKvveiv TiAyovra; to Bk Brf
KctfydXaiov, 'X^prjarov pkv ovBeh oifSkv ovt elBivai
oijT €X€tv BoKeiv /SovXerac {Trokifiiov yap avT^

Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 6 of 35)