Cassius Dio Cocceianus.

Dio's Roman history, with an English translation online

. (page 9 of 35)
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inl-eaching "oiit after the primacy and hiring the
weaker, turn eveiything upside down, — but they
have been most frequent in our country, and there
is no other way to put a stop to them than the way
I propose. And the evidence is, that we have now
for a long time been engaged in wars and civil strife.
The cause is the multitude of our population and
the magnitude of the business of our government ;
for the population embraces men of every kind, in
respect both to race and to endowment, and both
their tempers and their desires are manifold ; and
the business of the state has become so vast
that it can be administered only with the greatest

*' Witness to the truth of my words is borne by our
past. For while we were but few in number and
differed in no important respect from our neighbours,
we got along well with our government and subjugated
almost all Italy ; but ever since we were led outside
the peninsula and crossed over to many continents
and many islands, filling the whole sea and the
whole earth with our name and power, nothing good
has been our lot. At first it was only at home and
witlim our walls that we broke up into factions and
quarrelled, but afterwards we even carried this
plague out into the legions. Therefore our city, like
a great merchantman manned with a crew of every
race and lacking a pilot, has now for many genera-
tions been rolling and plunging as it has drifted this
way and that in a heavy sea, a ship as it were
without ballast. Do not, then, allow her to be
longer exposed to the tempest ; for you see that she

f 2

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virepavrKof; iart, fitjre ire pi epfia Trepippayfjvai
ida-Tj<;, craOpcL yap iaTi koX ovSiva cti p^/ooi'oj/
avTiax^tv ivvrjaerar aSX €7r€iSij7r€p ol Oeol
eSjeri(Tavre<; avTrjv Kal iiriypcofiovd <re koX iwi'
(rrdrrfv avrrj^ hria-rija-av, firf irpoB^^; rrjv warpiSa,
Xv &a-iT€p vvv Sia ae fivKpov dvairhrvevKev, ovtod
Kol Tov XocTTOv cu&va fjLcr da-<f>aXeLa<i Bia/ydyrf,
17 " ''Ota /Ji€p oiv op9S)<; coi irapaivS), fiovapx^to'Oai
TOV Bijfiop d^i&v, iraKai ae ^yovfULi ireTreta-ffar
TOVTOV Be Brf ovtox; e')(pvTO^ Kal kroifjm^ zeal
TTpoOvfiax; rffv irpoaraaiav avrov dvdSe^ac, fiaX-
\ov Be fiif IT pot}. ovBe yap ovS* virkp rov Xafi^iv
Ti fiov\€v6fji€0a, aW' virep tov firi diroXiaai xal

2 7rpO(T€Ti Kal KtvBvv€va-ac. tl^ ydp <rov ^ettrerai,
dv T€ €9 rov BrjfjLov t^ irpdyfutr dvcoarj^;, dv re ^
Kol €T€p(p TLvX eTnTpe^^i, TrafiTToWeov fiev ovrmv
T&v irjrb aov XeXvTrrjfievcov, irdvrcov S' 0)9 eiirelv
T^9 fiovapx^d^ avriirocrjaofiivoifv, &v ovBel^ ovt€
firj dfivva<r0ai ae iij) oU TreTroirj/ca^ oUr avrl-

3 iraXov vwoXiTrea'Oai idekriaet. reicfiripiov Be on
Kal 6 Ilo/i7n^io<; eKO-rd^ t^9 BwaareLa^ Kal xare-
(fypovijOff Kal iirefiovKevdf), xax tovtov fir^Ker*
avTTfv dvaXa^elv BwrjOel^ i<f>Odpr}, xal 6 Kataap
6 irarrip 6 (709 to axfTO tovto Troi7](ra<;^ Trpoa -
aircoKero, Trdvro)^ S' av Kal 6 Mdpio^ Kal 6
%vXKa^ ofiouL avTol^ eTreirovdeaav, el firf irpoere-

^ wpdyfJMT itvtaffys &y re Bk., irpdyjiara ws ^<ray re VL'.

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is waterlogged. And do not let her be pounded to b.c. 29
pieces upon a reef ^ ; for her timbers are rotten and
she will not be able to hold out much longer. But
since the gods have taken pity on her and have set
you over her as her arbiter and overseer, prove not
false to her, to the end that, even as now she has
revived a little by your aid, so she may survive in
safety for the ages to come.

" Now I think you have long since been convinced .
that I am right in urging you to give the people a \
monarchical government ; if this is the case, accept 1
the leadership over them readily and with en-
thusiasm—or rather do not throw it away. For the
question we are deliberating upon is not whether
we shall take something, but whether we shall de-
cide not to lose it and by so doing incur danger into
the bargain. Who, indeed, will spare you if you
thrust the control of the state into the hands of the
people, or even if you entrust it to some other
man, seeing that there are great numbers whom you
have injured, and that practically all these will
lay claim to the sovereignty, and yet no one of them
will wish either that you should go unpunished for
what you have done or that you should be allowed
to survive as his rival ? Pompey, for example, once
he had given up the supreme power, became the
object of scorn and of secret plotting and conse-
quently lost his life when he was unable to regain
his power. Caesar also, your father, lost not only
his position but also his life for doing precisely what
you are proposing to do. And Marius and Sulla would
certainly have suffered a like fate had they not died

^ Cf. Thuoydides yii. 25, a passage which Bio Beems to be


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4 6vriK€<rav, /cairoi rbv 'ZvXXav ^aav TLve<; axno
TovTo ^o/3r)0ivTa (jyOrjvai xal kavrov dvaxpV'
aaaOar avxyh yovv r&v vofioderrjOevTiov vir
avTOV ^&PTO^ ^T avTOV XveaOai rjp^aro, wo-re
Kol (TV iroXKov^ fi€v Ac'ttlSov^ 7ro\\ou9 Sk Xep-
TODpiov<; B/50UTOV9 Kaca-LOVf; yevfjaeo'dcu aoi irpoa-'
18 " TavTa T€ ovv I8ci)v fcal raXXa iravra Xoyiad-
fjLevo<;, fit) irpo^ xal aeavrov Koi rifv irarpiSa,
Xva^ fjiff Bo^rj^ TiaXv iOeXovaio^; t^9 ^PXV^
i^etadat. irp&rov phf yap, &v Kal tovto Tt9
vTro7rT€V(rr), ovr diro rov av0 ptair^Lov Tpoirov to
iTTiOvfifi/jbd €(rTt, Kal KaXo^ 6 kIvSvvo^ avTov'
hrena he tL^ ovk olhe rifv dvar/Krjv v<f>* fj^ €9 rh

2 TTpdr/fiaTa ravra irpoijx^V^f Aare elirep^ ri
alrlapM avrrj^ iarv, to?9 tov Trarpo^ aov <T(f>a-
yevac SiKacoraTa av Tt9 avro iyKaXeaeiev el yap
i/celvoi fJLrjT dSiKOx; p,r\T olxTpta^; ovtod^ avTov
direnTovea'aVi ovt &v tcL oirXa avTrfpfo, out' hv ra
o-TpaTevfULTa avveXi^o), out' &v^ ^Avtodvl^ kuI
AeiriSip avviOov, oSr &v avrov^ iKcivov^ ^fivvo),

3 KOI on fikv 6p0m xal hiKai(o<i irdvra Tavr
erroLTjaa^;, ouSel9 dryvoer ei S' ovv ri koI ireTrXrffi"
fjLeXrjrat, aW' otJrt * Kal fieraffiaOai er da^aXay^
Swdfieda, Acre Kal rifi&v avr&v Svexa Kal T179
7roX€6)9 ir€i(rd&fM€V rfj rvXD ^V '^h^ fwvap^iav aoi

4 SiSova-f), Kal X^P^^ 7^ fieydXrjv avrfj e^ca/xei/,
OTC fit) fiovov r&v KaK&v t&v ifjjf>vXiwv diriXva-ep ^

1 lya U, Iva 8^ V.

' fid-Tc tXirtp R. Steph., Stvirtp VL'.

• tof supplied by St. * oih-i Dind., otf toi VL'.

» kiriXvatv Bk., Ar^irXt?<r€v VL'.


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first. And yet some say that Sulla^ fearing this very b.c. 29
fate, forestalled it by making away with himself ;i at
any rate, much of his legislation began to be undone
while he was yet alive. Therefore you also must
expect that there will be many a man who will prove
a Lepidus to you and many a man who will prove
a Sertorius, a Brutus, or a Cassius.

" Looking, then, at these facts and reflecting upon
all the other considerations involved, do not abandon
yourself and your country merely in order to avoid
giving the impression to some that you deliberately
sought the office. For, in the first place, even if men
do suspect this, the ambition is not inconsistent with
human nature and the risk involved is a noble one.
Again, what man is there who does not know the
circumstances which constrained you to assume your
present position? Hence, if there be any fault to
find with these compelling circumstances, one might
with entire justice lay it upon your father's murderers.
For if they had not slain him in so unjust and pitiable
a fashion, you would not have taken up arms, would
not have gathered your legions, would not have
made your compact with Antony and Lepidus, and
would not have had to defend yourself against these
men themselves. That you were right, however,
and were justified in doing all this, no one is unaware.
Therefore, even if some slight error has been com-
mitted, yet we cannot at this time with safety imdo
anything that has been done. Therefore, for our
own sake and for that of the state let us obey
Fortune, who offers you the sole rulership. And let
us be very grateful to her that she has not only freed
us from our domestic troubles, but has also placed in

^ This tradition is found here only.


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97/ia9, aXXa /cal ttjv KaTdaraaiv rrj^ TToXtTeia^
hrl a-ol ireiroirjrai, Xv €Tnfiekr}deX<; avrrj^ mairep
TTpoaij/cec, hei^^ airaaiv avOpdiroi^ on cKeipa
fiev aXXoi /cal irdpal^av koX i/caKOVpyrfo-av, a if 8k
Brf 'Xpr^aro^ el,
6 " Kal p^ri fioc to pA^^edo^ t^9 cupXV^ <f>o^ff0§^,
oatp T€ yap irXeicov ^ vTrapx^i, rocry TrXelco koI rci
aco^ovra ex^h fcal paKp& to (pvXd^ai ri rov
KTi](ra<rdat p^ov iarr 7rpo<; pev yap to rdXkoTpca
TrpoaTrotrja-aa-Oav Kal ttSvcov /cal kivSvvcov 0€t,
7r/309 Se TO Tct vTrdpxovra a&aai ^pax€ia <f>povTl<i

6 dp/cel. pJq pevTOC prjSe Belays ore ou%l Koi
da<f>a\ea'TaTa iv avrfj /Sidxry Kal irdvTtav r&v iv
dvdpdyiroi^i d^ad&v diroXavaei^, av ye ideX'^a-y^
avTTfv Gt>9 Trapaiviaa) aoc SioiKrja-ai. /caL pe pi)
vopiarj^ dirapTav^ diro rrj^ 7rapova-rf<; vTroOea-eo)^
TOP Xoyov, civ iirl irXetov aoc irepl avrij^ Sia-

7 Xex^S}* ov ydp irov Kal vir dhoXecxia^; tivo<s
a\Xa>9 toOto TrotrjacDy dX)C Xva dKpi^0&<; Kara-
pd07j<; OTi Kal BvpaTov Kal pdSiov tc5 ye ^p(l>povc
TO Kal KaXw Kal aKvvBvva)^ ap^ac earL

19 "^r)pX ToLvvv XPV^^^ ^^ KttTh 7r/>ft)Ta9 evdv<; to
^ovXevTiKOv Trap Kal <f>vXoKpivrjaai^ Kal hiaXe^av,
iirecBy Tcve<i ovk iinTTjSeiot Std Ta9 o*Tao-€t9 j3€-
fiovXevKaai, Kal tou9 pep dperrjv rtva avr&p
exppTa^ Karaax^tP, tou9 Be Xocttov^ a7ra\€t'^at.
2 pt) pepToi Kal Bia irepcap ripd dyaffop ye apBpa
opra diraXXd^^, dXXct Kal %/oiy/AaTa avr^ ret
dpayKala S09. dprl he Br) r&p aXXoDP rov^ re
yeppaiordrov<i Kal rov<: dpL(Trov<; rov^ re rrXov-

^ irXc/ctfV V, itXuov L'. * Stitaprav L', ixavrav V.

• <f>v\oKptvriirai V, <pt\oKptvriffai I/.


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riim<;, aXka KaX rrjv KaTdaraaiv t^9 irokireia^
iirl aol ireirolrjTav, iv iTnfieXrjffeh avTrj<; Aairep
irpoarjKei, Set^? airaavv av6pa>7roi^ on ifcetva
fiev aXXoi koI irdpa^av xal eKaKOVpyrfaav, aif Se

6 " Kal p>7] poc TO p4y€do<; t^9 dpxv^ <^o/8i7^^9.
oatp re yctp ifKeioDV ^ virdp'xjst, roa-cp TrXet© koI rh
aoD^ovra €%€*, koX paxpat to (fyvXa^ai Tt tov
KTrjcaaOai p^ov eaTV irpo^ phf yap to ToXKoTpia
Trpoa-TTocija-aa-dai, koI ttovcov koL kivSvvodv oet,
7r/309 Be TO Tct iirdpxoPTa acjaat ^paxcicL (fipomX^i

6 dp/c€i. prf pAvTOt prjBe ieiarj^ otl ov'XJL KoX
d<T(f>a\eaTaTa iv ainy /Sicoa-r) fcal irdvTwv t&v iv
dvdpdoiroi^; dyad&v diroXavaeif;, dv ye ideXriari^
airrrjv cw? irapaivia-io aot BiotKrjaai. fcai pe pur)
vopiari^ dirapTap^ diro Ttj^ Trapova-rj^ vTroOeaeax:
TOP XoyoVy civ iiri ifKelov col irepX avTrj<; Bia-

7 Xe^OS)* ov ydp irov koX vtt aSo\e<r%ta9 tlpo^
aXXayt; tovto iroirjatM), aX}C Xva d/cpi^&^ fcaTa-
pddy^ OTi fcal BvvaTov Kal pahiov tc5 ye €p<f>povL
TO Koi KaXw fcal dfcvvSvva)<; ap^ai ia-TL,

19 " ^r)pl TOLvvv XPV^^^ ^^ KaTCi irpcoTa^ ev0v<; to
^ovXevTiKOv irdv xal ^vXoKpivrjaat.^ koX ScaXi^ai,
eTrecBi] Tcv€<i ovk iTriTijSevoi Sid tA9 <TTd<7ev<; /Se-
/SovXevKaah koI tou9 pep dpeTrfv tipu avT&p
eyovTa^ /caratrp^eti/, Tot'9 Be Xotirov^ aTraXeiy^au
2 pri pevTOi koX Bid irepcap Tipd dyadov ye apBpa
oPTa diraXXd^^;, dXXd xal %/oi^/LtaTa avT^ tA
dpayKoXa S69. dpT\ Be Br] t&p dXXwv tov9 re
yeppaiOTdTov^ kclI tov^ dpiaTov^; tov^ t€ ttXov-

^ irXc/wf V, ir\€iov L'. * &irapTav L', iixayrav V.

• <f>v\oKpivriffai V, <pi\0Kpiyriffai L'.


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your hands the organisation of the state^ to the end b.c. 29
that you, by bestowing due care upon it, may prove
to all mankind that those troubles were stirred up
and that mischief Mrrought by other men, whereas
you are an upright man.

^' And do not, I beg you, be afraid of the magnitude
of the empire. For the greater its extent, the more
numerous are the salutary elements it possesses ;
also, to guard anything is far easier than to acquire
it. Toils and dangers are needed to win over what
belongs to others, but a little care suffices to retain
what is already yours. Moreover, you need not be
afraid, either, that you will not live quite safely in
that office and enjoy all the blessings which men
know, provided that you will consent to administer
it as I shall advise you. And do not think that I am
shifting the discussion from the subject in hand if I
speak to you at considerable length about the office.
For of course my purpose in doing this will be, not
to hear myself talk, but that you may learn by a
strict demonstration that it is both possible and easy,
for a man of sense at least, to rule well and without

*^\ maintain, therefore, that you ought first and
foremost to choose and select with discrimination the
entire senatorial body, inasmuch as some who have
not been fit have, on account of our dissensions,
become senators. Such of them as possess any
excellence you ought to retain, but the rest you
should erase from the roll. Do not, however, get
rid of any good man because of his poverty, but even
give him the money he requires. In the place of
those who have been dropped introduce the noblest.

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a-Kordrov^ dvTeadr/aye, firj fiovov etc t^9 'IraXta?
aXXa KoX irapcL r&v av/jbfjbdxo>v r&v re vmjfcoayv

3 iirike^dfievo^' ovro) yctp arv re iroWoi^ avvepyol^
XPV^V' ^^* '^^^^ KOpv<\>alov^ ef dirdvTOifv tS>v
idvoyv iv da^aXei woirjap, fcal ovre ixetva veo-
'XjMoa-ei Ti firjSiva i\X6yc/Jiov Trpoa-rdrrjv exovra,
Kol oi irpwrevovre^i irap avTol^ <f>iXi](TOvaL ae are
fcal KOLvcDVoi croi t^9 dpxv^ yeyovoTC^.

4 "Th Se avra ravra kol iirl r&v imrecDV voirj-
aov. T0V9 yctp ra Seurepeca eKatnaxoOt fcal ykvei
fcal dperfj fcal irXovrto <l>€popAvov<; €<? rriv linrdia
fcardXe^ov, roa-ovrov^ efcarepov^: dvTeyypd-y^a^
So'oi WOT &v dp4<T(0(Ti ae, firjS^v irepl rod irkrjOov^
avr&v dKpi/3oXoyovfi€vo^' oa<p yctp &v TrXeiov^
€vB6fcifioL avSpe^ (Tvv&ai aov, roaovTfp paov avro^

5 T€ iv ZeovTi irdvra Su)ifC7](rei,<;, xal tou9 dp^o-
pAvov^ ireiaei^ on ovre w hovKot^ a<l>laiv ov0^
(W9 xeipofTi TTTj r/p,&v oiai XPV* dWd rd re aWa
wyaOd irdvra rd virdp^ovra rjpZv KaX ttjv riye-
px)viay avroU ^ koivoi, 07r<»9 w olfcelav avrrfv

6 airovBd^oyai. Kal roa-ovrov ye Seeo tov6* (W9 ovk
6p0m elptfp^epov dvaOeadat, &<tt€ koX t^9 tto-
XtT€Wi9 iraa-L a<f)ia-c p^eTaBodrfvat tfyrfp^i Setv, 7va
Kal ravTTj^ iaop^ipovvTe^ ttco-toI crvp,p/ixoi' fipZv
&<nv, Sairep rivd plav t^i; fjpsripav iroXiv
olfcovvre^, xal ravrrjv p^v ovrao^ ttoXiv tA Se Brj
a(f>iT€pa d/ypoif^ Koi K(i>p^^ vop,l,^ovr€<^ elvai.

^ t^To*? V*, avrris V,

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the best, and the richest men obtainable, selecting 'b.c. 29
them not only from Italy but also from the allies and
the subject nations. In this way you will have
many assistants for yourself and will have in safe
keeping the leading men from all the provinces ;
thus the provinces, having no leaders of established
repute, will not begin rebellions, and their prominent
men will regard you with affection because they have
been made sharers in your empire.

"Take these same measures in the case of the
knights also, by enrolling in the equestrian order
such men as hold second place in their several
districts as regards birth, excellence and wealth.
Register as many new members in both classes as
you please, without being over particular on the
score of their number. For the more men of repute
you have as your associates, the easier you will find
it, for your own part, to administer everything in
time of need and, so far as your subjects are con-
cerned, the more easily will you persuade them that
you are not treating them as slaves or as in any way
inferior to us, but that you are sharing with them,
not only all the other advantages which we ourselves
enjoy, but also the chief magistracy as well, and thus
make them as devoted to that office as if it were
their own. And so far am I from retracting this
last statement as rashly made, that I declare that
the citizens ought every one actually to be given a
share in the government, in order that, being on an
equality with us in this respect also, they may be
our faithful allies, living as it were in a sing'
namely our own> and considering that this is
truth a city, whereas their own homes are I
countryside and villages.

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'*'AX\a irepX fih^ tovtov avOi^ aKpiPearepov
(Tfceylrofieda h XPV '^rpa^at, ha fir] koX iravra
10 adpoa avToh xa/>*<7(»/L6€^a' KaraXi^earOai 8k xPV
€9 fiev Trjv linrdha oKTfOfeatSeKirei^, iv yap ravrrf
rfj rfKiKia fiaXta-ra rj re r&v a-oD/jbdreov avr&v
€V€^ia fcal rj r&v y^vxjSiv iircrrfSeiorr]^ hia^aiverai,
€9 Se TO crvveBptov irevreKavevfcoaUTei^' 7rc!>9 y^p
ovK al(T%pov Kal (T<f>a\ep6v iari rh fiev oUeia
p^rjSevl irph ravrry; T179 'q7uKia<; iTTirperreaOai, t^
Be BrjfiSaca Kal veoDTcpoi^ rtalv iyx€ipi^€a0ai;

2 Tap,i€vaavT€^ re koI ayopavofirjo-avre^ fj Brjfuipxti'
aavT€<; arparrjyeiroDaav,^ rpiafeovTovrai yevo-
p,evoi. TavTa<; re yhp rh<; dpxa^ fcaX ra^ r&v
virdroav fiova^ oifcot, T179 re r&v rrarpitav fivijfiTf^
eve/ca Kal rod p^ij 7ravre\w rrjv iroKtreiav p^raX-
Xdrreiv hoKelv, diroheiKvivai ae (f>r}p,L XPV^^'"

3 avro^ pAvroi av irdvra^ avrov^ alpov, Kal p.'qre
eirl T^ TTXrjOet fj Kal r^ hrfptp en rtva avr&v
iroirfarif^ aracida-ova't ydp, p^rfre eirl r^ <rxjveSpi(p,
iiaairovhdcovrai ydp, p,rj p^evroi Kal 7^9 Bvvd-
p£t^ cr(f>(ii)v rct^ dp)(aia^ rTjpi]^^^, Xva p^rj rd avrd
aiffv^ yevffrac, dXXd rtfv pkv rip^tjv ^vXa^ov, rrj^
B* l<Tj(yo^ wapdXvo'ov rotrovrov 6<tov p,r[re rov
d^Kop^ro^ ri avr&v d^aip'qo'ev Kol T0t9 veoDrepiaai

i n edeXrjcrovai pbt) e'in,rpe'>^ei„^ earac Be rovro, &v

' Trepl in^y L', fit v wepl V.

^ ffTpaTTiyeircaffay U, ffrpaTijyfjTcoffav V.

^ voiiiari St., iroi^cny* VL'. * iirirp4^€i V, iirtTp4^ii L'.


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" But regarding this matter we shall at a later time
examine more carefully the question of what measures
should be taken to prevent our granting the people
levery privilege at once. As for the matter of
eligibility for office, now, we should put men on the
roll of knights when they are eighteen years old, for
at that age their physical soundness and their mental
fitness can best be discerned; but we should not
enrol them in the senate until they are twenty-five
years old. For is it not disgraceful, and indeed
hazardous, to entrust the public business to men
younger than this, when we never commit our
private affairs to any one before he has reached this
age ? After they have served as quaestors and
aedOes or tribunes, let them be praetors when they
reach the age of thirty* For it is my opinion that
these offices, and that of consul, are the only ones
at home which you ought to fill by election, and
these merely out of regard for the institutions of our
fathers and to avoid the appearance of making a
complete change in the constitution. But make all
the appointments yourself and do not any longer;
commit the filling of one or another of these offices
either to the plebs or to the people,^ for they will
quarrel over them, or to the senate, for the senators
will use them to further their private ambitions.
And do not maintain the traditional powers of these
offices, either, for fear history may repeat itself, but
preserve the honour attaching to them, at the same
time abating their influence to such an extent that,
although you will be depriving the office of none of
its prestige, you will still be giving no opportunity
to those who may desire to stir up a rebellion. Now

* i.e. to the concilium plehia or to the comitia.


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this will be accomplished if you assign them on b.c. 29
appointment chiefly to home affairs and do not
permit any of them to have armed forces during their
term of office or immediately afterward, but only after
the lapse of some time, as much as you think sufficient
in each instance. In this way they will never be put
in command of legions while still enjoying the pres-
tige of their official titles and thus be led to stir up
rebellions, and after they have been private citizens
for a time they will be of milder disposition. Let
these magistrates conduct such of the festivals as
naturally belong to their office, and let them all
severally sit as judges in all kinds of cases except
homicide during their tenure of office in Rome.
Courts should be established, to be sure, with the
other senators and knights as members, but final
authority should rest with these magistrates.

''As for the prefect of the city, men should be
appointed to that office who are leading citizens and
have previously passed through the appropriate
offices ; it should be the prefect's duty, not to govern
merely when the consuls are out of town, but in
general to be at all times in charge of the affairs of
the city, and to decide the cases which come to him
from all the other magistrates I have mentioned,
whether on appeal or for review, together with those
which involve the death penalty ; and his jurisdiction
should extend, not only to those who live in the city,
except such as I shall name, but also to those who
dwell outside the city for a distance of one hundred

" Let still another magistrate be chosen, this man
also from the class described, whose duties shall be
to pass upon and supervise all matters pertaining to


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Online LibraryCassius Dio CocceianusDio's Roman history, with an English translation → online text (page 9 of 35)