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In order that the principles of moral theology may be properly
understood in their practical application for the benefit of souls, it is
necessary that they be taught by illustration. Abstract truths obtain
their real value only when they enable us to do things properly.
What is called casuistry , though the word is in bad repute, is nothing
more than an experimental application of the pastoral science to
fictitious cases which enables a priest to act with a certain legitimate
assurance in difHcult circumstances. This experimental work of case-
solving should precede the period of judicial action in the confessional
or in parochial administration.

The method pursued in the study of moral theology as part of the
usual seminary curriculum lays much stress upon the student's duty of
memorizing principles, conclusions^ and precepts; it reviews the
decisions and opinions of reputable authors, whose views constitute a
sort of tribunal or standard readily accepted by those who must needs
fortify their own judgment by an appeal to authority. By this method,
if insisted on too much, the mind of the student is in danger not only
of being overloaded and perplexed with a multiplicity of terms, cate-
gories, and distinctions, but of being constantly led to appeal to
judges sometimes at variance in their conclusions. It is not infrequent
that one meets with candidates in theology on the eve of their ordina-
tion, who find it difficult to meet and solve doubts of conscience
which a simple knowledge of their catechism at the time they entered
the seminary would have enabled them to answer promptly and with
accuracy.

No doubt such results could be prevented if there were less of the
mechanical and abstract method sanctioned by routine and by the



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CRITICISMS AND NOTES. 10/

character of most text-books, and more of the practical, live interest
• which limits the enunciation of principles and precepts, and for the
rest elicits them by practical observation of acts and difficulties which
will meet the young physician of souls as soon as he is ordained.
This laboratory work of the theological class-room must be done by
the frequent proposal of cases of conscience y which find their solution in
an apt interpretation and in application of the fundamental moral
principles and precepts to given circumstances.

Gury's Census Conscientiae has been most popular among theo-
logical students for several generations past. Recently Elbel (Bier-
baum's revised edition) has been much used, because it combines the
didactic statement of principles with the immediate illustration of
cases.

But the fact that new aspects of many moral topics have been brought
about by changes in modern social and industrial conditions, calls for
alterations and additions and eliminations in the presentation of subjects
showing the action of the moral order. The late Father G^nicot,
who for some years taught, we believe, the American students in the
Seminary of Louvain, realized this need and sought to fill it by a
series of cases which summarize the leading features of pastoral direc-
tion for the use of confessors. P. Lehmkuhl, the indefatigable worker
at the Jesuit College of Valkenburg, has undertaken a similar collec-
tion of cases, clear and elaborate, as is his wont, throughout, and of
decided worth for the candidate in theology as for the confessor and
director of souls.

The two works, while they cover the same field, differ considera-
bly in their method. Father G^nicot simply answers the doubt raised
in the case which he proposes. His solution is brief and on the whole
without analysis or reference to the principles which he presumes the
student to have mastered sufficiently from the pages of his scientific
text-book. P. Lehmkuhl, on the other hand, goes into greater detail,
makes up his cases in the analytical fashion and answers them in the
same &shion. The readers of the Review are sufficiently familiar with
P. Lehmkuhl's method, as he is a regular contributor to our pages, and
his contributions thus far have mostly been concerned with the subject
under discussion. He publishes the cases which deal with the Sacra-
ments as the first instalment of his collection. These form the second
volume, but are really the more important for priests called to the
practical ministry. The first volume is promised to appear in the
course of the present year, and the entire work is, we would suppose.



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I08 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

an integral part of the great moral theologian's text-book now every-
where accepted as a standard of teaching and reference.

The Freiburg publishers are by all odds the best makers of theo-
logical text-books.

TIMOTHT ; or Letters to a Toong Theologian. By Br. Frani Hettinger.
Trandated and adapted by the Bey. Viotor Stepka. St. Lonis, Mo,:
B. Herder. 1902. Pp. 666.

It is now more than twelve years since the original work Timotheus
appeared in Germany. It was the last will and testament of a ven-
erable priest and teacher to his theological pupils. Soon after its
appearance he went to his eternal reward. '* Henceforth I shall write
no longer,'* he wrote in his preface to the volume, "but I shall pray
so much the more. ' ' He had been asked, and he attempted to com-
ply with the request, to write some further words on the priest's life
of prayer, and on the priest's devotion to Mary the Virgin Mother;
but his pen gently dropped from his pure and zealous hand before he
could thus round the period of his writings. And how had he writ-
ten ? Those who are familiar with the English translation of his com-
mentary on Dante's Divina Commedia and with Father Bowden's
rendering of part of the Apologie can form an estimate of Dr. Het-
tinger's erudition, his lofty sentiments, and the wide range of his
intellectual sympathy.

In the present volume the author shows himself as the Christian
priest and teacher interpreting his Divine Master's longing for worthy
laborers in His vineyard. He pleads for whole-hearted zeal in the
sacred ministry, for high-reaching efforts of mind and heart by which
the sacerdotal race of Christ is to be distinguished from the champions
of partial truth and from the cloaked apostles of false science. Nor is
it the vain cry of a man who touches us by the earnestness of his ap-
peal ; nay, he directs with wisdom and knowledge the young aspirant
to the priesthood step by step through the different departments of
ecclesiastical discipline, and points out untried ways of avoiding the
old dangers, and of recognizing and acquiring the old truth under the
changed aspects of modem thought.

In reviewing the German original we said that there was no theo-
logical manual or ascetical treatise which could supply to our candi-
dates for sacred orders and to our priests on the mission just this sort
of practical and ennobling knowledge. We thought then of translat-
ing the work. But a second consideration suggested another course,



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CRITICISMS AND NOTES. 109

and Dr. Hettinger's Timotheus became in reality the occasion for our
asking the late Dr. Hogan to prepare his articles on Clerical Studies,
These have done their missionary and educational work among our
clergy. But we can readily afford to add to our ecclesiastical library
such volumes as this translation of Timotheus, It has perhaps more of
the discoursive style peculiar to the genius of the German language ;
but it is a book full of noble thoughts and suggestions for the priest,
arranged in systematic order, with here and there a touch of artistic
form, and withal practical in its aim. Father Stepka has wisely, we
think, permitted himself some freedom in the translation so as to
adapt the reading of this excellent series of letters to the way of Eng-
lish readers. The letterpress and make-up of the book are equally
satisfactory.

OBDO MISSAE sen preoum ac oeremonianim Missae interpretatio theologi-
oo-asoetica ; et Meditationes ao Ezamina ad usnin Sacerdotds reooUeo-
tionem menstmam institnentis, additis Freoibus ante et post Hissam.
Anotore Eenrioo Van den Berghei I.O.D. Oanonioo theol. Major.
Semin. Bmgens. Fraeside. Bmgis Flandronun : 0. Van de Vyvere-
Fetyt. 1900.

Although published two years ago, this little volume is not as well
known in ecclesiastical circles as it merits. It gives in the language of
the Church a solid and pious, yet short and substantial interpretation of
the prayers and ceremonies of the Mass. The meditations reflect the
mind of the Christian Fathers on the subject of the sacred ministry,
and are rendered practical by the examens that follow. It is a booklet
to put in the way of seminarians before they go out on the mission,
where it will serve them as a constantly useful reminder of the high
estate they serve, while supplying the strength of heart and wisdom
from on high. A pocket manual of priestly devotion that supple-
ments the use of the Breviary.

HABT OUB HOTHEB. By the Bev. L. B. Falladino, S.J., Missonla,
Montana. For sale by B. Herder, St. Lotus, Ho. 1902. (Frioe, 15
cents.^

Father Palladino is a devoted client of our Blessed Lady, as is
evident from his former publications, such as May Blossoms, The
present booklet is an effort — and one eminently successful, both in
argimient and style of diction — to demonstrate the claim of Catholics
to honor Mary as their dearest Mother by special Divine appointment.
The treatment is original in this, that the author takes for the basis



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1 1 THE ECCLESIASTICAL RE VIE IV.

of his plea the two words of our Lord on the Cross to His Blessed
Mother and St. John. He insists that the address to our Lady:
"Woman, behold thy Son," and that to St. John: "Son, behold
thy Mother,*' should rightly be understood as separate utterances
with a distinct significance. Thus he overthrows the traditional
number, and makes eight of "seven** words of the crucified Saviour.
The book is well written, having the genuine devotional as well aa
thoughtful ring to its utterances. We wish it a large sale, for the
benefit of Father Palladino's missions among the Indians, for whom
he has labored so strenuously and successfully these many years.

POEMS, OEABADES, AHD IH80SIPTI0V8 OF HIS HOLINESS, POPE
LEO ZIII. With English Translations and Notes by the Eev. H. T.
Henry, Overbrook Seminary, Pa. The Dolphin Press. 1902.

Inscribbd to My Pribnd tmr Rbv. Hugh T. Hbnry» Litt. D.

" 71/ bocJk thai is sealed wiO be gwen to one
thai is Iearfud.'*'^l9Aiah 29,

Sealed was this book, like some sweet instrument
Whose prisoned chords are mute to untrained ears.
Till thou didst loose its voice, and give it vent
In harmonies attuned to seraph-spheres.

If other fingers straying o'er the keys

Have waked, at times, a transient rippling strain.

It was reserved for thee to now release

The rich, full-throated tide of joy and pain.

For lo ! thy skilful hands from each fair key
Have drawn the wealth of melody long stored
Within each little shell of ivory.
Framed by the gifted Vicar of the Lord.

Now grave, now gay, the measure moves along —
Carmina^ Ludicra, (\\mnX, jeux d^ esprit ^
Quatrains, Inscription's , bursts of song,
Fraught with the charm of classic poesy —

All, all reveal the noble, saintly soul,

The warm, true heart of him, our PontifT-Bard,

Whose triple crown is but an aureole

Of light from heaven* — genius multi-starr'd.

* Lumen in Coelo,



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CRITICISMS AND NOTES. 1 1 1

Go forth, sweet songs, dear messengers of peace,

With rarest gems of fantasy impearl'd ;

Go forth to cheer, to edify, to please

A cultured, Christian, English-speaking world !

Ye give us glimpses of a long career
As student, Levite, priest — as prelate, Pope,
Ye give us mem'ries of a past most dear.
All radiant with &ith and love and hope.

Ye stamp the name of Peed on Fame's scroll.
Not only as Christ's Vicar great and wise,
But as the poet of the Christian soul.
The scholar whom earth's schools immortalize.

And, pondering these chaste and dulcet songs.
We seem to wander by a crystal lake,
And watch the white swans sail in graceful throngs
Where water-lilies their pure petals shake ;

Or, seem to pause beside a minster old
With sunny tow'rs, and walls vine-tapestried, —
Above its cross-crown* d spire to, hush'd, behold
A fiock of doves, like snow-flakes, sk3rward speed.

Live, tender dreams of heay'nly love and grief.
Long live, white visions of true joy and rest !
In this memento of our white-robed Chief,
May Poet and translator both be blest !

— Eleanor C. Donnelly.

THE LIVES OF TEE POPES DT TEE EABLT MIDDLE AGES. By
the Bev. Eoiaoe E. Mann, Headmaster at St. Onthbert's Orammar
School, Newoaatle-on-Tyne. Vol. I (in two parts). The Popes onder
the Lombard Bide. St. Grego^ I (the Great) to Leo III, 590-706*
Part I, 690-667. London : Eegan Paid, Trench, Triibner k Co.
St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. 1902. Pp. zvii-432.

Father Mann takes up for his special study of the Papacy the
important period of the Middle Ages, which has not thus far been
treated exhaustively and fidrly by any historian. Catholic or non-
Catholic. He rightly begins his account of what are called the Middle
Ages with the reign of Gregory I ; for although the occasion for the
development of an entirely new era in the life of the Church may be
said to have been created by the establishment of the Lombard King-
dom under the Arian King Alboin, or in a measure already half a



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1 1 2 THE ECCLESIASTICAL RE VIE IV.

century ea^:lier through the occupation of Rome by Totila, yet it was
Gregory who, by uniting the distracted elements in the Church,
restored the dignity of her claims before the eyes of the world, as well
as orthodoxy and discipline within her fold. His is the principal
figure in the volume before us, and as his policy shaped that of suc-
cessive Popes for centuries, the character sketch which our author gives
furnishes us the key to the events that followed, down to St. Eugenius I,
with whose history the present volume concludes.

Father Mann, whilst he does not ignore the judgment passed upon
Gregory and the Papacy in general by historians like Milman, Gregor-
ovius, Ranke, and others of equal prejudice, makes no pretension to
enter upon a controversy against these writers. He avails himself of
the old authenticated sources, such as the Lilr^r Pontificalisy certainly
a ^i/drj/ contemporary production, the Ecclesiastical History of St.Bede,
the Biography of Paul the Deacon (from which our author separates
certain portions proved to be spurious), and finally the Life of Gregory,
by John the Deacon. Of course, the Bollandists offer a rich fount of
available information, and the results of recent research incorporated
in such works as Grisar*s History of Rome ^ give that critical character
to our author's history which every work on such a subject, since the
opening of the Roman archives to bona fide inquiry, is supposed to
bring as a passport to recognition among the learned.

To determine the precise merits of the author's historical judgment
is hardly necessary, when we realize that he writes from the standpoint
of one who understands the full significance of the spiritual power
vested in the Roman Pontiffs. The fact that the Popes represent
Christ in the government of the Church furnishes a background and
general temper for the historical picture in which they are represented
as leading actors. It supplies us with the motives which actuated the
Pontiffs of Rome in their intercourse with secular princes and govern-
ments, motives which cannot be understood or properly valued by
those who do not recognize the spiritual power as distinctly superior
to and yet not wholly inseparable from the temporal agencies which it
must needs adopt to make itself felt.

Father Mann is fully alive to the exaggerations which earlier his-
torians, mostly in good faith, have been guilty of. He tempers both
praise and blame, where it can be shown that either undue enthusiasm
or narrow bias or limited information influenced the verdict of writers
on his subject. Such stories as are related by Teophanes, namely, that
Pope Theodore signed the excommunication of the Patriarch Pyrrhus
with a pen dipped in the Precious Blood, are justly discredited by our



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CRITICISMS AND NO TES. 1 1 3

author, who pictures for us as a discriminating historian and in agree-
able literary style the lives of the twelve Popes who reigned from
Gregory the Great to Eugenius I, who received Wilfrid, the first Eng-
lish pilgrim who went to the Holy City to learn there its customs,
which he was to bring back to Lindisfame Abbey.

THE ITALIAN BEHAISSANOE IK ENGLAND. Studies by Lewis
Einstein. New York : The Oolnmbia ITniyersity Press (The Hacmillan
Company). 1902. Pp.420.

As an unbiassed account of the successive steps by which Italian
culture crossed the Alps, and of the degree to which it influenced
English civilization during the so-called Reformation period, Mr.
Einstein's study stands alone. Descriptions of party -scenes, belle-
tristic sketches, and artistic bits of history which deal with the mutual
influences of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon races are numerous enough,
even in English ; but a thoughtful and connected delineation of the
subject by a student and for students of history we have thus for had
none, although Mr. Taylor's Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages ^
written from a like impartial standpoint, and issued, as is the present
volume, under the auspices of the Columbia University, might be
considered an excellent introduction to this class of books.

At the beginning of the fifteenth century we find Italian representa-
tives of classical and scientific learning drawing a large following at
Oxford University. Subsequently down to the sixteenth century we see
the Italian culture grow in the places of the wealthy classes where it pro-
duced that type of accomplished courtier which for a time dominated
English society and made polite learning a coveted thing throughout
the land. Thence also we trace the reaction of sentiment which gradu-
ally assumes the form of Puritanism as a protest against Italian methods.

Our author's observations are based upon authentic and in some
instances previously unexplored sources of information. In order to
verify his conclusions he has availed himself of the opportunities
afforded to scholars in the libraries and archives of both England and
Italy, chiefly from documents in the British Museum, the London
Record Office, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the Public Archives
of Florence.

In his description of the scholar, the courtier, and the traveller of
the fifteenth century, Mr. Einstein shows what a decided and, on the
whole, beneficial influence on the development of English culture was
exercised not only by Italian scholarship, but also by the Catholic
religion which had its home in Italy. Speaking of "Churches and



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1 14 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

Letters" he says: **The patronage of learning which has always
been one of the proudest boasts of the Catholic Church, existed
especially in the Renaissance, when a genuine love for it on the part
of Churchmen atoned for many other shortcomings. The higher
clergy, moreover, were mostly university men, whose scholarly interests
had been awakened early in life, and who later were placed in a
position to show their gratitude."

In discussing **the question of the gentleman" in the period
which preceded the Reformation, he contrasts the two opinions preva-
lent in England, which were bound to modify each other. On the one
side was the so-called popular idea which considered nobility to be by
birth alone ; on the other was the opinion, supported by the philoso-
phers from Italy, which maintained that, since all men owed equally
their origin to God, in whom highest nobility found its centre, every
one, irrespective of birth, was noble so long as he lived a virtuous life.

The author's descriptions of scenes, of men, of systems in their
practical results as illustrated in public life, are very interesting read-
ing, apart from the sound lessons which they convey. The volume,
evidently written with an honest purpose of bringing out the truth,
whilst it shows that the writer had at his command all the apparatus
of historical learning, deserves to be widely read ; and, though the
author is not a Catholic, the book on the whole is a strong plea for
recognition of Catholic scholarship. It refutes the trite arguments
that the Church is a fosterer of ignorance, and that the Reformation
brought the life of civilization and culture into the northern coun-
tries. Whatever real culture was to be found in England at the time
of Elizabeth, rested upon Italian foundation, and its best elements are
due to distinctly Catholic influence. The reverse of the picture is
wholly unfavorable to Protestant activity. ** Occasionally the r61es
were reversed, and an ardent English Protestant would penetrate Italy
filled with a desire for proselytizing. Such a one was Richard Atkins,
^atic and martyr, who went to Rome with the intention of convert-
ing the Pope. After he had committed several excesses against the
Roman Church, and had insulted the Host, he was denounced, tor-
tured, and finally executed. . . . Oftener it was Italy that had
for its effect the Catholic conversion of Protestants."

We do not wonder at the fact that Columbia University, with such
broad-minded teachers as Professors Einstein and Taylor, whose hon-
est research in the dominion of history does more to dispel anti-Cath-
olic prejudice than the works of our own scholars, should draw to its
halls a large Catholic and generally high-minded patronage.



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Literary Chat*



Material for the history of the County of Mayo is being collected by J. G.
Cy Hara MacSweeny, of Dublin.

A new Irish Dictionary will soon appear under the authorship of the Rev.
J. E. Murphy, Professor of Irish in Trinity College, Dublin.



A Life of Father Marquette, by Reuben G. Thwaites, the editor of the " Jesuit
Relations," has just been announced by the Appletons.



Canon William Fleming, of St. Mary's, Moorfields, London, has just published
a History of the English Martyrs down to the time of Queen Elizabeth.



Mr. Barry O* Brien, author of Lt/e of Lord Russell of Killowen, is about to
publish a A Hundred Years of Irish History, The prefiace is by John Redmond,
M.P.



Muirchu Maccu Mactheni's short Life of St. Patrick, translated by the Redemp-
torist, Father Albert Barry, has just been issued in a second edition by Gill and Son,
Dublin.



Alexander Glovatski's The Pharaoh and the Priest has been translated by Jere-
miah Curtin, to whom we owe the interesting tales by Sienkiewicz. ( Little, Brown
& Company. )

Mr. Thomas Concannon under the auspices of the Gaelic League is making a
good selection of stories for reading in Irish. His latest is Blatha Bealtaine^ a trans-
lation of Miss Mary Butler's. They are pretty and stirring narratives of revolu-
tionary times in Ireland and France.



Fisher Unwin (London) is soon to publish a history of Wales, covering the
middle period of the Middle Ages, by Professor Little, of the South Wales Univer-
sity College. The monastic development of the Order of Citeaux under St. Ber-
nard, and the early Franciscan foundations, will form an important feature of the
work.



The Putnams are about to issue Father William Barry's history of the Papal
Monarchy from Gregory the Great to Boniface VIII, that is, from the seventh to the
fourteenth centuries. The work is apparently conceived in the style of the Pise and
Pall of the Roman Empire, and deals chiefly with the influence of the Church as a
temporal power.



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Il6 THE ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.

Hiersemann, the international bookseller at Leipzig, has procured the few copies
of Shiebel & Uhle's descriptive history of the ruins of Tiahuanaco in Peru, which
were still in tlie market. The work is one of the best illustrated specimens of Ameri-
can antiquities. The text is German. Those interested in Anuticana will do well
to procure a copy, which retails at something like twenty-five dollars a volume, with
maps.



The Catholic y of Dublin (Dawson Street), is making propaganda for Protestant
teaching. Its ** Plain Papers on Some Fundamental Doctrines,'* issued in pamphlet
form, are intended to refute the various fundamental beliefs of the Catholic Church.



Online LibraryCatholic University of AmericaAmerican ecclesiastical review, Volume 27 → online text (page 12 of 78)